Cover
DIRECTORY OF SEED SOURCES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN CONIFERS


CONTENTS


FAO
Forest Resources Division
Forestry Department

This Publication prepared by the Silva Mediterranea Network on the Selection of Stands of Mediterranean Conifers for the Production of Seed to be Used in Reforestation Programmes

RESEARCH DIRECTORATE OF THE FOREST TREE SEEDS AND TREE BREEDING TURKEY

Serdar Şengün
Research Directorate Of The Forest Tree Seeds And Tree Breeding
Post box: 11
06560
Gazi-Ankara
Turkey
E'mail: seed@ortohum.gov.tr
Fax: 90. (312). 21265 19
Phone: 90. (312) 212 39 60

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla. 00100 Rome, Italy.

FOREWORD

Re-establishment of forest cover on degraded forest areas and deforested lands has great importance to eliminate harmful effects and consequences of deforestation at local, national and global levels.

Success of reforestation and afforestation activities depends more than anything else on the use of high quality seeds, provided from reliable sources of appropriate provenances of suitable species. For this reason, many countries have already undertaken significant actions for proper selection, establishment, management and utilization of seed sources. Such sources represent also a good opportunity for utilization by the regional neighbour countries.

Successful exchange of forest tree seeds require easy access to the reliable information regarding seed sources in the same region.

With this understanding, it is seen useful to compile the selected coniferous seed sources in a Directory within the framework of FAO Silva Mediterranea Network facilities.

This “Directory of the Seed Sources for Mediterranean Conifers” as one of the major outputs of the network, has been prepared based on the information provided by the national focal points of the member countries.

I would like to express my gratitude to everyone who has contributed in the preparation of this document; in particular to, Mr. J. P. Lanly Former Director, Forest Resources Division Forest Department, FAO, Mr. H. El Lakany Director Forest Resources Division Forest Department, FAO, Mr. M. Malagnoux, The Secretary of Silva Mediterranea, Prof. Riccardo Morandini, Former Director of the Istituto Sperimentale per La Selviculture, in ITALY, Mr. Muzaffer Doğru Former National Coordinator of Silva Mediterranea in Turkey, Ziya Argimak, Director, İsmail Pekcan, Assistant Director, Hanifi Akbiyik, Forest Engineer in the Forest Tree Seeds and Improvement Research Directorate in Turkey, Necdet Ozar, Forest Engineer who support greatly to correct all the document, and all of the focal points in the member countries they have provided valuable contribution in the development of the network activites and in the preparation of this document.

It is hoped that, this Directory will serve as a useful document for the region and will contribute in the exchange of qualified propagation material and developing cooperation among the regional countries.

 Muzaffer TOPAK
Research Network Coordinator
on Selection Of Stands of Mediterranean Conifers

July, 1997, Ankara-Turkey

INTRODUCTION

There is ample evidence in many countries that significant genetic differences exist among seed sources. The choice of seed source may, therefore, be decisive for the success, mediocrit or failure of future plantings

To avoid serious mistakes the consumer must know which seed sources are available, what they are selected for and to what extent they will match the planting site and the purpose of the planting programme. To facilitate the choice of seed sources for meeting the requirements, it will be useful if publications are available on the location of seed sources, the ecological conditions prevailing in the seed source areas and the criteria for selection of the seed cources.

Unfortunately there are some confusion in terminology and classification. This calls for the establishment or internationally recognised definitions and classifications of seed sources.

The following categories of seed sources, for collection of commercial purposed of seeds, have been defined and classified by OECD:

  1. Seed collection zones
  2. Identified stands
  3. Selected stands
  4. Seed production areas
  5. Provenance seed stands
  6. Seed orchards

In this directory, the seed sources are considered in three categories as; (1) seed collection zones, (2) selected stands and (3) seed orchards for which definitions are provided in the following.

1. SEED COLLECTION ZONES

A seed zone (also called a region of provenance) of a species is defined as the area or groups of areas, subject to sufficiently uniform ecological conditions, in which stands show similar phenotypic or genetic characters are found (OECD, 1974).

2. SELECTED STANDS

A selected stand is a stand of trees, superior to the accepted mean for the prevailing ecological conditions when judged by the selection criteria (OECD, (1974).

