CIFA TECHNICAL PAPER 18/1
Source book for the inland fishery resources of Africa
J.-P. Vanden Bossche
Bois Gilet, 86
5120 Vezin, Belgium
RR3, Masonville, QUE.
JOE IXO CANADA
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.
PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT
The Source Book evolved from two earlier CIFA publications: “The Inland Waters of Africa” (1972), and “The Inland Fisheries of Africa” (1979), both by Dr. R.L. Welcomme. Dr. Garry Bernacsek, in the capacity of a consultant to FAO during the early 1980's, fused the two original publications, checked water bodies against large-scale maps, added tables on national catch and country characteristics from the FAO Yearbook of Fishery Statistics and generated potential yield estimates based on models similar to those developed by Henderson and Welcomme (1974). The Source Book reached a first draft stage in 1987.
In 1989 Mr. J-P. Vanden Bossche was hired as an FAO consultant to verify, edit, correct and update the earlier work, expand the coverage by combing the literature for information on new water bodies, add key references and maps of individual water bodies and countries and to compile a bibliography. This was completed in mid-1990.
Financing has come from a variety of sources. Much of the earlier work on SIFRA was funded by the Regular Programme of the FAO Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service. The Fisheries Policy and Planning Service also contributed. The bulk of the financing for the recent consultant work on updating and expanding, as well as printing and distribution, came from an FAO/Netherlands Regional Trust Fund Project, GCP/RAF/257/NET. The European Economic Community, through its activity “Ecology in Developing Countries”, generously paid the costs of professional document preparation for the Source Book.
FAO welcomes comments on this publication. Any updates, corrections and additions also would be most sincerely appreciated. Correspondence should be directed to the Chief, Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service, FAO Fisheries Department, Rome, 00100 Italy.
FAO Fisheries Department
FAO Regional Fishery Offices
Directors of Fisheries
Netherlands Representation at FAO
Vanden Bossche, J.-P.; Bernacsek, G.M. Source book for the inland fishery resources of Africa: 1. CIFA Technical Paper. No. 18.1. Rome, FAO. 1990. 240p.
The Source Book for the Inland Fishery Resources of Africa (SIFRA) is a compendium, water body-by-water body, country-by-country, of information on inland fisheries and related topics.
The overall objective is to promote inland fisheries management and development by providing comprehensive information on Africa's inland fisheries in a uniform format, readily accessible to planners, policy makers and fishery workers.
The Source Book, presented in three books, is subdivided into 53 country and associated island files. The countries in Book 1 are: Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Central African Republic, Comoros, Congo, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Each country file is subdivided into seven sections: Geography and Climate, Hydrography, Fishery Production, Potential, State of the Fishery, Key Bibliography, Water Bodies Directory and Bibliography.
Under the Water Bodies Directory in each country file the water bodies are presented in alphabetical order under four basic categories: Lakes; Rivers, Floodplains and Swamps; Reservoirs; and Coastal Lagoons.
Inland water bodies are also divided into national waters, if they are located within one country, and international waters (indicated under the water body name in all country files), if they are located in two or more countries.
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
© FAO 1991
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Central African Republic
SIFRA BOOK 1
1. Purpose and justification
The Source Book for the Inland Fishery Resources of Africa (SIFRA) is a compendium, water body-by-water body, country-by-country, of information on physical characteristics, limnology and fisheries.
The overall objective is to promote inland fisheries management and development by providing comprehensive information on Africa's inland fisheries and fishery potential, in a uniform format, readily accessible to planners, policy makers and fishery workers.
At the national level SIFRA can serve as a basic reference for fishery workers and aquatic scientists on fisheries and limnology. With this baseline data in a simple format one can quickly discern where information is ample or lacking, in this way identifying and assessing needs for technical assistance for specific water bodies, or areas of a country.
More broadly, by taking a water body-by-water body approach, SIFRA illustrates the widespread importance of inland fisheries for economic, social and nutritional well-being. A major side benefit is to raise the awareness of planners and developers to the need for an ecological approach to the management and development of inland waters in order to conserve water resources for fisheries and aquaculture.
SIFRA has been designed to be useful at the regional level by taking into account shared water bodies and synthesizing information on them. Likewise, the same kinds of comparisons that are made at the national level can be made among countries to identify where needs are greatest and where cooperation on common problems is most likely to be successful.
The Source Book, presented in three volumes, is subdivided into 53 country and associated island files. The countries and the distribution of inland waters in each volume are shown in Table 1 and Figure 1 of the Introduction. These divisions coincide well with the major river basins of Africa, shown in Figure 2.
