Schedule G. Methyl bromide fumigation of orchids

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MATERIAL

All orchids, collected, domestic or hybrids. Exceptions: Soft scales on nondormant orchids and galls caused by Cecidomyid larvae should be removed by hand.

DOSAGE

Temperature Dosage g/m (oz/l 000 ft) Exposure period (h)
C F    
Atmospheric Schedule 1 for nondormant orchids from greenhouse establishments, infested with armoured scales, mealybugs, aphids, whiteflies, etc.
4 - 10 39 - 50 56 2
11 - 15 51 - 59 48 2
16 - 20 60 - 68 40 2
21 - 25 69 - 77 32 2
26 - 32 78 - 90 24 2
Above 32 90 16 2
Atmospheric Schedule 2 for collected orchids
4 - 10 39 - 50 48 3.5
11 - 15 51 - 59 48 3
16 - 20 60 - 68 48 2.5
21 - 25 69 - 77 48 2
26 - 32 78 - 90 40 2
Above 32 90 32 2
Partial vacuum fumigation for collected orchids of the Cattleya group, infested with Mordellistena sp., Cattleya fly, soft scales or weevil larvae; for Dendrobrium spp., infested with borers; for shipping crates with bamboo slats, infested with the bamboo shot hole borer Dinoderus minutes.
4 - 10 39 - 50 48 3.5
11 - 15 51 - 59 48 3
16 - 20 60 - 68 48 2.5
21 - 25 69 - 77 48 2
26 - 32 78 - 90 48 1.5
Above 32 90 48 1

Operating pressure during all the above partial vacuum fumigations, 380 mm Hg (15 in)

REFERENCES

Griffin and Lubatti (1956)
Latta et al (1950)
Richardson (1949)

Schedule H. Methyl bromide fumigation of fresh fruit at atmospheric pressure

SPECIES AND STAGES

Caterpillars, maggots and eggs (if present) of internally feeding Diptera and Lepidoptera, and some scale insects and mites.

LITERATURE REFERENCES

Lettered references are given at the end of this schedule. For general information see also USDA (1976) with periodic revisions.

ATMOSPHERIC FUMIGATION OF FRESH FRUIT

The information given below is based on experiments or commercial experience. The tolerance data are mainly from results obtained in the temperature range 16 to 27C at about the same dosage and exposure given in this schedule.

Tests should be made under local conditions before any schedule is drawn up and adopted.

The following schedules are for an exposure period of 2 hours.

Temperatures 16 - 36C

Temperature

Dosage g/m (oz/l 000 ft)
C F  
16 - 20 60 - 68 40
21 - 27 69 - 81 32
28 - 32 82 - 90 24
33 - 36 91 - 96 16

Lower temperatures

So far, peaches have been found to be generally tolerant at lower temperatures, also a few varieties of apples, apricots, cherries, grapes, nectarines, pears and plums (j and o)

Temperature

Dosage g/m (oz/l 000 ft)
C F  
4 - 10 39 - 50 64
11 - 15 51 - 59 48

FRUIT TOLERANCE TO METHYL BROMIDE

References, given after each variety, are cited at the end of this schedule.

IMPORTANT. The information on tolerance is based on fruit reaction only, and is given for guidance. It is not implied that the fumigant is necessarily effective under the given conditions against all pests found in or on the fruit. As suggested before, tests should always be made to deal with specific problems under local conditions.

Apples

Apples show considerable differences in tolerance according to varieties. Injury may be external or i.nternal. They are usually more tolerant when picked at the proper maturity for harvesting (Phillips et al, 1938). They are less likely to be injured during the first week of cold storage, or after 6 to 8 weeks in cold storage, than during the middle of the storage period (Johnson et al, 1947).

Apple varieties not injured

Canada

Baldwin (N.S. and Ont.) (i) Rhode Island Greening (Ont.) (i)
Ben Davis (N.S.) (l) Ribston (N.S.) (i)
Cox's Orange (N.S.) (i) Spy (Ont.) (i)
Delicious* (B.C.) (i) Stark (N.S.) (l)
Golden Russet (N.S.) (i) Wagner (N.S.) (i)
King (N.S.) (i) Winesap (B.C.) (i)
Newton (B.C.) (i)    

South Africa

Ohenimuri (c) Rokewood (c)
Pearmain (c) York Imperial (c)