The stands may be selected in either natural forests or plantations. The stands are selected because of their phenotypic superiority in specified important traits. Where necessary the approval would be dependent on the removal of inferior trees which should be fewer. It is important to select stands in which there is likely to be a significant genetic component in the phenotypic superiority, for instance, a stand should not be selected solely because it is growing well on an exceptionally good site. The selection should be made in areas where the ecological conditions are similar to the potential planting sites.

3. SEED ORCHARDS

Zobel and Talbert (1984) has defined a seed orchard as a plantation of genetically improved trees, isolated to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources and intensively managed to produce frequent, abundant and early harvested seed crops. It is established by setting out clones or seedling progeny of trees selected for the desired characters. Seed orchards are often established while genetic evaluation of the parent material is still under way. In such cases components shown by progeny testing to be genetically undesirable will subsequently be removed from the seed orchards.

The OECD definition states (OECD, 1974): “a plantation of selected clones or progenies which is isolated or managed to avoid or reduce pollination from outside sources, managed to produce frequent, abundant and easily harvested crops of seed”

To compile necessary data about the seed sources questionnaires (Annex 1,2,3) were prepared and distributed to 22 region countries. Replies were received from 16 countries. Names, titles and addresses of the colleagues from different countries who contributed in the preparation of this directory by providing valuable information through the questionnaires, are given in Annex 4.

Information and data about the seed sources are provided by the species, according to alphabetical order. Blank cells in table refer to unavailable data. Climatic data is provided as mean annual values. Where mean annual values were not available for temperature, maximum and minimum values are given.

A Mediterranean Region Map providing altitude and longitude information is also added in Directory to assist in finding location of any specific seed source on the map by using its coordinates

OECD, 1974: OECD Scheme for the Control of Forest Reproductive Material Moving in International Trade. Paris. Zobel B.- Talbert J. 1984: Applied Forest Tree Improvement, John Wiley and Sons, IAC. - USA

Annex-1
SEED COLLECTION ZONE OR REGION OF PROVENANCE*
REGISTRATION FORM

REGISTRATION NUMBER OR CODE

MAIN SPECIES  Associated Species:
LOCATION    
 Country: 
State / Region / Province / Provenance:
Range of Latitude:
Range of Longitude:
Range of Altitude:
CLIMATE   
 Mean annual precipitation:
 Max / Month:
Min / Month:
Mean annual temperature:
 Max / Month:
Min / Month:

(end of the compulsory section)

OTHER INFORMATION

Please provide on the characteristics of the stands (e.g. genetic, phenotypic merits. Average age of stands, average volume per hectare etc.) If they are available.

Seed Collection zone or region of provenance, a seed zone of a species is defined as the area or groups of areas subject o sufficiently uniform ecological conditions on which stands are showing similar phenotypic or genetic charecters (OECD, 1974)

Annex-2
SEED STAND REGISTRATION FORM*

REGISTRATION NUMBER OR CODE:

SPECIES: 
SEED STAND INFORMATION
 Natural or planted stand:
If planted, provenance of origin:
 Year planted:
For natural stand, associated species:
Average number of stems per ha
(of the concerned species)
:
 
Total area:
LOCATION:
 Country :  
State / Region / province / provenance:
Latitude:Longitude:
Mean altitude:  
CLIMATE
 Mean annual precipitation:
 Max / Month:
 Min / Month:
Mean annual temperature:
 Max / Month:
 Min / Month:
TOPOGRAPHY  
 Aspect:Slope:
SOIL   
 Type:Parent rock:

(end of the compulsory section)

OTHER INFORMATION CONCERNING STAND
(Please provide other information concerning average diameter, height, age, volume per hectare etc.)

