Uganda is a country endowed with vast freshwater resources which together cover some 18% of its 241,000 km2 total land area. The national population amounts to approximately 17 million people (1989 estimate) of whom roughly 90% are reckoned to dwell in rural areas. Population densities vary across the country but most people live in the southern and southwestern regions, where rainfall and soil fertility are more favourable to crop and livestock production. With the exception of Lake Albert, the major water bodies of the country are also found in these regions (map, Fig.1). Lakes Edward and George lie in the western Rift Valley, close to the Zaire border. Lake Kyoga, occupying a central position between the northern and southern halves of the country, is fed by the River Nile as it drains north from Lake Victoria. The broad expanse of Lake Victoria itself is shared with Tanzania and Kenya, with some 31,000 km2 or about 45% of its waters lying within Ugandan boundaries (Welcomme 1972).
2. RECENT EVOLUTION OF THE FISHERY AND FISH DISTRIBUTION
2.1 Lake Victoria: New Foodbank for the Nation
The Lake has always been an important source of fish for the people living about its shoreline and within a narrow belt inland. As in the case of other major water bodies of Uganda, an important commercial fishery based primarily on the gillnet developed on Lake Victoria during the early decades of the present century. Commercial operations on Victoria waters in fact preceded those of the other lakes.
Despite its early development, immense area, and huge potential, the Lake Victoria fishery was for many years not the main contributor to the national catch. Until recently this distinction rested with Lake Kyoga, the smaller and shallower complex of flooded river valleys into which Victoria flows. Comparison of the trends apparent in Fig. 2 (for Lake Kyoga) and Fig. 3 (for Lake Victoria) shows that Lake Kyoga production consistently outstripped that of Victoria from around the late 1960s up to the early 1980s, when the situation reversed itself. Currently (1989 figures) Lake Victoria is accounting for something like 62% of the total annual national catch, whereas Kyoga is contributing about 26%.
The factors underlying this transformation are several. From the mid-1970s, Kyoga fishermen resorted increasingly to the use of illegal gear and destructive fishing practices, owing to the severe shortage of inputs which began to develop in the country from around that time. Not only did the catches start to decline very steeply, but their compositions included higher proportions of smaller fish. The effect on the Nile perch or mputa harvests was particularly felt. Even though recent supply schemes have to some extent corrected the input shortage crisis, there continues to be a lack of larger mesh nets for bigger Lates. Compounding this situation has been an overall decline in the water level of Lake Kyoga over the past decade or so, which has reduced breeding and nursery areas, the deterioration of feeder roads providing access to and from the landings, and a severe disruption of fishing operations from several landing sites due to problems of civil insecurity (Orach-Meza et al. 1989).
Lake Victoria, in the meantime, was following a rather different course of development. The statistical record depicts a peak in the annual catches occurring in 1969, and then a steady decrease down to a low of around 10,000 tonnes in 1980, at the time when input shortages were hampering all the country's fisheries. From that point on, the explosive increase of mputa in the Ugandan sector of Lake Victoria made itself apparent in spectacular fashion. Starting from a level of less than 1,000 tonnes in 1981, catches of Lates skyrocketed to a level of 101,257 tonnes in 1989, the last year for which returns are available. Earlier harvest levels were thus not only recovered, but were overwhelmingly surpassed. It is interesting also that over the last few years there has been a distinct improvement in tilapia catches (mostly Oreochromis). For 1989, combined Nile perch and tilapia catches accounted for 92% of the total tonnage recorded for the Ugandan sector of the Lake (UFD records). Most of the balance of the total tonnage is made up of the small pelagic Rastrineobola argentea, whose fishery has also been growing quite significantly in recent years.
From a human nutrition point of view, this sudden availability of high quality animal protein must be seen as one of the most fortunate events in the recent history of the country -- a history that is otherwise largely marked by episodes of violent political upheavals lasting from the early 1970s until the mid-1980s. These latter at first crippled and then paralysed Government administrative, service, and technical departments as well as the public and private sectors of the economy. The slow and difficult process of recovery from this protracted period of national trauma is well underway, but can be regarded as still being in its initial phases given the magnitude of the task that is called for.
Food production both at farm and processing/manufacturing levels suffered heavily during the upheavals. The national livestock herd was depleted to the point where in many districts there were no animals left to provide a breeding nucleus for eventual recovery. Displacements and forced relocations of people across wide sections of the country meant the crop production was serious curtailed and even abandoned totally during some intervals. In the midst of the general economic collapse, producer and marketing societies and boards could not cope. Farmers were unable to obtain basic crop and livestock production inputs and support services; nor were they able to receive adequate payment for the products of their labour. As for the Civil Service, Government officers at all levels found it increasingly difficult to perform their duties. Working conditions and terms of service became untenable, and morale reached a very low ebb.
Through all of this, the Lake Victoria fishery -- which is to say the Nile perch fishery, basically -- assumed the role of a special foodbank for the country. Its bounty proved so prodigious that it could not only compensate for the temporary loss or decline of harvests from other major water bodies, but could actually service an ever-growing demand for fish at a time when meat was becoming increasingly dear and hard to get. Fish consumption has increased to the point that it now probably accounts for 50% of the total animal protein intake of the national population.
