5.1.1 Navotas Fishlanding and Sales
It is apparent from Chapter 3 that the present market and landing facilities at Navotas are obsolete and not able to cope with the increasing catches landed by the commercial fishing vessels. This is agreed by all parties concerned, the Government authorities, the private sector of the fishing industry, boat owners and brokers, and others. Several plans and proposals have been submitted for consideration for the construction of a fishermen's wharf and fish markets and a survey and plans for a large fishing port are being made at Navotas. The survey of this project was scheduled to be completed by the end of September 1969. The plans will provide for all kinds of facilities for a modern fishing port, especially marketing facilities. The most essential part of a modern fishing port is the provision of landing and berthing facilities alongside the fish market, the absence of which is, at present, hampering the flow of fish at Navotas.
The present sales procedure, namely the secret 'whispering' bidding, is also hampering the supply of fish to the Navotas market from fishing vessels outside the Navotas-Malabon circle. Even if the fishermen have a representative at the market, individual fishermen cannot know at what prices their fish have been sold. Furthermore, most of the fish brokers are also owners of fishing vessels and are, consequently interested in selling their own fish at the best possible price. They may, therefore, not be interested in competition from outside provinces which might possibly influence the market price.
The most effective way to dispose of the fish catch from fishermen to wholesalers is by public auction. A public fish auction is open for everyone to sell fish and open to everyone to buy in wholesale quantities. Fish unloaded to the auction from fishing vessels directly or brought by trucks from outside fishlandings is placed on the auction floor, and is open for inspection by the buyers before the auctioning starts. This is good for both seller and buyer: the buyer can select the species and quantities of fish he is interested in; the seller can be sure that he is getting the highest bid price for his fish. Public auction is, therefore, the most common method used in developed fishing nations; in countries where the fishing industry is developing, it is becoming more and more popular.
It is therefore recommended that a public auction of fish be established when the new fish market opens as the Navotas Fishing Port Project materializes. The auctioner should be authorized by the government authority and must be completely impartial and independent of both sellers and buyers. This does not mean that the present system need be completely abandoned. The brokerowners of fishing vessels should still have freedom to sell fish from their own boats, as well as the right to let their fish be sold at the public auction if they so desire.
The public fish auction will, of course, not eliminate the 'middlemen' or subagents, but it will be easier to control their activities.
The fish prices obtained daily at the auction should be made public on a special radio broadcast and in the daily newspapers.
5.1.2 Greater Manila Terminal Food Market
The Greater Manila Terminal Food Market Inc. (GMTFM) was formed on 3 May 1968, financed by the Development Bank of the Philippines. The market complex will be located at Fort Bonifacio along the South Superhighway and will cover an area of 120 ha. The main objectives of its formation are to stabilize the marketing of agricultural and farm products. The GMTFM will be set up as a public auction; farmers and farmers' cooperative associations will sell to wholesalers and others buying in wholesale quantities.
Provisions have also been made for including a fish section within the complex that will provide for 30 stalls to be rented to fish wholesalers. The handling, delivery and source of marine fish and pond fish will be quite different, and wholesalers will probably specialize in one commodity or the other, as well as dried fish.
The location of the market along the South Superhighway is ideal for fish coming by road from the provinces in Southern Luzon, especially Bicol and Quezon (Dalahican, Lucena City).
It is recommended that the fish section at the GMTFM be divided into three subsections: one for marine fish and shrimps; one for freshwater fish including bangus (milkfish); and one for dried fish. A public fish auction should be set up as for agricultural products and in line with the public auction recommended for the Navotas Fishing Harbour Project. Adequate refrigeration facilities should be provided at the GMTFM site, and provision made for refrigerated transport to the market.
According to the Fisheries Development Programme of the Philippines, the intention is to establish seven fishing ports in the provinces outside the Manila area, at Mindanao, Eastern Visayas, Western Visayas, Eastern Bicol, Tayabas, Lingayen and Ilocos. Whether this is feasible or not depends on how the development of the fishing fleets in those areas will succeed. At present, the commercial fishing industry in the provinces is mostly concentrated in towns and cities where there is already a commercial port for inter-island cargo vessels, which is also used by the fishing vessels.