* A selected stand is defined as a stand of trees superior to the acepted mean for the prevailing ecological conditions when judged by the selection criteria (OECD, 1974)

Annex-3
SEED ORCHARD REGISTRATION FORM*

REGISTRATION NUMBER OR CODE:

SPECIES:

SEED ORCHARD TYPE

 Clonal seed orchard:
Seeding seed orchard:

INFORMATION ON THE MATERIALS IN THE SEED ORCHARD

 Country:
State/ Region / Province /Provenance:
Latitude:Longitude:
Mean altitude  
Mean annual precipitation 
 Max / Month:
Min / Month:
Mean annual temperature:
 Max / Month:
Min / Month:

INFORMATION ON THE SEED ORCHARD

Name of seed orchard :
Total area (Ha) :
Established year :
Purpose of establishing this seed orchard :
Number of clones or families :
Stage of genetic improvement :

(end of the compulsory section)

OTHER INFORMATION

Please provide other information concerning seed orchard manegement and seed production in the orchard if you can.

* Seed orchard, a plantation of selected clones or progenies which is isolated for managed to avoid or reduce pollination form outside sources, managed to produce frequent, abundant and easily harvested crops of seed. (Zobel-Talbert, 1984)

Annex - 4
CONTRIBUTERS

BULGARIATzanko TZANOV
Directeur de la Station de=
Recherches sur les
Espéces a Croissance
Rapide, 18, Rue Nore
SVICHYOV
  
CYPRUSFaik KOYUNCUOĞLU
Forest Office Director
LEFKOŞE-CYPRUS
 
S. SOTERIOU
Director of the Department of Forests
Resources, Forests Department Ministry of Agriculture and Natural 
NICOSIA-CYPRUS
 
Lucas PEONIDES,
Director, Forestry Department,
Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Recources
NICOSIA-CYPRUS
  
EGYPTMamdouh RIAD
Under Secretary for Afforestation
Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation
DOKKI-CAIRO
  
FRANCEBruno FADY
Institut National de la
Recherche Agronomique (INRA)
Domaine Expérimental du Ruscas
4935 route du DOM 83237
BORMES LES MIMOSAS CEDEX
  
GREECED. MATZIRIS
Ministére de l'agriculture,
Institut de Recherche Forestére d'Athénes
B.P. 14621 GR 11510 ATHENS
  
IRANMirmohammed Ali Haji
MIRSADEGHI
Hig Council for Forest,
Range and Soil
Forest and Range Organization
P.O. Box 19575/567
Shermiran - TEHERA
 
Hassan MEHDIPOUER
Head of High Council for Forest
Range and Soil
Ministry of Jahad-e-Sazandeği.
P.O. Box. 19575/567
Shermiran - TEHERAN
  
ISRAELOmri BONNEH
Director, Research Development
Forest Dept. KKL
P.O.Box 45 KIRYAT-HAIM 26103
 
John WOODCOCK
Assistant Director
Land Development Authority Keren
Kayemeth Leisrael Forest Department
Research and Development
P.O.B.45 KIRYAT-HAIM 26103
  
JORDANMahmoud ABU-SETTA
Head of Studies Section
Department of Forest and Range Ministry of Agriculture
P.O.Box 2099 AMMAN
  
LEBANONJean RAMI
Chef du service de reboisement c/o
Department des forets et des ressources naturelles
Ministére de l'agriculture
Badaro, BEYROUTH
  
LIBYASedi EL MASRI
Secretary of Agriculture
General Department Forestry and Soil
(P.B? 351)
TRIPOLE
  
MALTAJoseph BORG
Principal Agriculture Officier
Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries
VALETTA
  
ITALYDr. Fulvio DUCCI
Istituto Sperimentale Per la Selvicultura
Forest Resarch Institute
Viale s. Margherita 80
52100 AREZZO/ITALIA
  
MOROCCOAbdeslam OMERANI
Direction des Eaux et Forést et de la
Conservation des Sols
Ministére de l'agriculture et de la mise en valeur agricole
RABAT CHELLAH
 
Si-di Muhamed EL YOUSF
Chief of Seed Service and Nursery
Sidi Amira/RABAT
  
PORTUGALMargarida d'ALPUIM
Départamento de Ecofisiologia e Melhoramento
Estaçâo Florestal Quinta do Margûes
2780 DEIRES
  
SPAINSonia MARTIN
Servicio Material Genético, ICONA
Gran Via de San Francisco,
4 28005 MADRID
  