2.2 Changes in Established Distribution Patterns
For many decades the populous central and eastern regions of the country received supplies of both fresh and cured fish from Lake Kyoga and the western lakes, in addition to some deliveries from Lake Victoria. Kampala-area markets received daily consignments of fresh tilapia and Bagrus rushed in by pick-up load from landings on Lakes Edward and George. Lake Wamala, a shallow body of water lying some 70 km west of Kampala, was also a major source of fresh fish for city consumers during the 1960s and early 1970s. Basically the pattern of fish flow in the country was such that products tended to move into the central Lake Victoria region from various peripheral points, as depicted in Fig. 4. The figure further shows that some export traffic into Zaire to the west, Sudan to the north, and Kenya to the east, was also a feature of the established pattern of fish flow.
This pattern has been radically altered of late as a result of the Nile perch succession in Lake Victoria, reversals in the fisheries of other lakes, and the political and economic disruption of the last few decades.
As catches from Lake Victoria based mostly on Lates began to pick up dramatically in the early 1980s, the contribution of the other major lakes was falling off due to a combination of factors. The situation with regard to Lake Kyoga has already been mentioned. Lake Wamala's fishery had almost completely collapsed by the mid-1970s. The lake was supposed to operate as a restricted fishery under the close supervision of Fisheries Department. But this management arrangement collapsed under the maladministration and missrule of the Amin regime and the Department was powerless to prevent the activities of legions of unlicensed operators who descended on Lake Wamala and succeeded in fishing it out in the course of only a few years.
Further to the west, the highly productive fisheries of Lakes Edward, George, and Albert in the west were also suffering disruptions. The general breakdown in road communications and the cash economy, as well as the outbreaks of war, cut them off from their traditional major markets for fresh and processed fish in the eastern and central parts of the country -- especially Kampala and its environs (Reynolds and Kirema-Mukasa 1989; Reynolds 1990). Despite the fact that the situation has now stabilised and road links to the west and elsewhere have been vastly improved, the transformation in distribution and marketing patterns that were attendant upon the disruptions and the great influx of Nile perch products, both fresh and processed, remains in effect. Indeed, it has if anything intensified. The result in the case of the western lakes fisheries is an almost complete reversal of patterns of trade from the pre-Nile perch days. Lake Victoria is now the hub of supply from which fish flows north, east, and west, as depicted in Fig. 5.
3. PRODUCTS, MARKETING CHANNELS, AND PRICES
3.1 Main Products
The radical changes in catch levels and composition that heralded the beginning of the “Post-Nile perch regime” in Lake Victoria, along with disruptions to production, distribution infrastructure and trading networks affecting Lake Kyoga, Lake Wamala, and the western lakes, have had far-reaching consequences for the fish trader and consumer. These have been felt in terms of both species availability and product form.
In terms of the former, the most striking development is of course the appearance of ever-increasing quantities of Lake Victoria Nile perch over the last ten years or so. The availability of other Lake Victoria species in local marketplaces has been mixed. Both the Nile tilapia O. niloticus and the small pelagic Rastrineobola have become more abundant in the marketplace. On the other hand, supplies of such popular fish as Bagrus, Clarias, and Protopterus may have dropped off to some extent, probably due to a combination of factors including a shift in fishing effort and methods by local operators wanting to concentrate more on Nile perch, and changes in stock balances attendant upon the Lates succession (Reynolds and Orach-Meza 1989).
Processing in one form or another is widely practised and has been considerably stimulated within the last ten to fifteen years due to general deterioration in communications infrastructure and the dramatic overall increase in fish harvests from Lake Victoria (TDRI 1983; FISHIN Project Field Observations 1989–90). Forms of processing include sun-drying, salting, frying, and smoking (Ssali et al. 1990).
Sun-drying is of limited importance, being restricted mainly to the processing of the small pelagic species Rastrineobola argentea (= mukene or dagaa locally), Haplochromis (= nkejje locally), and juvenile tilapia.
Salting is a traditional mode of processing in the fisheries of the western lakes, and particularly for Lake Albert. But it is a new method of processing in the Islands of Lake Victoria and is mainly applied on small sized Nile perch. Salted products are not especially popular amongst Uganda consumers, but have always enjoyed a strong demand in Zaire markets.
Frying is becoming a popular method as far as Nile perch is concerned. Fried perch, often prepared in its own oil, is widely sold in the regular municipal markets of urban centres around the lakeshore, has also become an extremely common item in the numerous informal neighbourhood street markets that have become a standard feature of city life. Alhough the frying method is often used to process tilapia in the Lakes Edward-George area, tilapia from Lake Victoria are rarely prepared in this way.
Hot-smoking is by far the most popular processing method and is reputed to provide the best returns to the processor. At many remote island and mainland fishing communities around the Lake, virtually 100% of the catch is smoke cured, since consignments must be bulked and stored to await transport to markets (TDRI 1983; FISHIN Project Field Observations 1989–90).