A fishing port should only be constructed if the geographical and physical conditions provide proper protection for the boats during bad weather, and if there is a sound economic basis for the location. An estimate must be made of how much fish can be expected to be landed and whether there is a local market for the expected increased landing. If landed fish will have to be trans-shipped to other market areas, the transport and trans-shipment possibilities must be considered.
These aspects are favourable at Tayabas, and recommendations 1 have already been submitted for the construction of a fishing port at Dalahican (Lucena City) with all facilities for a modern deep-sea fishing fleet. At the present stage of fisheries development in the Philippines, however, it is impossible to make any specific recommendations for the other ports in the provinces. The construction of ports and harbours is expensive. It normally imposes an obligation on the Government to create the necessary infrastructure and cannot be expected to be immediately profitable. It must be viewed from a long range development point of view. For the time being, therefore, it is recommended that the existing inter-island commercial ports be used as far as possible.
In Mindanao, the port of Zamboanga (Zamboanga City) is probably the best to serve as a base for a possible tuna fishing fleet fishing in the southern waters off the Philippines. There is already a freezing plant and cold storage in the city. Furthermore, it can serve as a trans-shipment place for fishing vessels in Sibuguey Bay and the Sulu Archipelago.
In Eastern Visayas, the port of Catbalogan (Samar) may be the best for vessels fishing in the Samar Sea. However, Tacloban (Leyte) at the northern part of Leyte Gulf is more suitable from a marketing point of view.
In western Visayas, the port of Iloilo is probably the most suitable for development in this area. It is a natural port at the mouth of Iloilo River. It provides good protection, and there is already considerable fishing in Guimaras Strait and Visayan Sea which is landed in Iloilo. Furthermore, there are good and fast connections between Iloilo and Manila by inter-island vessels.
In Eastern Bicol, the fishing is mostly concentrated in San Miguel Bay and Mercedes (Camarines Norte). San Miguel Bay is very shallow and not suitable for establishing a fishing port. Mercedes is a base for basnig fishing boats during the southwest monsoon season only. The only commercial port of any significance is Legaspi in Southeast Bicol. Fishing is most likely to be developed in the Lamon Bay region, however, so that it will be most reasonable to investigate the possibility of constructing a fishlanding place at Atimonan or Port Real (Quezon Province) to serve the deep-sea fishing fleet. There is a small natural port at the mouth of the river at Atimonan which possibly could be extended to serve as landing place for the deep-sea fishing vessels. Atimonan is connected with the main road to Manila via Lucena City.
In Lingayen Gulf, the main fishlandings take place at Damortis (La Union). The most suitable commercial port in this area is San Fernando (La Union), situated in a natural bay. Except for the landings at Damortis, there is very little fishing activity from the coast of La Union Province and it is therefore not feasible to construct a special fishing port at present.
In Ilocos, the fishing activity is also of very little significance at present. There are no real commercial ports, except for at Gaang, Currimao, (Ilocos Norte), where a pier is under construction for international and inter-island shipping. This pier could be utilized for landing fish as well as for occasional calls by commercial deep-sea fishing vessels.
1 See Appendix 1.
Another location in Northeastern Luzon which might be suitable for a fishing port is San Vicente at Nulton Point, (Cagayan Province). There is already a pier used by the Philippine Navy Patrol Base, but it could probably be extended to serve also for fishlanding. The geographical and physical conditions seem to be good, as San Vicente could serve as a base for vessels fishing in the Pacific as well as the Babuyan Channel. There is, at present, a fair road connection to Aparri and, when the projected Japanese-Philippine Friendship Highway is constructed, there will be the facility for transporting of the fish south through Cagayan Valley to Manila.
In connection with the construction of the planned Japan-Philippines Friendship Highway, there will also be four ferry-ports at Matnog (Southern Sorsogon), Allen (Northwest Samar), the southern tip of Pannon Island and the northern tip of Mindanao (Surigao del Norte), linking the islands into the highway chain. The feasibility of incorporating landing facilities for fishing vessels at these ferry-ports should be considered.
