Cost of production is more important than the rate of production and it is the cost benefit ratio which decides the viability of any production technology. Therefore, it is necessary that undrainable pond culture operations are subjected to economic analysis which would indicate the factors influencing farm profitability and the way in which these factors of production are to be regulated to maximise net return. Economic analysis of all the three types of undrainable pond culture - raising of fry from spawn, raising of fingerlings from fry and raising of table size fish from fingerlings - are considered below.
The economics of fry rearing mainly depends on the size to which they are grown (25 mm to 35 mm), costs of inputs, nursery size, species reared and the demands for seed. Sinha and Ranadhir (1980) worked out the detailed economics of fry rearing on the basis of 1979 market price. However, the present analysis is based on the 1986 market price. A more generalised case of fry rearing operation in a 0.04 ha pond in the region of Orissa has been taken here as an example (Table 43). Although the prevailing cost of catla, grass carp and silver carp fry are more than double than that of rohu, mrigal and common carp, the present economic consideration is based on the latter group of carp species. Again the rate of stocking is also considered at a lower level of 3 million spawn/ha. Normally the crop is ready within 15 days, but disposing of fry itself takes about a week.
The net profit is approximately 4 100 US $/ha from each crop of about 3 weeks. Normally 3–4 such crops are raised from the same water area during the rearing season of the year. The fry of certain other carp species such as grass carp, silver carp and catla are in high demand and fetch 2 or 3 times higher price.
Fingerlings (100–150 mm) production involves rearing of fry for about 3 months in rearing ponds. Again, the economics of fingerling rearing naturally depends upon the size to which it is grown, its market price and the cost of material and labour inputs. There is great variation in the market price of the product itself which mainly depends on the size and species of the marketed fingerlings. Large (above 100 mm) and healthy fingerlings fetch almost double the price of smaller ones. Likewise, fingerlings of grass carp, silver carp and catla are sold at about double the price of fingerlings of the same size of species like rohu, mrigal and common carp. The economics of fingerling raising in an average rural, undrainable pond of 0.08 ha in Orissa State is presented here (Table 44).
|No.||Item||Quantity||Cost (US $)|
|2.||Eradication of predatory and weed fishes, using mahua oil cake||100 kg||10.00|
|3.||Organic manure||400 kg||3.33|
|5.||Selective poisoning of larger copepods using malathion 400 ml||2.00|
|6.||Soap and oil treatment (720 g of soap and 2.25 1 of oil)||6.70|
|7.||Stocking material 0.12 million (spawn) at the rate of 3 million/ha||50.00|
|8.||Supplementary feed||20 kg||2.70|
|9.||Netting charges for nursery preparation and harvesting||8.33|
|10.||Labour for watch and ward, feeding, fertilization, etc., 20 man-days||20.00|
|12.||Maintenance and miscellaneous||10.00|
|13.||Interest on working capital at the rate of 18% (for six months)||11.20|
|Total input cost||135.75|
|1.||Fry (at an average survival level of 60%); (at the rate of 4.166 US $/1000 fry)||72 000 fry||300.00|
|C.NET PROFIT (B-A)||164.25|
The net profit from this 0.08 ha pond corresponds to an income of US $ 2 746.37/crop/ha in about 3 months. During the rearing season of the year it may be possible to raise two crops of fingerlings from the same water body. If the ponds are relatively small and suitable for rearing of spawn to fry stage, initially 3–4 crops of fry are raised and finally the ponds are usually utilized for fingerling production.
