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The Expert consultation recommended that:

3.1.1 The definition for transboudary animal diseases for EMPRES should be:

those that are of significant economic, trade and/or food security importance for a considerable number of countries; which can easily spread to other countries and reach epidemic proportions; and where control/management, including exclusion, requires co-operation between several countries.

3.1.2 The vision for the animal diseases component should be:

To promote the effective containment and control of the most serious epidemic livestock diseases as well as newly emerging diseases by progressive elimination on a regional and global basis through international co-operation involving EARLY WARNING, EARLY/RAPID REACTION, ENABLING RESEARCH and COORDINATION.

3.1.3 The Programme should identify three categories for transboundary animal diseases:

Diseases of strategic importance; those which require tactical attention; and emerging/evolving diseases. Strategic diseases should be rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and foot-and-mouth disease.

3.1.4 FAO should actively promote progressive control of the 3 strategic diseases of EMPRES

3.2 In respect to RINDERPEST

The consultation emphasised the continuing threat of rinderpest to world food security, commended the assistance by the EU to Africa and South Asia and noted with satisfaction the emphasis that is being placed on using rinderpest eradication programmes to strengthen the basic function of national veterinary services and supported the adoption of “The blueprint for global eradication of rinderpest by 2010”

The consultation recommended that:

3.2.1 FAO should draw the attention of the World Food Summit to the threat which rinderpest poses to world food security and that this body be requested to set global rinderpest eradication as one of its goals.

3.2.2 The blueprint for global eradication of rinderpest by 2010 should be adopted by all FAO member countries as the basis for progressive eradication of this disease

3.2.3 GREP should continue to be the dominant function of EMPRES.

3.2.4 Continued donor support for GREP campaigns, which is crucial, in Africa, Asia and the Near East be actively sought.

3.2.5 EMPRES should endeavour to establish regional rinderpest coordination unit(s) as a matter of urgency to cover West and central Asia.

3.2.6 FAO should liaise with the OIE to establish verification procedures for regional and global rinderpest freedom.


The consultation considered this disease as the most likely target for global eradication after rinderpest. Therefore, this disease merits priority action by EMPRES.

The consultation recommended that:

3.3.1 EMPRES should develop technical strategies for regional CBPP control.

3.3.2 EMPRES should assist in making validated CBPP vaccine seed stocks available

3.3.3 All countries in Africa should use only CBPP monovalent vaccine. The use of bivalent rinderpest-CBPP vaccine in West Africa should be discouraged.

3.3.4 EMPRES should facilitate the establishment of the two cordons sanitaire (Eastern and Western buffer zones) in Africa as described in Appendix 7.

3.3.5 EMPRES should catalyse research into defined aspects of the pathogenesis, immunity and mechanisms of resistance to CBPP; diagnosis; microbiology; vaccines; and the role of chemotherapy,

3.3.6 EMPRES should encourage countries in East and Southern Africa to pursue the strategies for CBPP control and eradication for outlined in its Concept paper of November 1995 on this subject (See Appendix 8).

3.3.7 EMPRES should collaborate with OAU/IBAR to develop CBPP control and eradication strategies for West and Central Africa and the Horn of Africa.

3.3.8 EMPRES should attempt to develop global strategy for the eradication of CBPP as a blue print to be examined by a future EMPRES Expert Consultation.


The consultation:

commended the efforts being put into the eradication of this disease from the Americas by the year 2009 and noted with satisfaction the recent Brasilia declaration by the Ministers of Agriculture of the Americas (Appendix 6);

expressed its satisfaction with the recent attainment of continental freedom from FMO by Europe and that the system for rapid response through the FAO European Commission for the Control of FMD and the European Union which has prevented recent disease introduction either developing into major epidemics or becoming persistent in the affected areas. This should provide good precedent for EMPRES and for other regions of the world that are embarking on coordinated FMD control;

also noted actions being initiated in South-east Asia for the control and eventual eradication of FMD from this region;

did not consider it appropriate at this stage for EMPRES to launch a global programme for the eradication of FMD;

The consultation commended the recent joint initiative by PAHO, OIE and FAO in convening a conference at ministerial level to give political impetus to FMD eradication from the Americas.