In addition to these local methods of curing are those practised in the rapidly developing industrial fish processing sector. Several small-scale plants have been established to process specialised fish products. These are intended mainly for export abroad, but are supplied to premium local markets (hotels, the diplomatic and expatriate community, and others of the urban elite) to some extent as well. Items handled include fresh chilled and frozen fillets and Nile perch and tilapia, fresh chilled and frozen whole fish, cold- and hot-smoked fillets, and sun-dried Nile perch swim bladders (Reynolds and Ssali 1990).
3.2 Marketing Channels
The changes in species composition of the catches in Lake Victoria attendant upon the upsurge of Nile perch, in combination with the disruption in beef and other meat supplies which followed the breakdown in infrastructure and administration and management services during the years of turmoil experienced in the country, have promoted a marked rise in fish consumption per capita within Uganda in recent years. It is now estimated to stand at about 12 kg per year. Along the lakeshore and in major urban consuming centres, and particularly Kampala, per capita consumption reaches far higher levels, of course -- probably on the order of 50–60 kg.
Tilapia and Nile perch are the most widely available fish in Uganda; fresh or processed, they are almost universally accepted and appreciated within the country's fish-eating population. Although it is probably the tilapia or ngege that is most liked of the two, Nile perch has proven to be highly popular with consumers. There is no substance whatever to allegations made in some scientific literature and many popular press accounts that this fish is not liked by local people (see, e.g. Barel et al. 1985).
The distribution of fresh fish is mostly restricted to the fringe zone around the Lake, since prevailing temperatures and conditions make it difficult to supply areas further afield. Yet because major urban centres (e.g. Kampala, Entebbe, Jinja, Busia, and Masaka) lie within this belt, a substantial proportion of the country's fish-consuming population enjoys ready access to fresh fish.
Table 1 provides an indication of the proportions of fish marketed fresh versus cured in the districts covered by the market survey conducted by the FISHIN project team during the months of July-September, 1990. It is obvious that in places where access to markets from landing sites is fairly easy, the proportion of fresh sales to processed sales is very high. In districts like Luwero (Entebbe Region) and Masaka (Masaka Region), for instance, over 90% of all fish sales entail fresh product. Where access is problematical, the reverse holds true. Thus, in Kalangala District (the Ssese Islands), fully 78% of all sales are in processed fish.
Tables 2 and 3 give the respective breakdowns for all fresh and processed fish sales by species composition in the same districts, based on UFD Regional Fisheries Officers' returns for 1988–90. The pre-eminence of tilapia and Nile perch in the marketing system is obvious.
Marketing of Lake Victoria fish proceeds through a series of stages and a wide variety of sites. Usually the primary stage takes place at the landing sites, when canoes return from the fishing grounds and discharge their catches to waiting traders, processors and consumers. In some cases, however, fish can be sold directly on water to those operating collection boats.
Linkage between the producer and the consumer is mostly effected through private small-scale traders who operate to and from local landing sites on foot, bicycle, or by lorry, pick-up, taxi, or other public transport. Lake Victoria is connected with good roads to major urban centres. Domestic markets for fresh fish include Kampala, Masaka, Rakai, Jinja, Tororo, Busia, Mbale, Mityana, and Luwero. The smaller trading centres along the supply routes should also be counted as important marketing points, as indeed should most areas that lie within a radius of 50km from the landings -- a distance that can be traversed by a determined bicycle trader. Smoked and sun-dried fish reaches even greater distances and is greatly featured in the inter-regional trade with the neighbouring countries of Zaire and Kenya.
Whatever the location of domestic marketplaces, whether at landings, in small rural communities, or within formal premises operated by large municipal councils, their handling facilities and sanitary and other amenities are for the most part highly deficient. An enumeration of basic features during the 1990 FISHIN markets survey yielded the results shown in Table 4. Although most marketplaces have raised display/selling platforms of some sort (stalls or tables, usually of temporary construction), at less than half the sites surveyed are these protected with any kind of shelter. Such facilities as off-loading platforms, cleaning benches, dry-storage, tap water, and electricity facilities are found in less than 10% of the markets surveyed. Markets in larger urban areas are somewhat better equipped, but in general it is the absence rather than the presence of basic facilities and amenities that is striking to the observer.
Major Kampala supply routes were estimated some years ago to be handling about 5,500 tonnes p.a. via Masaka-Kampala, and 3,000 tonnes p.a. via Jinja-Kampala (TDRI, 1983). This was during a time when Kampala was still receiving at least some supplies from other lakes in the country. Currently it only receives supplies from Lakes Kyoga and Victoria and very occasionally from Lake Albert. Even so, records indicate that the supply to Kampala has increased substantially over the 1982/84 level, and is now in the neighbourhood of 10–12,000 tonnes per annum.
