Contents -

VI. PART II. Activities and programmes of the organization

A. Review of the organization's activities and programmes (including Regular Programme and Field Activities )
B. Programme of work and budget, 1972-73
C. Medium-term plan

D. Relations and consultations with international organizations on PROGRAMME matters of common interest

A. Review of the organization's activities and programmes (including Regular Programme and Field Activities )

Planning of Aid Programmes
Harmonizing of Intra-Regional Agricultural Development
Agricultural Research
Programming of Field Operations
Regional Offices and Country Representatives
Consideration of Extra-Budgetary Activities
Format of "The Work of FAO"

115. The Conference reviewed document C 71/4 and related documents on this subject. The attention of the Conference was also drawn by the Representative of the Director-General to the wider implications of the work of FAO in development support, including, on the one hand, the political aspects of its work and, on the other, the way in which it operates.

116. The Conference was informed that it was important to emphasize that FAO received its policy guidance from Member Nations, but that its cooperation with other agencies, and in particular with financing bodies, also had to be kept in view.

117. It was pointed out that FAA's dialogue with governments was guided by the new UNDP policy which stipulated that country programmes were prepared by governments themselves in accordance with their specific priorities and with the help of all members of the UN family under the guidance of the UNDP Resident Representative. However, FAO retained its basic mission of elaborating on a continuing basis a policy and strategy for agricultural development. This mission underlaid its dialogue, carried out at country level with the departments concerned, by the FAO Country Representatives who were also the Senior Agricultural Advisers to the UNDP Resident Representatives. At the same time, the Regional Representatives of FAO were responsible for regular contact with higher government levels and were substantially involved in development action concerning several countries or a whole region.

118. The Conference noted that the content of the programmes and projects, in progressively more numerous cases, was bound to reflect the progress achieved in the recipient countries. As national competence improved and increased quantitatively, the role of international experts wee modified, and responsability for projects changed hands. Training programmes too were modified. But the fact remained that international cooperation, even if it represented only a small proportion of total development efforts, took on an added value when, for instance, it came to setting up new institutions, applying advanced techniques and preparing approaches to sources of international finance.

119. It wee indicated that while FAO retained its responsibility for guiding the policies on rural development, and its role as executing agent for internationally financed programmes, the Director-General intended to place the competence of FAO at the disposal of the bilateral programmes, without however laying claim to a leading role in the execution thereof.

120. The Conference noted that FAA's relations with the other international agencies, and in particular with the financing organizations, were governed by a spirit of complete partnership.

121. It was further noted that the second mayor considerations was the way in which FAO operated in project implementation. Certain points deserved to be emphasized. In the case of preinvestment, the Organization had at present 329 ongoing projects in 97 countries, and would spend in the present year $84 million provided by UNDP, $10 million provided by government projects by bilateral programmes, and $2.5 million for those of FFH. The refocusing of the work in the Area Service Division and the use of modern management methods throughout the operational segments of the Organization had made it possible to diminish the delays in execution. The use of associate experts had increased the Organization's capacity.

122. Attention wee called to the fact that in the case of investment, qualitative ant quantitative improvements had been achieved as a result of collaboration with the World Bank and the Regional Banks. New categories of projects which had formerly been unacceptable to the banks were now being financed and there were other new trends in FAA's work. A Consultative Group, which included FAO, the World Bank and UNDP, as well as the largest bilateral programmes and foundations had been set up to guise and to provide financial assistance for agricultural research on an international basis FAO provided the secretariat for that body's Technical Advisory Committee. In the field of modern processing of scientific and technical information, FAO was taking effective action at national ant international levels. Also in the field of social science there was increasing awareness of the need to pay more attention to the factors of human ant social development.

Planning of Aid Programmes

123. There wee general support in the Conference for the principle of integrated planning of aid programmes. This wee seen as a process of continuing dialogue between governments and FAO, other multilateral agencies, ant bilateral aid agencies. This would raise their effectiveness while preserving flexibility, and would help raise the level of their enduring impact in the implementation of national development policies. One example wee the FFH which, the Conference believed, could improve communications support and other assistance in operations at the field level.