Each country file is subdivided into seven sections:
Under Section 6 in each country file the water bodies are presented in alphabetical order under four basic categories:
Inland water bodies are also divided into:
Standard formats and parameter headings were used for each water body category to simplify data retrieval.
Individual country files are stored for easy updating by word processing. This will facilitate expansion of the files as new environmental and fishery data are received or new water bodies (e.g., reservoirs) are created.
3. Reliability of the data
The FAO fishery statistics (FISHDAB, published each year in the “FAO Year-book, Fishery Statistics, Catches and Landings”) were used as the main source in the table “FISH PRODUCTION AND PER CAPUT SUPPLY” in Section 3. Nominal catches from 1970 to 1987 were tabulated in each country file. These arise mainly from official national statistics, sometimes corrected by the FAO Fishery Statistics Service.
The figures for “Annual catch range” and “Potential annual yield” (Section 3) are based on specific water body fishery studies (as detailed in Section 6) and/or specific studies, all made by international experts. They were collected from published and unpublished field reports (FAO and other technical assistance organizations), from international publications, and from FAO colleagues' personal communications.
Sometimes the data from field observations are more reliable than the official data. However, as field observations were not available for all countries and water bodies, and as some estimates may vary from one author to another, they have been presented under the separate titles “Annual catch range” and “Potential annual yield”. The variety of sources used explains why there are differences (sometimes even a large gap) between the “annual catch range” and the “nominal catches” for the same year. (It also explains the inevitable variations in the spelling of local geographical names.)
By referring to the sources cited, the reader can delve into the reliability of the data.
Besides presenting data on the physical and chemical characteristics of African water bodies and basic fishery statistics, one of the objectives of this publication was to present estimates of potential yields for each water body and country to facilitate assessments of the degree of exploitation of each country's fishery resources. The earlier version of the Source Book contained potential yield estimates based on models similar to those of Henderson and Welcomme (1974) and Welcomme (1976, 1985). However, with new data acquired as a result of updating and expanding the country files, these models are now outdated. An activity is presently underway to generate new models from which updated potential yield estimates will be calculated. In the meantime, the only potential yield estimates that are given in this version of the Source Book are those which can be cited.
Table 2 of the Introduction summarizes the statistics for the inland fisheries of the specific African countries reported in each of the three Source books. Official inland catches in 1987 are compared to the inland catch range and inland potential catch range, the latter two being the result of the most reliable field studies available.
4. General bibliography
The following references present general interest for all studies concerning African freshwater ichthyology, limnology and fisheries.
Beadle, L.C., 1981 The inland waters of tropical Africa; an introduction to tropical limnology. London. Longman, 475 p. 2nd ed.
Burgis, M.J. & J.J. Symoens, 1987 African Wetlands and Shallow Water Bodies/Zones humides et lacs peu profonds d'Afrique: Directory/Rèpertoire. ORSTOM, Coll. Travaux et Documents no. 211, Paris, 650 p.
Daget, J., J.P. Gosse & D.F.E. 1984 1985 1986 Thys van den Audenaerde, Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa; Catalogue des poissons d'eau douce d'Afrique (CLOFFA), MRAC Tervuren - ORSTOM, Paris ISNB Bruxelles. Vol.1 (1984), Vol.2 (1985), Vol.3 (1986).
Davies, B. & F. Gasse, 1988 African Wetlands and Shallow Water Bodies/Zones humides et lacs peu profonds d'Afrique: Bibliography/Bibliographie. ORSTOM, Coll. Travaux et Documents no. 211, Paris. 502 p.
Durand, J.R. & C. Levêque, 1980 1981 Flore et faune aquatiques de l'Afrique sahélosoudanienne. ORSTOM, Paris, Coll.Doc.Tech. no. 44 (Tome 1, 1980, 389 p.), no.45 (Tome 2, 1981)
FAO FAO Yearbook, Fishery Statistics, Catches and Landings, FAO - Rome. (published every year)
Henderson, H.F. & R.L. Welcomme, 1974 The relationship of yield to morpho-edaphic index and number of fishermen in African inland fisheries. CIFA Occas. Pap. (1): 19 p.
Kapetsky, J.M., 1984 Coastal lagoon fisheries around the world: Some perspectives on fishery yields, and other comparative fishery characteristics. In: Management of Coastal Lagoon Fisheries, edited by Kapetsky, J.M. & G. Lasserre, Stud; Rev. GFCM, (61) Vol.1: 97–140.