Kampala still receives a relatively small supply of fresh Nile perch from Jinja but the major suppliers to the city are the landings in Entebbe and Mukono area. Fresh fish from Lake Kyoga are almost exclusively tilapia, and constitute only about one-third of the total fresh tonnage annually delivered to the capital. The city has two wholesale markets specialised in handling fresh fish and two for smoked products. Wholesalers who transport loads from the landings sell to market-based wholesalers and retailers. Fish is then sold to consumers either direct from the market stalls or by retailers on bicycles who work neighbourhoods on a door-to-door basis. At the wholesale level fish is sold by auctioning, whereas in retail trade it is sold by size. The exception is Nile perch, which is sold by weight.
The distribution channels for processed products are generally longer since most of the smoking is done on the islands and the markets are more remote. Inter-regional trade in smoked products is dominated by the lorry and pick-up traders. Today most of the smoked fish originating around the Masaka-Bukakata area is taken to Zaire. That which originates around the Jinja area is mostly destined for Tororo, Busia and Kenya. Another route of considerable significance is the one across the water to Kenya, whereby Ugandan fishermen exchange their fish with their Kenyan counterparts for cash as well as manufactured goods (TDRI, 1983; SEC Fld Rpts. 1989/90).
The different avenues through which fish may ultimately reach the consumer, directly or indirectly, formally or informally, are diagrammed in Fig. 6.
3.3 Prices and Recent Trends
Indices of average fresh and processed fish prices in the various districts of the country derived from the recent FISHIN market study are provided in Tables 5 and 6 respectively. Several noteworthy points are brought out. For one thing, tilapia prices are uniformly higher than those for Nile perch. Also, relatively high prices for particular types and forms of fish correspond with known consumer preferences in certain districts, as for instance in the case of Bagrus in Kampala and nearby Mpigi, or of Clarias in Masaka and neighbouring Rakai. It can be seen too, not surprisingly, that places of high fish production and limited demand have correspondingly lower price levels. Fresh tilapia is cheapest in Kalangala District where it sells for only 23% of the Kampala price. Kalangala comprises the Ssese Islands, lying in the middle of some of Lake Victoria's richest fishing grounds. It is from here that many of the major mainland markets get their supplies. Prices for Rastrineobola, which now rank as the third most important commercial fish in Lake Victoria after Nile perch and tilapia, show a similar pattern of being low in production areas where an abundance exists (Jinja and Kalangala Districts), and two or three times greater in non-production/high demand areas (parts of Mukono and Kamuli Districts). The very high prices commanded by Alestes and Haplochromis would seem to make them objects of heavy consumer demand and therefore attractive targets of fishing effort. In fact the cured Alestes appearing in the Kampala markets comes from Lake Albert and is sold only in limited quantities. Dried haplochromines from Lake Victoria and neighbouring lakes, despite their high cost when computed on a weight basis, are generally skewered onto small sticks and offered to customers in this form. They attract only a limited clientele. The sticks are mostly purchased a few at a time, so that any one transaction actually involves very little money.
The main forms of animal protein with which fish competes are beef, pork, mutton, goat meat, milk, poultry, and eggs. Based on available data (MAIF 1989; MPED 1990a), per capita annual consumption of fish is 12 kg, as compared with 3.8 kg for beef, 2.7 for pork/mutton/goat, 1.0 kg for poultry and eggs, and 26.0 kg for milk (liquid measure).
Although meat and poultry products are probably on the whole more sought-after by Uganda consumers, they are also far more expensive. The comparatively low price of fish is undoubtedly the main reason that it is eaten in much greater quantities than the other forms of animal protein. For this reason fish is often referred to as the cheapest and most important source of animal protein in Uganda. Indicative Kampala area prices (Fourth Quarter, 1990) are given for all forms of animal protein in Table 7. Groundnuts, beans, and peas, all regularly used as alternative protein-rich non-meat ingredients of the sauces served as accompanients to starchy foods, are included in the list for comparison. A protein cost index is also included in the table. Both Nile perch and tilapia perform extremely well in terms of these measures, with the former proving especially attractive in terms of consumer cost considerations.
A further point to note is that even though the cost of fish gradually increases over time, along with nearly everything else, its recent increases have not been as steep as those for meat and poultry. According to Kampala Consumer Price Index figures, from January 1989 through September 1990 prices for the latter two items went by about 52%, compared to a figure of some 28% for fish (MPED 1990).
4. DISCUSSION: PROBLEMS IN DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING
Whereas recent developments in the Lake Victoria fisheries of Uganda have been quite beneficial in terms of income, employment, and nutrition within the country, certain problems in distribution and marketing must be recognised as well. Their resolution could make it possible for the fisheries to continue to make valuable contributions to national welfare, and even to expand upon them.
4.1 Handling and Distribution Problems
Lack of adequate transport infrastructure is the single greatest obstacle to more effective fish marketing and utilisation in Uganda today. Access roads to landings and rural marketing areas are in poor condition and are often impassable during periods of rain. This confines the distribution of fresh fish within a fairly limited range around the lakeshore -- usually extending inland no more than 50km or so, or the distance that can be penetrated by bicycle traders. Bad roads also increase the marketing cost margins that transporters and wholesalers have to recover in their operations.