124. The Conference endorsed the principle that the investment of money and experts alone did not constitute development. Agricultural development implied a continuing increase in, and changing patterns of production and distribution; equally it had to aim to provide for the training of producers and to create a better environment for human beings. As FAO court not hope to cover more than a fraction of all the action that wee necessary, the role of FAO projects wee therefore seen above all as a catalyst to initiate development action on a wider scale. It wee therefore essential that FAO projects be carefully selected ant formulated to give the maximum effect. This would require careful attention to project objectives, particularly their feasibility and the market potential for the expected increase in output; maximum use should also be made of local staff to ensure their full understanding and close involvement.

125. The Conference emphasized the importance of Agricultural Development Planning and welcomed its choice as the ''Sixth Area of Concentration''. This would help ensure the optimum utilization of multilateral and bilateral aid.

Harmonizing of Intra-Regional Agricultural Development

126. In this context FAA's responsibility was seen primarily as being at the international development strategy level, such strategy being interrelated with those at the regional and national levels. Delegates agreed that FAO'S role would be to focus attention on the advantages to be derived from harmonizing intra-regional agricultural production, trade and development activity. This had become a matter of increasing importance in view of the ''Green Revolution'' as a result of which some countries that had formerly been substantial food importers had, or soon would become, self-sufficient or exporters themselves. It was recognized that in the case of developing countries the objective of self-sufficiency and development of agriculture as part of the wider strategy of economic development required special attention.

Agricultural Research

127. The importance of agricultural research relating to the problems of developing countries was recognized. However, the present programme of such research in developing countries was in many ways inadequats as there ware gape in a number of important areas. FAO could materially help overcome the effect of these deficiencies, since it was uniquely placed to deal with the problems of international cooperation and coordination of agricultural research, and the dissemination of its results.

Programming of Field Operations

128. In referring to the procedures of country programming there was general appreciation of the importance of Country Briefs and several delegates expressed a desire for these to be made available to all member governments requesting them. There wee general acceptance of the need for an integrated approach to development and delegations wished to have more precise indications on the extent to which FAA's pre-investment work had led to fruitful investment which wee the principal aim.

129. The Conference recognized that while the formulation of Country Programmes was the responsibility of recipient governments, FAO should cooperate with them and advise them, in the light of its experience in the implementation of field projects and its knowledge of the world agricultural situation. The Conference also recognized that donor governments had no direct involvement in the mechanics of formulating a Country Programme document, although Consultation with bilateral donors in each country might be envisaged.


130. The importance of improving the efficiency of project implementation was recognized. It was noted that while the time-lag between project approval and project implementation had been greatly reduced in recent years it wee still too long. The Conference urged FAO to continue its efforts to improve project implementation, but recognized that much would depend on the selection of projects which could draw strongly on local support. The Conference stressed that much also depended on the personality, understanding and sense of involvement of experts engaged in projects and on the human relationships between international experts and national technicians.

131. Several delegations concurred in the increased use of high-level short-term consultants as opposed to the traditional long-term experts provided under moat UNDP programmes. The Conference appreciated the steps taken to broaden the base for recruitment of FAO experts. There wee a special need for FAO to provide market-oriented assistance which was geared not simply to improvement of production but to the production of saleable products. The Conference felt there was a welcome change in FAA's approach and in the quality and techniques of the assistance offered.

132. The Conference emphasized the importance of training of local staff, not only through fellowships abroad but also within the country. Some disappointment was expressed that there had been no increase in the number of training courses and seminars held in recent years; on the other hand the recognition given in document C 71/4 to the importance of expanding the effort in training was welcomed. The Conference also welcomed the increased use of associate experts, noted with satisfaction that certain donor countries were willing to finance associate experts from developing countries, and supported the recommendations made in this respect.

133. In connexion with the desirability of greater flexibility in the operation of field projects the Conference noted that there had been a substantial increase in the amount of sub-contracting and felt that consideration should be given to further increasing this practice taking into account new procedures. It notes that the Programme Committee intended to give closer consideration to this subject at its next session in 1972. The need to widen the base of FAA's procurement work to take all sources of supply into consideration was also mentioned.