Transportation and distribution facilities for fish and fishery products are very important in a tropical climate. In the Philippines, transport by sea, either by fish carrier vessels or ordinary inter-island vessels, is very important. The transport of fish by fish carriers (which are owned by the bigger fishing vessel operators) from the fishing grounds to Manila (Navotas) is well organized. These privately owned carriers are flexible in their movements, and can be directed to the fishing areas according to demand. The inter-island cargo and passenger vessels, however, have to follow a certain schedule, in most cases with calls at several ports en route from and to Manila. Consequently the inter-island vessels can only be used for transport of fresh fish from the last port of call before Manila. Furthermore, the inter-island vessels have no refrigerated holds or other suitable compartments in which to keep the fish during transport. The fish is therefore placed on deck in big boxes or containers. Recently, a few shippers of fish have introduced insulated containers for this purpose that seem to work satisfactorily. Road transport of fish is very important for distributing the fish from Manila (Navotas) to the upland provinces in Central Luzon. As already mentioned in Section 3.5.1, some distributors are already using insulated trucks for this purpose, and more are following suit.
The most suitable means of transporting fish is the motor-truck because of its flexibility in moving from place to place, but it depends, of course, on the road network. So far, road transport on a large-scale in the Philippines is limited to Luzon Island. However, when the proposed Japan-Philippines Friendship Highway covers the full length of the Philippines from Aparri in the north to Davao-Zamboanga in the south, the total length of the highway will be about 3 480 kilometres (km), and road transport of fish will probably be of much greater importance than it is today, especially from the islands Samar, Leyte and Mindanao, which will be interlinked with car-ferries.
For this long distance transport, it will be necessary to use refrigerated trucks or containers. The tendency within international shipping is, at present, toward ‘containerization’ of most general cargoes, and this will be true also for shipments of fresh and, especially, frozen fish.
The main advantage of using self-contained refrigerated units is that they can be unloaded directly from the ship onto a flat-type truck and hauled to the destination without any handling of the fish. On arrival at the destination, the self-contained refrigerated units can even serve as a storage for some time, until the arrival of the next container shipment.
Because of rapidly changing conditions in the fishing industry as a whole, it is futile to attempt to present a detailed scheme for the use of refrigerated containers on trucks and inter-island vessels at present: such a plan will have to await the near completion of the infrastructure, especially the Japan-Philippine Friendship Highway. An indication of present cost can, however, be made. The cost of refrigerated metal bulk containers per unit of volume is very variable as it depends on the size of the container and on the temperature to be maintained.
A 1 000 cubic foot (ft3) container for-30°F has been estimated at 60 000, or 60 per ft3. For a temperature of 0°F, the following approximate prices have been obtained:
|1 000 ft3||36/ft3|
It is apparent from these figures that each particular case will require careful study to ensure that an economical size container is selected for each locality.
The introduction of containerization into fish handling will also depend to some degree on the general acceptance of this cargo handling method for other products. Large containers may call for special handling and loading equipment which the volume of fish alone will not justify. Present indications are that the use of containers in shipping will continue to increase in the Philippines.
Linked with the construction of the Navotas and Dalahican fishing ports and fish markets it is recommended that a fish carrier service be organized from the ports located in the fishing areas, especially from the Visayas and the Sulu Sea, both from Palawan and the Sulu archipelago. The carriers should be fitted with insulated holds and be mechanically refrigerated, with about 100 to 150 tons loading capacity. The schedule of the vessels should be organized according to the demand and volume of fish catch and available for everyone to ship their catch to be sold at the public auction.
For shipment on inter-island vessels, the present method of packing the fish loose in big wooden boxes or containers of about 600–1 000 kg of fish is harmful to the fish at the bottom of the boxes which will be squeezed by the heavy pressure and may even rupture. It is therefore recommended that insulated containers and smaller wooden fish boxes be introduced as inner containers for the fish. Proposals for these fish boxes and containers are given in Figures 3, 4 and 5.
5.4.1 Dried Fish
Fish processing in the Philippines mainly comprises salting and drying, which is undertaken all over the country. The drying and salting establishments and the marketing of the finished product are almost entirely run by people of Chinese origin with family traditions in this trade and experience acquired from generations of handling fish under the prevailing tropical climate.
Since other methods of processing fish are negligible, dried fish is a very important factor in the supply of protein-rich foodstuff in the Philippines. With poor transport facilities in the remote areas and small islands, salting and drying has become the only way to preserve surplus catches of fish and to produce a commodity with a keeping quality good enough to be able to reach the marketing centres. In addition, the equipment needed for salting and drying is very simple and inexpensive and can be made of local material, an advantage that drying has over other preserving methods such as canning and freezing.