The poor treatment to which fish is subjected at the landings and through the distribution network is another area for concern. Fish are roughly handled from the moment they are taken from the net and thrown in the bottom of canoes. At the landings catches may be tossed on the ground, washed and/or gutted in highly unsanitary conditions, and packed into vehicles with much crushing, bruising, and breaking. Very frequently a load of fish in the back of a pick-up destined to market is used as a cushion for other heavy items and passengers to rest upon. Once in the marketplace, fish is subjected to conditions which only compound the chances of product damage and spoilage. Although operators and traders could do much to improve such practices on their own, it must also be recognised that most of the handling facilities and infrastructures at landing sites and municipal markets are in extremely deteriorated condition. Maintainance of such services is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, either district or municipal, and they levy cesses and taxes on landing site and marketplace users ostensibly for the purpose of meeting this responsibility.
4.2 Developing Demand for Fish Products
Fish avoidance is found in some parts of the west and in the northwest of the country, and there are localised patterns of preference and avoidance when it comes to particular species in the central region around Lake Victoria. By and large, however, consumer acceptability of fish rates extremely high in Uganda and there are no real constraints on demand in this sense.
At the same time there exists some potential for market development with respect to certain kinds of products. In particular there is the case of the small pelagic Rastrineobola argentea or mukene. This has been a very underutilised species in Uganda even though it supports a strong and productive fishery in the Kenya and Tanzania parts of Lake Victoria. As mentioned previously, the last few years have seen an increase in mukene fishing in Uganda waters and this trend should be encouraged. Much of the catch now goes to the animal feeds industry, but there is a good market for the dried fish in northwest Uganda, eastern Zaire, southern Sudan, and Kenya as well. Crushed mukene makes a good base for sauce to accompany starchy dishes, and is increasingly being used for such around the fringes of Lake Victoria. Another way in which mukene could be popularised is as a fish powder supplement to be mixed with maize and cassava flour. The use of dried nkejje (haplochromines) in this way is a well-established practice in some localities. Porridges prepared with such a mixture have particular value as infant weaning foods.
4.3 Potential Problems of Supply
The rapid expansion of the Nile perch fishery has been marked not only by heightened activity in the artisanal sector, but by the growth of industrial processing plants as well. In Kenya this growth has been particularly vigorous, even though that country has access to a relatively small portion (6%) of Lake Victoria. One result of this has been the development of a large traffic in smuggled fish from Uganda waters to meet the raw material requirements of the Kenya plants. With several Ugandan-based processing concerns now in operation and more slated to come on line, the industrial sector demand for fresh fish is bound to increase. This has several implications for the future directions in the fishery. For one thing, it is likely that ever-greater fishing pressure is going to be placed on the resource base. Since it is not known how much further pressure this base can withstand before reaching a point of overexploitation, there is cause for concern over the rapid expansion of plant capacity.
Another aspect that must be considered is the likely effect on ex-canoe fish prices as the larger commercial concerns compete at the landings with local traders for their daily fish requirements. Assuming a fairly constant level of supplies coming out of the water, beach prices will probably escalate quite rapidly from their present levels. Local traders and processors cannot be expected to mobilise the working capital to compete very effectively in a bidding contest with firms seeking fish for the high-value export trade. Unfortunately one option to which local traders might increasingly resort under these circumstances is to concentrate on undersized or juvenile fish, i.e. products that are not in high demand by the industrial sector. Juvenile tilapia and Nile perch are already being caught in appreciable quantities through the operation of illegal and destructive gear like beach seines and cast nets, as is borne out by their appearance in many rural market places.
Ultimately it is of course the domestic consumer who will have to bear the burden of higher prices. It would no doubt prove a quite distressing burden to many, given the great importance of fish in local diets and its current status as a far cheaper alternative to meat.
5. PRIORITIES FOR ACTION: RECOMMENDATIONS
Several courses of action warrant consideration as ways of helping the resolve the problems and potential problems just reviewed. Since these problems are themselves interrelated, measures taken to deal with them should not be taken piecemeal, but as part of an overall programme.
5.1 Infrastructure and Handling Practices
5.1.1 Feeder roads
High priority should be placed on rural feeder road rehabilitation and development at both ends of the fish distribution system.
More convenient and reliable access to landing sites and collection points along the shoreline of Lake Victoria would reduce the uncertainties and costs associated with the evacuation of both fresh and processed fish. In marketing areas, better roads would mean a more efficient and wider circulation of fish to areas where demand is high. In particular, it would increase the marketing radius for fresh fish, which is usually more profitable to sell and is nearly always preferred over cured products by consumers in the hinterland when there is a choice.
5.1.2 Landing sites and markets
At the same time a concerted effort needs to be put into the task of improving both the facilities and the practices associated with fish transport and handling. Projects with these same objectives have been mounted in the past or are now ongoing, with mixed results (Reynolds and Ssali 1990; Ssali et al. 1990). One problem with past projects is that they have tended to concentrate on solutions that require large outlays of capital for the acquisition of expensive and complex machinery. What is needed now is an approach that would bring about substantial improvements in fish distribution and marketing, efficiency through more straightforward and less costly means.