Regional Offices and Country Representatives

134. The importance of FAO representation in the countries was repeatedly emphasized. and the Conference expressed the view that the Senior Agricultural Advisers (SAA)/FAO Country Representative should enjoy authority to act in accordance with the responsibilities with which he was entrusted. The recent UNDP/FAO Agreement on SAA/FAO Country Representatives was accepted although some countries expresses reservations. The Conference noted that the Agreement was to be reviewed after two years of operation, and urged that the executive heads of FAO and UNDP give serious consideration to the need to further expand the corps of S. SAA/FAO Country Representatives.

135. The Conference welcomed the proposed measures to strengthen the Regional Offices because they could render valuable support in country programming under the ''UNDP Consensus'' and in regional planning in addition to their other functions. Several delegates felt, however, that they should have been strengthened even further to enable them to properly carry out their important roles of assistance to developing countries. It wee suggested that one way of accomplishing this, without imposing any additional strain on FAA's already-strained financial resources would be by means of transfers of appropriate Headquarters posts to the regional and country office. Others felt that no irreversible measures should be taken concerning the strengthening of the Regional Offices whilst waiting for the results of the study mentioned below.

136. The Conference endorsed fully the Council's concurrence in the intention of the Director-General and the Programme and Finance Committees to conduct an in-depth study of the inter-relationships between the various segments of Headquarters, the Regional Offices and SAA/FAD Country Representatives in the light of the UNDP Consensus and the agreement concluded on 22 October 1971 with the Administrator of UNDP. The Conference while recognizing the urgency of the completion of the study expressed the view that it would be desirable to have it reviewed by the next series of Regional Conferences before the final presentation at the autumn 1972 Session of the Council after consideration by the Programme and Finance Committees.

Consideration of Extra-Budgetary Activities

137. The Conference noted that the proportion of extra-budgetary finances to total funds available to FAO had risen from 59 percent in 1962 to 74 percent in 1971, a trend which would probably continue. Since the Conference had to consider FAA's work in its entirety, it would be necessary to improve the review of FAA's extra-budgetary resources. The Conference endorsed the view of the Fifty-Sixth Session of the FAO Council that inadequate attention was being given under existing arrangements for the review of extra-budgetary activities. The Conference therefore requested the Council to study the problem and make recommendations on how the existing machinery could be fully utilized to accomplish this task.

Format of "The Work of FAO"

138. The Conference supported the new format of The Work of FAO. While the purpose of the document was essentially to give a report of FAA's activities during the past biennium, the document was also seen as a statement of development action for the future. The illustration of the close relationship between the Regular Programme and field activities was welcomed. It wee felt essential that the Conference should be able to study the work of FAO as a whole rather than under separate categories as this was closer to the realities of FAA's operations. While regretting that the report did not mention the European Regional Office separately in Chapter 3, the Conference agreed that the document was useful, and that the new format, a distinct improvement on previous ones, should be continued and further improved.

B. Programme of work and budget, 1972-73

Chapter 1 - General Policy and Direction
Chapter 2 - Technical and Economic Programmes
Chapter 3 - Field Programmes and Development Support

Chapter 4 - Special Programmes
Chapter 5 - General Programme Services
Chapter 6 - General Support

Chapter 7 - Miscellaneous Expenditure
Chapter 8 - Contingencies
Chapter 9 - Special Budgetary Authorizations
Chapter 10 - Transfer to Tax Equalization Fund

139. The Conference considered the Programme of Work and Budget presented by the Director General, including the addenda and supplements, in the light of the comments of the Fifty Sixth and Fifty-Seventh Sessions of the Council.

140. It welcome its presentation in programme budget form, noting that all of FAA's operations in terms of objectives and programmes of work were shown together with the allocation of both Regular Programme and extra-budgetary funds. It noted that the main part of the Programme of Work and Budget, Chapter 2, Technical and Economic Programmes, was built on the five Areas of Concentration plus Agricultural Development Planning.

141. The Conference recognized that strict comparisons between 1970-71 and 1972-73 figures were not possible in all cases because 1970-71 figures were only the best approximations of full or pro-rata staff time and other inputs which could be made in the short time available for conversion to the programme budget. Full and precise information was given on programme changes, however, in the Director-General's Introduction and in the explanatory notes. It also recognized that the narrative portions of the Programme of Work and Budget were in the early stages of development, and that improvements were planned for the 1974-75 Programme of Work and Budget following the progressive adoption, as from 1 January 1972, of a Management Information System which would include time reporting, of preparation of work plans and better definitions of objectives.