There is a ready market for good quality dried fish at any time. The best quality dried fish normally comes from areas where there are no other ways of selling the fish, so that large fish are put into the brine vats or tanks immediately after landing, and smaller fish, which are not brine-salted prior to drying, are immediately spread out on the drying racks. There are estimated to be about 6 000 fishing barrios (villages) in the Philippines. Those near the bigger towns and populated areas and with access roads to these areas have a better chance to dispose of their catch in the fresh state, but those in remote areas without road connections, have no alternative but to dry the fish which cannot be sold within the village community. It is obvious, that it would be impossible to establish ice plants and cold stores at all but few of these fishing barrios; and even in those few, it would be paintless if the fish cannot be distributed to the populated areas because of lack of adequate transport facilities and accessible roads. Well-dried fish has a keeping quality of at least several months in the temperatures prevailing in the Philippines and needs no cold storage during transit. It can stand transport by smaller boats to the market centres or even the slow transport by carabao sledge to inland towns and communication centres.
During one trip to a fishing village where one of the Ice Plant and Stores of the Fisheries Commission had been established and ready for operation, it was observed that while the chill store was empty, the drying racks near the beach were loaded with fish for drying. There was no market for fresh fish although ice and cold store were available, but there was a market for the dried fish.
The Expanded Fish Production Programme 1969–72 prepared by the Fisheries Commission also includes a Municipal Fisheries Development Programme. The objectives of the programme are to mechanize the smaller boats and introduce modern fishing techniques with the aim of increasing fish production beyond the sustenance level. It means that there will be a surplus of fish which is not consumed locally.
It is recommended in connection with the mechanization programme that provision be made to utilize the increased catch. The cheapest and most effective way is to establish drying and curing facilities in the fishing villages. The curing yards could be formed and organized on a cooperative basis. This would give an impetus to the cooperative movement in the fishing community of the barrio, which it so far has not received despite many attempts.
In barrios where there are no people with knowledge of curing and drying, assistance should be provided by the Fisheries Commission's staff of technologists. Assistance should also be given in the formation and operation of a cooperative association.
The Department of Commerce, Bureau of Standards, has made out standard requirements for baggong and patis, known as:
Standardization of Philippine Bagoong (Fish Paste)
and for other Purposes, and
Standardization of Philippine Fish Sauce (Patis)
and for other Purposes
It is recommended that similar standard requirements be prepared for dried and salted fish and for other products. Standard requirements should be included for the premises and sanitation installations.
The above discussion and recommendation only refer to sun-drying, which is the most common and economical way of drying. However, in a tropical climate like that of the Philippines, with a rainy season, it may be desirable to consider artificial drying.
5.4.2 Other Fishery Products
The other fishery products made in the Philippines are mainly bagoong and patis (fish paste and fish sauce), which are specific Philippine products made according to the taste and habits of the Filipinos. Hygiene at the smaller manufacturing establishments leaves much to be desired; the conditions in the bigger manufacturing plants, with automatic bottling machines, are infinitely superior. It is recommended that the standard requirements of the Bureau of Standards for bagoong and patis (see previous section) also include some minimum requirements for the manufacturing premises and sanitation installations. As a further step it is also recommended that the establishments making bagoong and patis be inspected and approved by the proper authority and licensed. The license number issued to the manufacturers should appear on the wholesale and retail containers. In this way, it will be possible to trace the manufacturer in the event of complaints.
5.4.3 New Products
With the development of the deep-sea fishing industry, there will probably be landings of shark and marlin together with the tuna and tuna-like species. There is already a world market for properly handled and frozen yellowfin, bluefin, albacore, big-eyed tuna and skipjacks, but there is no market in the Philippines in the fresh state for the shark and marlin that the trawl fishermen are also getting in place nets. Shark, marlin and tuna are the main species of fish used for making fish sausages and these are very popular, especially in Japan.
Since the canning of fish in the Philippines has not been a success, because of lack of raw material suitable for canning at competitive prices, the canneries are more or less lying idle. It might therefore be feasible for them to change to manufacturing fish sausages. Meat canneries are also not fully employed, again through lack of raw material. These could also take up manufacturing fish sausages as a sideline to their meat products since the same equipment can be used for meat and fish sausages.