The consultation recommended that:

3.4.1 EMPRES should continue its collaboration with the OIE and PAHO in promoting regional initiatives for FMD control/eradication.

3.4.2 EMPRES should promote/assist regional FMD control/eradication programmes wherever possible and within the constraints of its available resources.

3.4.3 FAO, and OIE should consider convening further regional ministerial conference(s) in collaboration with appropriate regional organizations, to give political impetus to the control/eradication of FMD and other major epidemic diseases as a follow-up to the successful PAHO/OIE/FAO Conference in Brasilia July 1996.

3.4.4 EMPRES should play a catalytic role in the provision of early reaction support when outbreaks of FMD occur in strategically important regions. Central Asia is seen as one such region.

3.4.5 OIE should formulate a pathway for declaration of freedom from FMD, as a clinical disease and as infection, which should be based on epidemiologically sound principles with the collaboration of EMPRES.


The consultation noted with concern the recent extension of this disease in Asia and Africa and the relative paucity of research attention to the disease which now threatens large small ruminants in many pastoral systems of Africa, the Near East and South Asia.

The consultation recommended that:

3.5.1 Global eradication of PPR is not feasible at present. However, national and even regional disease control actions should be encouraged.

3.5.2 EMPRES should urgently facilitate the validation and eventual licensing of PPR vaccine.

3.5.3 EMPRES should encourage epidemiological studies which will lead to the development of appropriate control and future eradication strategies for this disease.

3.6 In respect to RIFT VALLEY FEVER - RVF

3.6.1 EMPRES should promote research into ecological factors that could provide a predictive capacity for epidemics of diseases such as RVF as well as other insect borne livestock diseases capable of causing widespread epidemics, and

3.6.2 EMPRES should identify appropriate vaccines for RVF, probably inactivated, and promote investigations into the long term storage of antigens as a vaccine bank. Alternatively EMPRES should identify vaccine manufactures of high quality RVF vaccine and explore the possibility of contractual arrangements with them for guaranteed supply of vaccines in an emergency.


The expert consultation noted that the mission, objectives and strategies for animal diseases component of EMPRES are relevant to the needs of the contemporary world. Three of the realities of the contemporary world that should be addressed by EMPRES are that transboundary animal diseases, as defined by this consultation, are a major constraint to food security; that the constant presence of such diseases in a country or region precludes economic development of the livestock sector and precludes (excludes?) such countries from international trade in livestock and animal products; and that infectious diseases are re-emerging as important factors in livestock development throughout the world. The coordination of the first global eradication of an animal diseases, namely the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme is also an ambitious, but attainable, objective for EMPRES. However, in examining the resource base that FAO has allocated to EMPRES, the expert consultation finds a serious mismatch between the resource base and the objectives of the programme.

Thus the Expert Consultation expressed grave concern at the lack of resources that are currently available within the EMPRES-livestock Group of AGAH to adequately service its vital programmes. Unless this is immediately rectified, their success, including that of the global rinderpest eradication programme, will be jeopardised.

The Expert consultation recommended that FAO should seek additional, immediate, resources to establish the following:

3.7.1 A Contingency Fund (as an international trust fund) to allow quicker and better responses to EMPRES high priority diseases,

3.7.2 A strengthened EMPRES Group at FAO Headquarters with provision of two extra positions: An experienced veterinary epidemiologist to set up the EMPRES-Global Early Warning System (P5) and a communications (incorporating training) specialist (P4)

3.7.3 Regional EMPRES capability through three Regional EMPRES units to service Africa; The Near East and Central Asia; and South-East and South Asia.

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