142. The Conference recognized that its report could not reflect in detail all the views expressed by individual delegates on items within programmes. However, these views were recorded in the verbatim reports of discussions and would be taken into account by the Director-General in planning future activities. It was agreed therefore that the Conference report should record only the general consensus reached on programmes.

Chapter 1 - General Policy and Direction

143. The Conference was informed that apart from additional funds proposed for 1.1, Governing Bodies, and a slight increase for travel, the additional amounts budgeted for 1972-73 were exclusively cost increases with no change in the establishment or services. The only significant substantive change in Chapter I was the transfer of the Programme Formulation Unit from the Development Department to the Office of the Director-General.

144. The Conference felt that sufficient provision should be made for additional requirements under 1.1, Governing Bodies, because of the increasingly important role of the Conference and Council in policy control and direction of the work of the Organization. It was noted in particular that provision should be made for interpretation facilities for the Committee of-the-Whole of the Council, that every effort should be made to keep the number and length of documents to an absolute minimum and that the secretariat should provide more up-dated information on the timing of meetings to assist Governments to schedule their participation at these meetings. The Conference was informed that if additional funds were required for interpretation facilities for the Council's Committee-of-the-Whole, the Director-General would endeavour to obtain these funds from savings during the forthcoming biennium.

145. The Conference agreed to the transfer of the Programme Formulation Unit to the Office of the Director-General because while the Development Department was primarily concerned with field programmes. the Programme Formulation Unit was more involved with the Regular Programme and with the work of the Organization as a whole.

146. While the Conference expressed full confidence in, and support for, the work of the Policy Advisory Bureau (PAB), it believed that this particular unit should remain small. The Conference accepted the explanation that PAB was not in any sense an operational unit and there was no intention to enlarge its advisory staff As regards any overlapping of work between PAB and the International Agency Liaison Division (DDL), the Conference wee informed that PAB had been established as a small ''brain trust" or ''think-tank'' comprising a few highly qualified specialists whose task wee to advise the Director-General on certain organization-wide policy matters, specifically concerning the Perspective Study of World Agricultural Development (PSWAD). Its responsibilities relative to PSWAD were financed from Sub-Programme in Chapter 2. The International Agency Liaison Division on the other hand was the spokesman for FAO in its relations with international organizations both within and without the United Nations System. It was particularly involved in matters relating to inter-agency coordination having a bearing on FAA's activities and participation in inter-secretariat and inter-governmental bodies such as ACC, ECOSOC and the General Assembly and relations with the inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations.

147. With the above observations the Conference approved Chapter 1 of the Programme of Work and Budget.

Chapter 2 - Technical and Economic Programmes

a) Programme Objective 2.1: Mobilization of Human Resources
b) Programme Objective 2.2: Increasing Yields (HYV)
c) Programme Objective 2.3: The Protein Problem
d) Programme Objective 2.4: War on Waste
e) Programme Objective 2.5. Earning and Saving of Foreign Exchange
f) Programme Objective 2.6: Agricultural Development Planning
g) Summary-Chapter 2

a) Programme Objective 2.1: Mobilization of Human Resources

148. The Conference reaffirmed the high priority assigned to this area by its Fifteenth Session and noted that both Regular Programme and extra-budgetary resources were greater than those assigned to other areas. The Conference emphasized that continuing and strengthened Regular Programme support to this area was essential to provide the foundation for successful action in all other areas of concentration.

149. The Conference supported the stress placed on Programme 2.1.1, Agrarian Reform. Some delegates agreed that FAO should not become involved in deciding national land reform policies, but should, on request, assist governments in implementing such policies. Other delegates considered that financing of FAA's work in this field should be drawn primarily from extra-budgetary resources. Work planned in farm unit analysis wee welcomed.