Aside from good access roads, the immediate needs of most landings and marketplaces are very basic: clean and sheltered receiving and handling areas; secure dry-storage space; reliable and protected supplies of water; and simple sanitary amenities. Beyond this it is more a question of encouraging good fish handling practices by fishers and traders than of elaborate physical facilities like ice plants and insulated trucks.
Short- to medium-term planning for the integrated development of the post-harvest sector of the Lake fisheries should accordingly be oriented towards the provision of basic services rather than complex and expensive installations.
This approach should be implemented on a pilot project basis at a few key market sites. The project would have to combine a scheme of infrastructural improvement with solid backstopping by fish technology and marketing officers of the Fisheries Department.
Of utmost importance for sustainability in the long term, the scheme should also involve the development of an effective system of revenue generation and accountability for the upkeep and development of market facilities. Present arrangements through local authorities are clearly inadequate.
5.2 Promotion of Rastrineobola Products
There is good scope to develop the fishery of Rastrineobola and this could be promoted on the marketing side through extension and demonstration efforts by Fisheries Department field staff working in conjunction with their colleagues in Health and Agriculture. This could yield high nutritional benefits for young children in particular.
The use of dried Rastrineobola prepared in powder form as a protein supplement for mixing with common starchy staples like maize meal and cassava flour, or crushed as an ingredient in the sauces generally served as accompaniments with such foods, should be encouraged through a major publicity and extension effort.
5.3 Commercialisation and Sustained Development
The establishment of filleting plants producing for the high-value export trade is a welcome development insofar as these large commercial concerns will generate forex earnings without unduly distorting current levels of resource exploitation and the continued availability of fish at affordable prices on the domestic market. However, there is cause for concern that such distortions may well occur since plant capacity is steadily growing with no sign of tapering off.
A policy on the development of industrial processing plants needs to be delineated as soon as possible in order to avoid a situation of over-capacity. Such a policy should clearly spell out the aims and limits of industrial growth vis-a-vis the interests of small-scale traders and local consumers of fish products.
6. REFERENCES CITED
Balarin, J.D., 1985. National reviews for aquaculture development in Africa. 10. Uganda. FAO Fish.Circ., (770.10). Rome: FAO.
Barel, C.D.N., et al., 1985. Destruction of fisheries in Africa's lakes. In Nature 315,6014: 19–20.
MPED (Ministry of Planning and Economic Development), 1990. Consumer price index Kampala (To September 1990). Statistical Bulletin No. CPI/1. Entebbe, Uganda: Statistics Department, MPED.
Orach-Meza, F.L., E.J. Coenen, and J.E. Reynolds, 1989. Past and recent trends in the exploitation of the Great Lakes fisheries of Uganda. In Fisheries of the African Great Lakes. Occasional Paper No. 3. Fisheries and Aquaculture Unit, International Agricultural Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands. (Research papers presented at the International Symposium on Resource Use and Conservation of the African Great Lakes, University of Burundi, Bujumbura, 29 November – 2 December 1989.)
Reynolds, J.E., 1990. Continuity or Crisis? Management Challenges for the shared fisheries of the Western Ugandan Great Lakes. SEC Field Report No. 15. FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007.
Reynolds, J.E., and C.T. Mukasa, 1989. Notes on Kichwamba Region. SEC Field Report No. 6. FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007.
Reynolds, J.E., and F.L. Orach-Meza, 1989. Development and management of Lake Victoria fisheries -- deliberations of the CIFA Meeting, Mwanza, Sept. 1989. SEC Field Report No. 9, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007.
Reynolds, J.E., and W.M. Ssali, 1990. Lake Victoria fisheries industrialisation: recent developments in Uganda. SEC Field Report No. 13, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007.
Ssali, W.M., J.E. Reynolds, and A.R. Ward, 1990. Fish and fuel, food and forests: perspectives on post-harvest losses in Uganda. (Paper presented at the Symposium on Post-Harvest Fish Technology. CIFA, Eighth Session, Cairo, Egypt, 21–25 October 1990.) SEC Field Report No. 17. FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (In preparation).
TDRI (Tropical Development and Research Institute), 1983. Fisheries rehabilitation study: Uganda. London: TDRI (mimeo).
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), 1975. Handbook of the nutritional contents of foods. New York: Dover Publications.
Welcomme, R.L., 1972. The inland waters of Africa. Les eaux interieures d'Afrique. CIFA Tech.Pap./Doc.Tech.CPCA, (1):117p.
TABLE 1. PROPORTION OF FRESH VS. PROCESSED FISH PRODUCTS MARKETED WITHIN SURVEY DISTRICTS, 1990.
|DISTRICT||% FRESH||% PROCESSED|
Source: FISHIN Markets Survey, 1990.
TABLE 2. FRESH FISH SALES BY SPECIES COMPOSITION (% WEIGHT), SAMPLED MARKETS, 1990.
|DISTRICT:||TILAPIA FRESH||LATES FRESH||BAGRUS FRESH||CLARIAS FRESH||BARBUS FRESH||PROT FRESH||MORM FRESH||RASTR FRESH||TOTAL %|
Source: UFD Regional Fisheries Office Reports.
