Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Country profiles

The European Union
Co-financed by the European Union

This series of country profiles describe how countries have reacted to COVID-19 and specifically: (i) measures enacted by governments to contain the spread of the virus; (ii) policies to stabilize the functioning of agri-food systems; (iii) potential effects of policies on agri-food systems and vulnerable groups. Finally, they also assess longer-term options for agri-food system policies and investments so as to make them more resilient. 

The series has been produced by the network of policy officers of the Food and nutrition security Impact, Resilience, Sustainability and Transformation (FIRST) Programme, in close collaboration with country governments, FAO representations and European Union Delegations. In some countries, FIRST has joined forces with the Global Network against Food Crises.

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National agrifood systems and COVID-19 in Kenya

This report describes: (i) policy measures enacted by the Government of Kenya to contain the spread of the virus; (ii) policies and measures to stabilize the functioning of agri-food systems; (iii) potential effects of policies on agri-food systems and vulnerable groups. Finally, the profile also assesses longer-term options for agri-food system policies and investments in Kenya so as to make them more resilient.

National agrifood systems and COVID-19 in Myanmar

Since the first cases of COVID-19 infection were confirmed in late March, Myanmar has responded with a wide range of measures, including halting all visas; suspending international flights; closing international borders; cancelling the Thingyan water festival; instituting stay-at-home orders and curfews; banning public gatherings; closing pre-schools and kindergartens, private schools, public events, entertainment venues, restaurants, and religious institutions; organizing quarantine facilities; tracing contacts of COVID-19 patients; locking down townships with a relatively high number of cases; imposing containment and prevention measures and promoting physical distancing.

National agrifood systems and COVID-19 in Timor-Leste

A state of emergency was declared on 27 March 2020 by decree of the President of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste and extended until 26 June 2020. 

As of 27 July 2020, there had been 24 confirmed cases and no deaths from COVID-19 (WHO, 2020). Compared to many countries, Timor-Leste has so far avoided the worst of the pandemic.

Food and agriculture-related services were not considered essential during the state of emergency. The imposition of travel and transport restrictions is probably the measure that had the greatest short-term impact on agriculture and food security.

National agrifood systems and COVID-19 in ECOWAS

All governments of the Economic Commission of West African States (ECOWAS) member States have taken measures to contain the spread of COVID-19 and limit the harm that the pandemic could inflict on the region. All member States have adopted more or less similar measures, albeit with different timelines. The main measures have included:

  • the establishment by decree of a public health state of emergency and a nighttime curfew;

  • restrictions on domestic travel(between most capital cities and the rest of the country) and

    the closure of borders with other member States;

  • the closure of markets, schools, restaurants and places of worship(mosques and churches);

  • strictly enforced temporary full lockdowns in some States (Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire and Nigeria), with varying durations;

  • compulsory wearing of masks.

National agrifood systems and COVID-19 in Fiji

Fiji reported its first case of COVID-19 case on 20 March 2020. In June, Fiji had been declared COVID-19 free however, the first COVID-19 border case was reported on 6 July. By 22 September, a total of 32 confirmed cases and two deaths have been reported. Only two cases still remain active. All of the border cases were repatriated Fijian citizens, most of them arriving from India (MoHMS, 2020).

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