150. The Conference recognized that 2.1.2, Institutional Framework for Agricultural and Rural Development, was of crucial importance for effective and efficient action in promoting development. Work in this area involved not only establishment and strengthening of individual institutions, but also bringing these together in the promotion of integrated agricultural and rural development. In this connexion, reference was made to the valuable guidance provided by the Report of the Symposium on Agricultural Institutions for Integrated Rural Development (Rome, July 1971) held under the sponsorship of the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) and FAO. It was also recommended that pilot projects of the Comilla type should be encouraged. The Conference especially cited Sub-Programme Cooperatives and other Farmers' Organizations;, Agricultural Banking and Credit, and, Agricultural Marketing and Farm Supply, including better distribution systems, as deserving increased emphasis. The fact that the Joint Committee for the Promotion of Agricultural Cooperatives (COPAC) wee now fully operational, and bringing together FAO, ILO and other international governmental and non-governmental agencies for concerted action in the field of cooperation, was noted with appreciation. The view was expressed that FAO, in carrying out its work in the crucial area of agricultural banking and credit, should enlist the cooperation of central and agricultural banks.

151. The Conference supported the proposed activities in the areas covered by Sub-Programmes, Organization and Management of Land and Water Development Schemes,, Strengthening of Forestry Institutions and Services,, Strengthening of Fishery Institutions and Services,, Strengthening of Livestock and Veterinary Institutions and Services, and, Nutrition and Home Economics.

152. In respect to Sub-Programme, the proposal to issue the Animal Health Year Book every third year, rather than annually and to up-date this issue by annual supplements, was approved. Support was also given to the proposal to publish a Quarterly FAO Animal Review.

153. The Conference stressed the importance of implementing the recommendations of the World Conference on Agricultural Education and Training (Copenhagen, 1970) and of the World Forestry Education Conference (Stockholm, 1971). The Conference welcomed the proposal to hold a consultation on Fisheries Education in 1972. In reviewing Sub-Programme, Organization of Agricultural and Rural Ministries, Departments and Related Institutions, some delegates considered that more stress should be placed on fellowship training and field action projects, and less on seminars.

154. The proposed programme on Agricultural Extension under Sub-Programme, was welcomed, but some delegates considered that FAO should do more in the area of community development in cooperation with other interested agencies. It was also considered that FAA's policy in the field of rural youth should be defined more specifically as one element in achieving effective coordination with other extension activities.

155. With regard to Sub-Programme, Organization and Coordination of General Agricultural Research Facilities and Services, the Conference noted that FAO had been primarily concerned with helping governments design national organizations or systems for planning and coordinating the establishment and implementation of national agricultural research programmes. Its activities in this field also included promotion of regional and inter-regional research activities and assistance to governments in developing their research programmes. in specific technical, economic, social and institutional fields. The Conference urged the Director-General to take more active interest in agricultural research and help countries establish cooperative programmes in the needed fields.

156. The vital importance of work in nutrition and home economics was stressed and the need for close linkage with agricultural extension was noted. Education and training activities proposed in the specialized fields of Land and Water, Plant Production and Protection, Forestry, Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, Food and Agriculture Industries, Agricultural Engineering and Farm Management, were all strongly supported.

157. The Conference accepted the work proposed under Programme 2.1.4, Improving Rural Life. While differing views were expressed on Sub-Programme, Rural Sociology, the importance of this work in promoting balanced economic and social development was recognized. Attention was drawn to the fact that substantial extra-budgetary resources were becoming available, particularly through the United Nations Fund for Population Activities for work under Sub Programme, Planning for Better Family Living, although Regular Programme Budget support for this purpose was modest. It was also noted that substantial extra-budgetary resources were available through WFP and UNICEF to support, Feeding Programmes.

b) Programme Objective 2.2: Increasing Yields (HYV)

158. The Conference reviewed the Programme Objective Increasing Yields (HYV) with its 5 programmes. and 22 substantive sub-programmes. It noted that a high proportion of the total funds available for this programme objective were extra-budgetary.

159. The Conference agreed that the coverage of activities was adequate and that the form of presentation furnished the essential detail. Further consideration might however be given to the possibility of combining sub-programmes whish appeared to be closely related.

160. The Conference urged that work on the various sub-programmes concerned with 2.2.1. Surveys and Planning, be given continued emphasis due to their basic importance in programmes for increasing yields. It endorsed the emphasis on the interpretation of soil and water data for practical purposes and welcomed the information that the World Soil Map would be available in 1973. It was stressed that surveys of grassland, forest resources and surface water resources should take full advantage of contributions which could be made through remote sensing.