TABLE 3. PROCESSED FISH SALES BY SPECIES COMPOSITION (% WEIGHT), SAMPLED MARKETS, 1990.
|DISTRICT:||TILAPIA CURED||LATES CURED||BAGRUS CURED||CLARIAS CURED||BARBUS CURED||PROT CURED||MORM CURED||RASTR CURED||HAPL. CURED||TOTAL %|
Source: UFD Regional Fisheries Office Reports.
TABLE 4: MARKET FACILITIES, SURVEY DISTRICTS, 1990
|NO. MARKETS WITH FACILITIES OF:|
|DISTRICTS||TOTAL NO.MKTS||TAP WATER||ELECT.||ICE PLANT||COLD STORE||DRY STORE||OFF-LOAD||CLEANING TABLES||PERMNT STALLS||TEMP. STALLS||PERMNT SHELTER||TEMP. SHELTER||LOCAL KILNS||CHORKOR KILNS||DRYING RACKS||TOILET/ LATRINE||'PHONE|
Source: FISHIN Markets Survey, 1990.
TABLE 5: FRESH FISH PRICE INDICES, SURVEY DISTRICTS, FOURTH QUARTER 1990*
* BASE PRICE: KAMPALA TILAPIA 400shs/kg = 100.
Source: FISHIN Markets Survey, 1990.
TABLE 6: PROCESSED FISH PRICE INDICES, SURVEY DISTRICTS, FOURTH QUARTER 1990*
* BASE PRICE: KAMPALA TILAPIA 530shs/kg = 100.
Source: FISHIN Markets Survey, 1990.
TABLE 7. PROTEIN COST INDICES FOR MAJOR FOOD ITEMS, KAMPALA, FOURTH QUARTER 1990
|PRODUCT % PROTEIN CONTENT||PRODUCT PROTEIN|
|PROTEIN COST INDEX|
|PROTEIN COST EQUIVALENCE TO FISH|
Sources: FISHIN Markets Survey, 1990. USDA 1975.
FIG. 1: DISTRICTS OF UGANDA*
* Hatched areas are those covered by the FISHIN Markets Survey, 1990.
Source: UNICEF 1989.
FIG. 2: EST. TOTAL ANNUAL CATCH, L. KYOGA (1961–1989)
FIG. 3: EST. TOTAL ANNUAL CATCH, L. VICTORIA (1961–1989)
FIG. 4: FISH DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS, PRE-1983
Source: Adapted from Balarin, 1985.
FIG. 5: FISH DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS, POST-1983
Source: Adapted from Balarin, 1985.
FIG. 6: FISH PRODUCER-CONSUMER LINKAGES, UGANDA 1990
Source: Adapted from Balarin, 1985.
FISHIN NOTES & RECORDS
LIST OF DOCUMENTS
(To May 1990)
BIOSTATISTICAL (BIOSTAT) FIELD REPORTS
Coenen, E., 1988. Mission report, Tororo District, 29/11 – 1/12/88. BIOSTAT Field Report No. 1, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (Dec. 1988).
Wadanya, J., 1989a. Report on the tour of Kichwamba Region: the area of Lakes George - Edward and Kazinga Channel Complex. BIOSTAT Field Report No. 2, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (Feb. 1989)
Wadanya, J., 1989b. Report of the visit to Kigungu Landing. BIOSTAT Field Report No. 3, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (Feb. 1989).
Coenen, E., & F.L. Orach-Meza, 1989. Mission report to Mwanza (15–26/2/89): HEST/TAFIRI and DANIDA Regional Seminar on Lake Victoria. BIOSTAT Field Report No. 4, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (March 1989).
Tumwebaze, R., 1989a. Mission report to Kasenyi Fish Landing (20/01/1989). BIOSTAT Field Report No. 5, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (June 1989).
Tumwebaze, R., 1989b. Report on the tour of Masaka Region - Lake Victoria. BIOSTAT Field Report. No. 6, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (June 1989).
Nyeko, D., 1989. Report on the tour of south-western lakes: George and Edward landings. BIOSTAT Field Report No. 7, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (July 1989).
Ikwaput, J., 1989. Report on the mission to Iganga District, 29/5 – 2/6/1989. BIOSTAT Field Report No. 8, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (July 1989).
Nyeko, D., 1990. Report on the trial frame survey conducted around the northern side of the Kome Islands complex (14 – 16 February 1990). BIOSTAT Field Report No. 9, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (Feb. 1990).
Wadanya, J., 1990a. Travel report to Lakes Edward/George and Albert. BIOSTAT Field Report No. 10, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (March 1990).
Nyeko, D. & R. Tumwebaze, 1990. The Lulamba Island Complex fisheries: report on a trial frame survey. BIOSTAT Field Report No. 11, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (April 1990).
Ikwaput, J. & R. Tumwebaze, 1989. The present status of fisheries data collection and analysis in Uganda. BIOSTAT Field Report No. 12, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (Oct. 1989 -- originally issued as BIOSTAT Working Paper No. 4).