The goal of the Fisheries Development Programme is self-sufficiency in fish production and minimization of imports of fish and fishery products. Canned fish, mainly mackerel from Japan, accounts for 81.4 percent of the total quantity of imported fish. The retail prices of canned mackerel were in mid-1969 from pesos 1.76 to 2.12 per kg. This compares with about 2.10 per kg for fresh mackerel of Philippine origin, which is thus about twice as high as the imported canned mackerel since the edible portion of fresh mackerel is only 55 percent compared with almost 100 percent for canned mackerel. It is obvious that it will be difficult to eliminate this importation with the present price level of fresh fish without causing the lower-income groups to suffer.
The export of frozen tuna has shown an increase in quantity from 2 339 kg in 1963 to 1 082 629 kg in 1967, which, of course, is a very small quantity compared with the quantity of imported fish. Tuna has a limited market in the Philippines and, with the expected increase in catch, there is likely to be more tuna available for export and this may compensate for imports of cheaper fish for consumption in the Philippines.
FISH PRODUCTION 1964–68
|Year||Commercial Fishing (t)||Municipal Fishing (t)||Fishponds (t)||Total (t)|
|1964||258 100||282 726||62 680||603 506|
|1965||300 074||303 930||63 198||667 202|
|1966||314 899||326 725||63 654||705 278|
|1967||330 922||351 229||63 912||746 063|
|1968||406 794||444 179||86 711||937 684|
PRODUCTION BY COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS
FROM MAJOR FISHING GROUNDS IN 1967
|Fishing Grounds||Production in t||% of Total|
|1.||Visayan Sea||118 265||35.73|
|2.||Sulu Sea (Palawan)||97 829||29.56|
|3.||Manila Bay||24 687||7.50|
|4.||Sibuguey Bay||14 852||4.50|
|5.||Guimaras Strait||13 056||3.95|
|6.||Tayabas Bay||7 610||2.29|
|7.||San Miguel Bay||6 931||2.10|
|8.||Sibuyan Sea||5 467||1.62|
|9.||Sulu Sea (Eastern)||5 102||1.54|
|10.||Samar Sea||4 299||1.3|
COMMERCIAL FISHLANDINGS OF TEN MOST COMMON KINDS OF FISH
IN THE PHILIPPINES AND IN NAVOTAS
|Kind of Fish||Total Landing||Landed in Navotas|
|(kg)||% of Total||(kg)||% of Total|
|1.||Round Scad||100 327 360||30.25||88 305 360||88.20|
|2.||Slipmouth||33 904 960||10.24||21 651 720||63.86|
|3.||Sardines||22 360 680||6.75||16 744 640||74.89|
|4.||Nemipterid||18 554 360||5.62||18 053 440||97.30|
|5.||Mackerel, Chub||16 101 560||4.86||11 971 800||74.35|
|6.||Lizard fish||15 352 280||4.64||8 562 600||55.77|
|7.||Anchovy||14 652 320||4.44||1 736 360||11.85|
|8.||Big eyed Scad||12 609 000||3.81||4 277 680||33.93|
|9.||Shrimps||12 041 160||3.64||7 014 640||58.20|
|10.||Croaker||8 627 320||2.61||2 571 560||29.81|
MAIN PRODUCING FISHPOND AREAS, 1968
|Province||Total Production||Total Area||% of Total||Production|
|Bulacan||12 768||15 327||9.2||830|
|Iloilo||11 214||15 606||9.4||720|
|Negros Occ.||7 971||16 097||9.7||500|
|Quezon||7 006||14 019||8.5||500|
|Capiz||6 191||10 786||6.5||575|
|Rizal||4 584||5 167||3.1||890|
|Zamboanga del Sur||3 925||13 270||8.0||300|
|Pangasinan||3 344||4 618||2.8||725|
|Philippines||86 711||165 873||100.0||520|
FISH PROCESSING ESTABLISHMENTS
|Regions||Fish drying and smoking||Bagoong and Patis|
|VIII.||Central and East Visayas||82||13|