161. Considering the Programme 2.2.2, Development of Physical Resources, the Conference took note of the alarming deterioration of valuable arable lands through erosion, salinity, alkalinity and waterlogging, particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions and stressed that adequate resources should be provided for the activities under, Land Development and Reclamation. It felt that the activities on, Water development, deserved continuing support, including promotion of modern irrigation techniques. With regard to, Crop Ecology, the Conference welcomed the activities of the Inter-Agency Coordinating Group in Agricultural Biometeorology, and urged closer collaboration between agronomists and meteorologists. The Conference stressed the role of range and pasture improvement under, Improvement of Pastures, Rangelands and Fodders, in livestock production and land conservation and suggested that efforts be increased; particularly in the Far East. The Conference emphasized the need for training in this field and was informed that a tropical pasture training course would be held in the Far East. The Conference endorsed the activities in, Afforestation and Reforestation, and requested that more consideration be given to organizing regional training centres on planting techniques. The Conference endorsed Sub-Programme, Aquatic Resources Development, and appreciated its contribution to high-value protein production.

162. The Conference noted that the activities of Programme 2.2.3, Genetic Improvement, Production and Distribution of Bio-Resources, especially suited FAA's role and that all the sub-programmes should receive continuing strong support. Close collaboration should be established with national institutes working in this area. Recognizing the crucial role of improved varieties in increasing yields, the Conference recommended that Sub-Programme, Breeding, Introduction and Production of Seed and Planting Material, be given high priority. It emphasized the importance of better production, quality control and distribution of seeds and urged that these activities be given high priority. The Conference noted with appreciation the offer of the Austrian Government to host an international aymposium on seeds. It suggested that special attention be given to training and research on seed technology and hoped that proposals for an integrated Seed Programme would emerge from the first session of the Committee on Agriculture. With regard to the semen donation scheme under, Animal Breeding and Genetics, the Conference emphasized the need for careful planning and supervision at all stages, taking into account problems of adaptation to diverse environments. Research into the improvement of local breeds should also receive emphasis where appropriate, and where the individual country considers this to be of importance.

163. In reviewing the Programme 2.2.4, Improvement in Application of Inputs, Production Practices and Management, the Conference underlined the important role of, Soil Management, Fertility and Fertilizer Use and, Water Application, Management and Use, particularly in helping to promote the efficient use of fertilizer and water in the production of high-yielding cereals and other improved crops. In referring to, Production of Rice, Wheat, other Cereals, Grain Legumes, Roots and Tubers, the Conference, aware of the significant advances especially in wheat production, urged that FAO give more emphasis to grain legumes and rice. The Conference recognized the importance of roots and tubers (particularly cassava) as staple foods in tropical regions, and felt that adequate attention should be given to these crops. The Conference urged that the training of plant breeders and agronomists be further strengthened in collaboration with national and international agencies. The Conference recognized the value of the Near East Cereal Improvement Project, and suggested that other crops such as grain legumes and rice be included in the programme and similar projects be developed in other regions. Support was expressed for the establishment on a Near East Regional Food Crops Research Institute. Regarding, Silviculture and Management, the Conference urged that increased attention be given to the regeneration of natural and man-made forests. The Conference recognized the value of the activities in, Forest Logging, Transportation and Equipment, in reducing costs and suggested that training in improved working techniques especially in Africa be intensified.
Reviewing Sub-Programmes, Land and Water Use Economics and Farm Management,, Agricultural Machinery Equipment and Farm Buildings and, Farming Systems and Agro Industry Planning, the Conference recognized the importance of full employment for the rural population and requested the Director-General to pay increasing attention to labour intensive farming systems and methods, with particular reference to multiple cropping and greenhouse techniques. The Conference urged the Director-General to expand his work on promoting small scale mechanization including improvements in the use of animal-drawn equipment and hand tools.

164. Mention was made of the need for work on fruits and vegetables, further mention of which was also noted under Programme Objective 2.5, Earning and Saving of Foreign Exchange.