Ikwaput, J. & E.J. Coenen, 1990. Report on trip to Masaka Region and Katebo Landing. BIOSTAT Field Report No. 13, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (April 1990).
SOCIO-ECONOMIC (SEC) FIELD REPORTS
Odongkara, O.K., 1989a. Visit to Kasenyi Landing: 20th January, 1989. SEC Field Report No. 1, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (May 1989).
Odongkara, O.K., 1989b. Preliminary report on Kichwamba Region landings: 4th – 7th February, 1989. SEC Field Report No. 2, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (May 1989).
Reynolds, J.E., C.T. Kirema-Mukasa & O.K. Odongkara, 1989. Trip to Jinja Town and UFFRO. SEC Field Report No. 3, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (May 1989).
Reynolds, J.E. & C.T. Kirema-Mukasa, 1989a. Visit to Kampala markets. SEC Field Report No. 4, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (May 1989).
Reynolds, J.E. & O.K. Odongkara, 1989a. Preliminary notes on Iganga District landings. SEC Field Report No. 5, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (June 1989).
Reynolds, J.E. & C.T. Kirema-Mukasa, 1989b. Notes on Kichwamba Region. SEC Field Report No. 6, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (July 1989).
Reynolds, J.E. & O.K. Odongkara, 1989b. Fish marketing and distribution in Tororo and Mbale Regions: a brief survey. SEC Field Report No. 7, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (Aug. 1989).
Reynolds, J.E., F.L. Orach-Meza, & E.J. Coenen, 1989. Moyo District fisheries conditions and prospects. SEC Field Report No. 8, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (Sept. 1989).
Reynolds, J.E. & F.L. Orach-Meza, 1989. Development and management of Lake Victoria fisheries -- deliberations of the CIFA Meeting, Mwanza, Sept. 1989. SEC Field Report No. 9, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (Sept. 1989).
Reynolds, J.E. & O.K. Odongkara, 1989c. Socio-economic aspects of fisheries development in Uganda: The ‘FISHIN’ Project. SEC Field Report No. 10, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (Nov. 1989).
Kirema-Mukasa, C.T., & J.E. Reynolds, 1989. Brief notes on fisheries production, marketing and credit facilities in Uganda. SEC Field Report No. 11, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (Nov. 1989).
Odongkara, O.K., 1990. Socio-economic aspects of the Kome Island fisheries: report on a trial frame survey. SEC Field Report No. 12, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (Feb. 1990).
Reynolds, J.E., & W.M. Ssali, 1990. Lake Victoria fisheries industrialisation: recent developments in Uganda. SEC Field Report No. 13, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (March 1990).
Reynolds, J.E., J.H. White, & S. Kisembo, 1990. Development of fishing and transport smallcraft in Uganda: past experience and new prospects. SEC Field Report No. 14, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (March 1990).
Reynolds, J.E., 1990. Continuity or crisis? Management challenges for the shared fisheries of the western Uganda Great Lakes. SEC Field Report No. 15, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (March 1990).
Kirema-Mukasa, C.T. and J.E. Reynolds, 1990. Marketing and distribution aspects of Lake Victoria fisheries in Uganda. SEC Field Report No. 16, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (May 1990).
Nyeko, D., 1989. Past and present fisheries statistical systems in Uganda -- a bibliographic study. BIOSTAT Working Paper No. 1, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (April 1989).
Wadanya, J., 1989. Fisheries statistical training needs: initial assessment. BIOSTAT Working Paper No. 2, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (July 1989).
Ikwaput, J. & R. Tumwebaze, 1989. The present status of fisheries data collection and analysis in Uganda. BIOSTAT Working Paper No. 3, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (Sept. 1989).
Wadanya, J., & D. Nyeko, 1989. Fisheries statistical systems in Uganda. BIOSTAT Working Paper No. 4, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (Sept. 1989).
Orach-Meza, F.L., E.J. Coenen & J.E. Reynolds, 1989. Past and recent trends in the exploitation of the Great Lakes fisheries of Uganda. Occasional Papers, No. 1, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (Paper presented at the International Symposium on Resource Use and Conservation of the Great Lakes. Bujumbura, 29/11 – 2/12/89). (Nov. 1989).
Reynolds, J.E., J. Wadanya, & D. Nyeko, eds., 1989. Fisheries statistics and information management in Uganda: past approaches, current status, and future prospects. Field Document No. 1, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (Nov. 1989).
Reynolds, J.E., 1989. Fisheries development in Uganda: sectoral background and project profiles (No.1: Stock assessment of national and shared fisheries; No. 2: Monitoring of catch, effort, and utilisation; No. 3: Eradication of water hyacinth from Lake Kyoga; No.4: Provision of basic inputs; No.5: Development of the Lake Victoria dagaa fishery; No. 6: Pilot development of fishing and transport craft; No.7: National fish technology services and infrastructure improvement). Project Profiles, No. 1, FISHIN Notes and Records. Fisheries Statistics and Information Systems, FAO/UNDP Project UGA/87/007. (Nov. 1989; Rev. Dec. 1989). (Restricted).
FISHIN PROJECT - UGA/87/007
P.O. Box 521