|IX.||Southern Mindanao and Sulu||56||6|
IMPORTS OF FISHERY PRODUCTS, 1965–67
|Canned||42 418 385||56 359 266||41 587 869||54 508 592||53 912 774||72 209 172|
|Fresh||22 728||36 391||18 667||36 150||30 096||73 703|
|Dried, salted or smoked||306 685||132 439||537 843||212 179||362 789||226 327|
|Fishmeal||8 982 791||5 163 916||7 975 948||3 841 671||13 383 070||7 320 705|
|Total||51 730 589||61 692 012||50 120 327||59 508 592||67 688 729||79 799 907|
EXPORT OF FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS IN 1965–67
|Frozen fish||317 962||335 099||1 063 826||1 849 953||1 082 629||1 328 526|
|Frozen shrimp||34 930||151 591||32 308||197 099||115 054||778 058|
|Dried fish||4 616||12 740||3 547||8 230||11 497||24 308|
|Sauce (Patis)||19 708||23 928||17 668||23 512||17 040||21 260|
|Wet salted||101 906||120 167||76 980||90 878||118 581||134 041|
|Reptile skin||3 156||93 603||5 796||60 062||2 780||38 721|
|Seaweeds dried||-||-||805 002||461 748||674 524||351 989|
|Shells||450 754||1 891 319||555 293||2 133 716||1 180 695||2 081 806|
|Sponges dried||3 420||36 246||1 800||17 646||28 294||182 636|
|Miscellaneous||167 866||110 871||11 030||65 513||296 895||349 909|
|Total||1 104 318||2 775 564||2 573 250||4 908 357||3 527 689||5 291 254|
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL PRICES 1968–69 (Pesos/kg)
W = Wholesale price;
R = Retail price;
M = Trade Margin;
% of R = The percentage difference betweenW and R based on R that is,
1 9-month average;
2 4-month average.
PROFIT ANALYSIS FOR 13 SPECIES OF FISH LANDED IN MANILA
|Species||1967 Landed in Manila (kg)||Percentage of landed species||Trade1 Margin (Pesos/kg)||Weighted Trade Margin (Pesos/kg)|
|Anchovy||1 736 360||0.92||62.5||62 500|
|Caesio||6 306 440||3.34||14.9||49 266|
|Cavalla||2 744 600||1.45||32.3||46 835|
|Grouper||1 788 600||0.95||39.2||37 249|
|Hairtail||2 338 120||1.24||49.3||61 132|
|Lizard fish||8 562 600||4.53||43.7||197 961|
|Mackerel||11 971 800||6.33||33.9||214 587|
|Nemipterid||18 053 440||9.55||37.9||361 945|
|Round Scad||88 308 360||46.73||40.4||1 887 892|
|Sardines||16 744 640||8.86||52.5||465 150|
|Shrimp||7 014 640||3.71||33.0||122 430|
|Slipmouth||21 651 720||11.46||54.5||624 370|
|Squid||1 757 920||0.93||28.4||26 412|
|188 979 240||100.00||4 153 420|
Average Trade Margin 2 : 41.53%
1 From Table 8.
2 For the 13 species.
AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES IN THE MANILA MARKETS, 1965 (Pesos/kg)
|Big eyed Scad||2.03||1.91||1.71||1.05||1.65||1.40||1.55||1.48||1.69||1.40||1.75||1.50||1.64|
AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES IN THE MANILA MARKETS, 1966 (Pesos/kg)
|Big eyed Scad||1.97||1.94||1.85||1.73||1.70||1.56||1.63||1.36||1.62||1.65||1.61||1.80||1.70|
AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES IN THE MANILA MARKETS, 1967 (Pesos/kg)
|Big eyed Scad||2.07||2.55||2.47||2.11||1.92||1.64||1.77||1.88||2.03||1.90||1.76||1.97||1.92|
AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES IN THE MANILA MARKETS, 1968 (Pesos/kg)
|Big eyed Scad||0.99||1.55||1.61||1.97||1.74||1.57||1.59||1.45||1.45||1.49||1.87||2.01||1.61|
YEARLY AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES IN THE MANILA MARKETS
|Big eyed Scad||1.64||1.40||2.03||1.70||1.36||1.97||1.92||1.64||2.55||1.61||0.99||2.01|