TUNISIAMohamed LARBI KHOUJA
Institut National de la Recherche Forestiére
B.P. No.2 - 2080
ARIANA TUNIS
  
TURKEYİsmail PEKCAN
Forest Tree Seeds and Improvement
Research Directorate
Post. Box. 11 06560 / Gazi/ANKARA

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
July 1997
© FAO 1997


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CONTENTS

Species Seed Sources Type
Abiesalba Mill.Selected Seed Stand
""         "Tested Seed Stand
"bornmülleriana MattfSeed Collection Zone
""                         "Selected Seed Stand
""                         "Established Seed Orchard
"cephalonica LoudSelected Seed Stand
"cilicica Carr."              "          "
"equi-trojani Aschers. et Sint."              "          "
"nordmanniana SpachSeed Collection Zone
"          "Selected Seed Stand
"pinsapo Boiss.Seed Collection Zone
Cedrusatlantica Manetti"              "          "
""                 "Selected Seed Stand
""                "Tested Seed Stand
""                 "Tested Seed Stand
"libani (Barr.) Loud"              "          "
""            "          "Selected Seed Stand
""          "          "Established Seed Orchard
CupressusarizonicaSeed Collection Zone
""Selected Seed Stand
"atlanticaSeed Collection Zone
"sempervirens L."              "         "
""Selected Seed Stand
"" var strictaEstablished Seed Orchard
"macrocarpaSeed Collection Zone
""Selected Seed Stand
"phoneciaSeed Collection Zone
""Selected Seed Stand
Larixdecidua Mill."                "         "
"kaempfert"                "         "
Piceaabies (L) Karst"                "         "
""        "        "Tested Stand and Seed Orchard
"orientalis Link. et Carr.Seed Collection Zone
""                "             "Selected Seed Stand
""                "             "Established Seed Orchard
"sitchensis Trautv.Selected Seed Stand
Pinusbrutia TenSeed Collection Zone
""Selected Seed Stand
""          "Established Seed Orchard
"canariensis Smith.Seed Collection Zone
"cembra L.Selected Seed Stand
"elderica Medwed."               "         "
"          "Established Seed Orchard
"halepensis Mill.Seed Collection Zone
"          "         Mill.Selected Seed Stand
"halepensis Mill.Established Seed Orchard
"heldreichii Christ.Selected Seed Stand
"jeffreyi Gerv.Seed Collection Zone
"mugo Var. uncinata RamondSelected Seed Stand
"nigra Arnold. Supsp. salzmaniiSeed Collection Zone
""           "          "           "Selected Seed Stand
""           "          "           "Established Seed Orchard
"nigra ArnoldSelected Seed Stand
""          "Established Seed Orchard
""          "           " LaricioSelected Seed Stand
""          "           " Calabrica DelamTested Stand And Seed Orchard
""          "Selected Seed Stand
""          "           "Tested Stand And Seed Orchard
"nigra Arn. Ssp. Nigricans Host.Selected Seed Stand
"nigra var. caramanicaSeed collection Zone
""        "           "Selected Seed Stand
""        "            "Established Seed Orchard
"nigra var. pyramidataSelected Seed Stand
"" " şeneriana SaatçioğluEstablished Seed Orchard
"nigra var. Zhukovskyana PalibSelected Seed Stand
""         "              "              "Established Seed Orchard
"pinaster aitSeed Collection Zone
""Established Seed Orchard
"" var lberica.Selected Seed Stand
""   "   sol.Selected Seed Stand
""   "   ait.Tested Seed Stand and Seed Orchard
""       MorghSelected Seed Stand
"ponderosa Doug.Seed Collection Zone
"pinea L."               "         "
""Selected Seed Stand
""Established Seed Orchard
"radiata D.donSelected Seed Stand
"strobus L.Selected Seed Stand
"sylvestris L.Seed Collection Zone
"          "Selected Seed Stand
"          "Established Seed Orchard
"          "Tested Stand
Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)Selected Seed Stand
""         "Tested Stand
Thujaorientalis L.Seed Collection Zone
"          "Selected Seed Stand
TaxodiumdistichumSeed Collection Zone
TetraclinisarticulataSeed Collection Zone
"         "Selected Seed Stand
MAP