In relatively bigger ponds, after rearing 2 crops of fingerlings, they are utilized for culturing fish for about six months to an average weight of about 500 g.
|No.||Item||Quantity||Cost (US $)|
|2||Eradication of predatory and weed fish using mahua oil cake||200 kg||20.00|
|3||Organic manure(raw cow dung)||400 kg||3.33|
|Triple super phosphate||6.4 kg||1.00|
|6||Fry at the rate of 0.25 million/ha||20 000||83.32|
|7||Supplementary feed||225 kg||30.37|
|8||Netting charges for periodical netting and harvesting||13.33|
|9||Labour charges for watch and ward, feeding, fertilization, etc.||90 man-days||90.00|
|11||Maintenance and miscellaneous||20.00|
|12||Interest on working capital at the rate of 18% (for six months)||25.89|
|Total input cost||313.57|
|1||Fingerlings (at an average survival level of 80%)||16 000 (at the rate of 33.33 US $/1000 fingerlings||533.28|
|C. NET PROFIT (B-A)||219.71|
The technology of composite fish culture in undrainable ponds has been successfully demonstrated in different agroclimatic regions of the Indian sub-continent at different use of input levels. Based on data collected from these sources detailed economic evaluations have been made (Sinha, 1978; Sinha and Ramachandram 1985; Ranadhir, 1984). The cost analysis presented here is also based on actual case studies. However, the costs are updated (1986 price) and expressed in U.S. dollars to have better comparability among three different levels of productions using different levels of inputs. Fish production rates ranging from over 2 700 kg/ha/yr to over 10 000 kg/ha/yr, have been achieved depending on intensity of input use. Three case studies have been selected to represent high (about 8 000–10 000 kg/ha/yr), medium or intermediate (4 000–6 000 kg/ha/yr) and low level (less than 4 000 kg/ha/yr) of production packages. All these three cases have been taken from Jaunpur Centre of the All India Coordinated Research Project on Composite Fish Culture. Table 45 gives the details of material inputs used in actual quantities, while Table 46 gives a summary of costs/benefits of fish culture in undrainable ponds. The major difference in terms of input cost is mainly due to feed component, which is maximum in high production level while in the low production level it has not been used at all. This shows that the technology of fish culture in undrainable ponds offers flexibility to suit fish farmers of varied socio-economic background.
Feed costs constitute 50–60% of the total cost of production of medium and high input technology of composite fish culture. Many small-scale fish farmers do not use much fertilizers, and use very little or no supplementary feed (Ranadhir, 1986).
|1||Mahua oil cake||1 071 kg||-||1 200 kg|
|2||Organic manure (cowdung)||9 057 kg||10 068 kg||7 500 kg|
|3||Lime||1 786 kg||750 kg||300 kg|
|Ammonium sulphate||-||540 kg||396 kg|
|Muriate of potash||46 kg||45 kg||50 kg|
|Mustard oil cake||8 079 kg||6 072 kg||-|
|Rice bran||5 800 kg||2 712 kg||-|
|6||Stocking material||5 000 nos.||5 000 nos.||5 000 nos|
|7||Weeds||180 t||75 t||100–150 t|
|Gross production of fish:||6 980 kg||4 794 kg||2 746 kg|
|Item||Costs (U.S. $)*|
|Low level of|
|1||Pond rental (estimated)||208.25||208.25||208.25|
|2||Wages (470 man-days, estimated)||470.00||470.00||470.00|
|3||Maintenance and repairs (estimated)||250.00||250.00||250.00|
|4||Mahua oil cake (for eradicating predatory and weed fishes)||107.10||-||120.00|
|5||Organic manure (cowdung)||75.47||83.90||62.50|
|Single super phosphat||50.32||27.50||22.00|
|Muriate of potash||3.83||3.75||4.16|
|Mustard oil cake||1 683.12||1 265.00|
|Sub-total:||3 642.15||2 873.38||1 468.62|
|11||Miscellaneous costs at the rate of 5% of recurrent costs (Items1–10)||182.10||143.66||73.43|
|12||Interest on working capital at the rate of 18% for 6 months||344.18||271.53||138.78|
|Total cost||4 168.43||3 288.57||1 680.83|
|1. Cost of fish at the rate of US$ 1.50/kg||10 470.00||7 191.00||4 119.00|
|C. NET INCOME (B-A)||6 301.57||3 902.43||2 438.17|
* US $ = 15.00 Indian rupees