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Application program. Computer program that performs an end-user function, rather than a systemoriented function.

ASCII files. Files in which the individual characters are represented according to a numerical code (and its internal representation as a binary number) that conforms to the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Such files are widely used to transfer data between different hardware and software environments. ASCII was created for this purpose.

Backup. The process of making secondary copies of a file or files in the event that the original becomes damaged.

Bernoulli disk. Mass storage device on floppy disks that rivals Hard Disk for capacity and speed. The Bernoulli Box which uses replaceable 8" or 5.25" floppy disks was first introduced by Iomega in the early 1980's.

CD ROM. Is a computer peripheral device which employs Compact Disk technology to store large amount of data for late retrieval. This technology was first introduced by Philips and Sony in 1983. A CD ROM disk can store up to 650 Mb of data.

Computer network. An interconnection of computer systems, terminals, and communication facilities.

Configuration. The equipment (disk, diskette, terminal, printers, etc…) which makes up a particular system.

Data communication. The movement of coded data from a sender to a receiver by means of an electrically transmitted signal.

Data field. A group of memory or screen locations within a database that are logically linked to hold information of a given kind. Typically, the user may regard data fields as a place to store a certain kind of data.

Data set. A series of data elements or units of information that are logically arranged in a particular format.

Data sheet. A printed page on which data are arranged according to a specific format.

Data. Known facts, numbers, letters and symbols for storage and manipulation by a computer system expressed in character form. Data can be thought of as the basic elements of information used, created or otherwise processed by an application program.

Database. System of arranging data in a structured way in a computer system, for user access or for processing by application programs.

Directory structure. All files store in a computer disk are arranged in tree-structured directories. The main directory on a disk is called Root, and it can contain files and/or other directories (subdirectories).

DOS. The acronym for Disk Operating System, the program used in the microcomputer environment to control the use of hardware and integrate the use of this hardware so that is available to software applications.

Downloading. Data/Information transfer from a central level system (Organization HQ) to peripheral systems (Departments)

Driver. A software program that controls the action of a peripheral device not otherwise controlled by the operating system.

Export. The transport of data out of an application. Typically, this will involve translation from the internal format of the application to a variety of alternate formats that may be used by other programs as input. (see also Import)

File. A collection of logically related records or data treated as a single item.

Format. The way in which data are physically arranged in a file.

Hardware. A term used to indicate the physical part of a computer, such as the keyboard, memory, printer, monitor, as opposed to the software.

Import. The transport of data into an application. Typically, this will involve translation from the format of the external application into the standard used by the ongoing application.

Information. Data that are communicated

Interface (hardware). An electronic assembly to enable two computer systems to communicate with each other (wired).

Interface (software). Series of programs that allow the system to exchange data from one format to another.

Main menu. A horizontal bar that presents the user with a series of choices, one of which will be selected to perform that activity.

Non-rigid connection. A type of manual file transfer between computer systems through removable supports (diskette, tape) occasionally carried out.

Operating system. The software program that controls the various parts of a computer (keyboard, screen, hard drive, printer, etc…) and puts them to work together to perform useful work. SIPAL will work on computers which use the PC DOS or MS DOS operating system.

Package. A set of computer programs tied together through a menu system.

Platform. A computer, its peripheral devices and activities working together.

Procedure. A specific program or task to which a computer solution can be applied

Record. A collection of related data items.

Reference files. Authority files containing reference variables such as country codes, names and attributes; item codes, names, attributes etc…

Relational database. A file or system of files used to contain data that is structured to permit the data to be readily input and output. When constructed of multiple files, relations between individual data fields in the different files can be linked to permit data in one field of one file to act as a means of retrieving information in one or more data fields in the other file or files.

Rigid connection. Type of connection in which a group of computer systems are connected to each other by communication lines to allow automatic and controlled file transfer at regular intervals.

Software. Computer algorithms (programs) that are written in a computer language that make the computer (hardware) perform work (write to the screen, print, sort, etc…).

System menu. A kind of program design that uses a sequence of choices that permit the user to choose among them by pressing a key (usually the Enter Key). These choices are arranged on the screen much as a restaurant menu presents a series of selections.

Uploading. Data/Information transfer from peripheral systems to a central system.

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