Kapetsky, J.M. & T. Petr (eds/rèv.), 1984 Status of African reservoir fisheries. Etat des pecheries dans les rèservoirs d'Afrique. CIFA Tech. Pap./Doc. Tech. CPCA, (10):326 p.
Lèvêque, C., M.N. Bruton & G. Ssentongo (Eds), 1987 Biology and Ecology of African Freshwater Fishes. ORSTOM, Paris.
Marshall, B.E., 1984 Towards predicting ecology and fish yields in African reservoirs from preimpoundment physico-chemical data. Comment prèvoir l'ècologie des rèservoirs africains et leur rendement en poisson a partir de donnèes physico-chimiques rèunies avant endiguement. CIFA Tech. Pap./Doc. Tech. CPCA. (12):36 p.
Poll, M., 1957 Les genres des poissons d'eau douce de l'Afrique. Ann.Mus.Roy.Congo belge, 54, 191 p.
Welcomme, R.L., 1972 The inland waters of Africa. CIFA Tech. Pap. (1):117 p.
Welcomme, R.L., 1979a The inland fisheries of Africa. CIFA Occ. Pap. (7): 77 p
Welcomme, R.L., 1979b Fisheries ecology of floodplain rivers. Longman Ed., 317 p.
Welcomme, R.L., 1985 River fisheries. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. (262):330 p.
|S I F R A|
|BOOK 1||BOOK 2||BOOK 3|
|Central African Republic||CAF||Cape Verde||CVI||Egypt||ECY|
|Reunion||REU||San Tome and Principe||STP||West Sahara||WSH|
Figure 1 and Table 1
DISTRIBUTION OF COUNTRIES IN 3 SIFRA BOOKS
Figure 2. THE MAJOR RIVER BASINS OF THE AFRICAN CONTINENT
TABLE 2. SUMMARY STATISTICS FOR THE INLAND FISHERIES OF THE 53 AFRICAN COUNTRIES AND ASSOCIATED ISLANDS REPORTED IN SIFRA
Table 2a. 22 Countries reported in Book 1
|Country||Catches 1987||Consumption 1987 1||Degree of Exploitation|
|Total marine + inland + aquaculture|
|Inland aquacult. production|
|Inland as % of total||Population|
|Per caput supply of inland fish|
|Inland catch range|
|Inland potential catch range|
|Angola||81 339||8 000||0||10||9 233||0.9||6 000–8 000||50 000–55 000|
|Botswana||1 900||1 900||0||100||1 192||1.6||1 200–1 750||8 000–15 000|
|Burundi||5 009||4 984||25||100||4 998||1.0||14 000–17 000||17 000–24 000|
|Central African Rep.||8 888||8 800||88||100||2 704||3.2||3 600–12 000||23 000–35 000|
|Congo||31 013||13 385||115||43||1 837||7.4||11 000–16 000||70 000–100 000|
|Kenya||131 181||124 096||210||95||22 405||5.5||113 000||34 600–90 800|
|Lesotho||26||- 3||26||100||1 601||0.02||10–30||290–870|
|Madagascar||63 589||45 806||194||72||10 610||4.3||40 000–45 000||77 000|
|Malawi||88 588||88 485||103||100||7 421||11.9||56 800–113 500||80 000–150 000|
|Mauritius||17 992||- 3||40||0.2||1 085||0.04||- 3||- 3|
|Mozambique||36 117||246||21||0.7||14 733||0.02||246–5 000||55 000|
|Namibia||519 518||150||0||0.03||1 643||0.09||- 3||- 3|
|Reunion||1 543||0||22||1.4||547||0.04||- 3||- 3|
|Rwanda||1 630||1 565||65 4||100||6 491||0.2||3 000–3 950||2 600–9 650|
|Tanzania||313 545||265 735||35||85||24 201||11.0||211 975–221 975||226 500–358 500|
|Uganda||200 038||200 000||38||100||16 595||12.0||95 500–214 000||141 290–147 530|
|Zaire||166 000||163 300||700||99||31 814||5.1||130 000–180 000||330 000–510 000|
|Zambia||68 000||66 980||1 020||100||7 139||9.5||66 500||117 300|
|Zimbabwe||17 500||17 344||156||100||9 433||1.8||13 613–20 831||22 000–26 000|
1 official statistics
2 based on most reliable field reports
3 no data available
4 in 1986