165. The Conference agreed that, the Joint FAD/IAEA Programme should continue to receive due attention and future work under this programme should be considered further by the Programme Committee and the Council in the coming biennium. It was suggested that the different elements should be shown under the relevant programme objectives instead of all together under Chapter 2.2. The Conference felt that the relative emphasis on food irradiation should be reconsidered and that isotope studies of pesticide residues, merited high priority. In the field of mutation breeding emphasis should be placed on the major food crops such as rice as well on vegetatively propagated crops. The Conference noted the potential value of the sterile male technique but, recognizing the high initial costs and long-term research needed, suggested concentration on a few more important insect species.

166. Regarding Sub-Programme, Agriculture Department-Departmental Direction, the Conference endorsed the proposal to hold an expert consultation on the subject of remote sensing. The Conference considered that FAO should closely follow developments in the field to take advantage of this technique in its work, wherever applicable.

c) Programme Objective 2.3: The Protein Problem

167. The Conference noted that other aspects of the Protein Problem were dealt with under other Areas of Concentration, in particular cereals and grain legumes under 2.2, Increasing Yields. It was suggested that consideration should be given to re-arranging the order of the sub-programmes under Programme 2.3.1, Determination of Requirements and Resources, into a more logical sequence, as follows: ''Food Composition and Nutrition Requirements" ( ''Food Consumption Statistics'' (; ''Food and Nutrition in Relation to Agricultural Development'' (; ''Protein Food Supplies and Consumption Studies'' (; ''Aquatic Resources Surveys'' (; ''Livestock Surveys, Evaluation and Planning'' ( Sub-Programme (, Nutritional Developments, Semi-and Non Conventional, might be transferred from Programme 2.3.2, Increasing Production, to Programme 2.3.3, Promotion of Consumption. It was noted, however, that there might be technical difficulties about such re-arrangements at this stage.

168. The Conference noted that the fisheries Sub-Programme, Aquatic Resource Surveys and Evaluation, and, Fish Production, were allocated a large proportion of the funds budgeted under this programme objective, but recognized that the Fisheries Department was vertically organized and that this Regular Programme expenditure, together with the extra budgetary funds so generated, arose from requests of Member Governments and international activities. A large share of the fishery activities of the Organization was concerned with this programme objective.

169. In developing Sub-Programme, Aquatic Resource Surveys and Evaluation, the Conference requested that existing data be used to identify gaps in present knowledge and that future surveys be designed to fill those gaps. The importance of the work carried out under this Sub-Programme was recognized, particularly in relation to coming international conferences.

170. The importance of the work on Fish Production, wee recognized especially in respect to advice to governments on the formulation and development of fishery technology. It was suggested that commercial firma could contribute significantly in this field.

171. Some overlapping of sub-programmes under the Protein Problem with other programme objectives called for close cooperation between operational units. For instance action in the fields of Livestock Surveys, Evaluation and Planning ( must be coordinated closely with Improvement of Pastures, Rangelands and Fodders (, which wee included in Programme Objective Increasing Yields. Cooperation between units responsible for Food Promotion, Applied Nutrition and Home Economies ( should be maintained ant strengthened with those in charge of Feeding Programmes( in Programme Objective Mobilization of Human Resources, with particular regard to evaluation of results.

172. The Conference endorsed Sub-Programmes, Livestock Surveys, Evaluation and Planning;, Animal Nutrition and Feed Efficiency; and, Animal Husbandry and Management. It expressed the view that activities should be accelerated especially in relation to dairy production in developing countries. Emphasis should be given to improved methods of production of pigs, poultry, sheep and goats in all regions as appropriate. The Conference appreciated the work which wee in hand supported by Australian FFH funds, to produce a definitive publication on the domestic water buffalo.

173. The activities proposed under Sub-Programme, Food Composition and Nutritional Developments, and, Food and Nutrition in Agricultural Development, were endorsed but it was suggested that low priority be given at this time to studies of trace elements in human nutrition, in view of the present state of knowledge and research on the subject.

174. The Conference requested that high priority be given to the sub-programme concerned with the development of formulated protein foods for infants, young children and expectant and nursing mothers ( and to that concerned with food promotion, applied nutrition and to some countries home economics ( Within these sub-programmes the importance of consumer education and marketing was stressed.

175. The Conference noted that the formal aspects of inter-agency relations and activities concerning The Protein Problem were also discussed under Item 14 of the Conference Agenda.

Contents -