United States

Bellflower (b) Paragon (e)
Black Ben Davis (d) R.I. Greening (d)
Black Twig (d) Rambo (d)
Blaxtayman (e) Red Delicious* (b,d,p)
Commerce (d) Red Winesap (b,d)
Cortland (e,p) Rome Beauty (b,d,e,p)
Gallia Beauty (e) Stark (e)
Gano (e) Starking (d,e)
Giant Geneton (d) Starr (e)
Golden Delicious (b,d,p) Staymen Winesap (d,e)
Gravenstein (b) White Astrachan (b)
Grimes Golden (d) Willow Twig (d)
Jonathan* (b,d,e) Winesap (e)
King David (d) Yellow Newton (b)
Lady (q) York* (d)
Lily of Kent (e)    
Northern Spy (d)    

Apple varieties injured

Canada

Cox's Orange (N.S.) (i) King (N.S.) (i)
Fameuse (Que.) (i) McIntosh (B.C.) (l)
Jonathan* (B.C.) (l) North West Greening (Que.) (i)

India

Kulu (q) Kashmiri (p)
Kandahari (q)    

South Africa

Red Delicious* (c)
Granny Smith (c)

United States

Delicious* (b,e) Wealthy (e)
Grimes (e) (Reported by the same author as not injured in carload fumigation, 1944)  
McIntosh (e) Williams (e)
Orleans (e) York* (e)

Apricots

Derby. Sometimes injured (b) Tilton. Uninjured (b)
Royal. Sometimes injured (b,j) Undetermined varieties. Uninjured (o)

Avocados

Dickinson, Fuerte - reported as injured (g), or uninjured (k)

Bananas

Injured, the skin turns red (m)

Cherries

The important variety Bing shows no injury from fumigation (b,j) A few other varieties may be slightly injured (b)

* Reported as tolerant by some workers and as injured by others.

Grapes Tolerant varieties

Black Olivet (f) Ribier (b,f)
Emperor (b) Thompson Seedless (b,f)
Red Malaga (b) White Malaga (b)
Pizzutello (f)    

Not tolerant

Tokay (b)

Nectarines

Several varieties tolerant to schedule given here.

Peaches

Generally tolerant (b,f,h,j,k,o,p)

Pears

Generally tolerant (b,h,j,k). After fumigation fully ripe pears may break down more quickly than normal.

Plums

Reported as tolerant (h,o) or somewhat injured (b). Spotting noticed on Beauty plums when fumigated at 4C (j).

Citrus fruit

Grapefruit and lemons are generally fairly tolerant to methyl bromide fumigation, but some injury might be expected with the schedule given here. Oranges are considerably more susceptible, showing much discoloration and spotting. At present, therefore, methyl bromide is not recommended for the fumigation of citrus fruit (see schedules J and K).

Grapefruit. Slight injury (a,g); severe injury (m,n,r,s)

Lemons. Tolerant (a)

Oranges. Valencia and Navel both spotted, discoloured, not tolerant (a,g,k,m,n,s)

REFERENCE TO FRUIT FUMIGATION

(a) Armitage and Steinweden (1946) (k) Negherbon (1959)
(b) Claypool and Vines (1956) (l) Phillips and Monro (1939)
(c) Isaac (1944) (m) Richardson (1958)
(d) Johnson et al (1947) (n) Richardson and Balock (1959)
(e) Kenworthy and Gaddis (1946) (o) Richardson and Roth (1958)
(f) Latta (1941) (p) Richardson and Roth (1966)
(9) Lindgren and Sinclair (1951) (q) Sen Gupta (1951)
(h) Mackie and Carter (1940) (r) Hatton and Cubbedge (1979)
(i) Monro (1941) (s) Benschoter (1979)
(j) Monro (1957)    

RESIDUES

For .details of residues in fruit as the result of methyl bromide fumigation, see Getzendaner and Richardson (1966) and the review of Lindgren et al (1968).

Schedule I. Methyl bromide fumigation of fresh vegetables

Many kinds of fresh vegetables have been found to be tolerant to treatments with methyl bromide at intensities equal to those included in this schedule.

INSECTS

Many insects likely to be found in fresh vegetables, such as larvae of the European corn borer, adults of the Japanese beetle and pod borers of beans and peas, are susceptible to the treatments at atmospheric pressure as given below.

Larvae of fruit flies (family Trypetidae), such as the oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis), require exposure of 4 h at 32 mg/l with the temperature not below 21C (Pratt et al, 1953).

DOSAGE

Atmospheric fumigation to control insects in or on leafy vegetables, exposure period 2 hours

Temperature

Dosage g/m (oz/l 000 ft)
C F  
4 - 7 40 - 45 64
8 - 10 46 - 50 56
11 - 15 51 - 59 48
16 - 20 60 - 69 40
21 and above 70 and above 32

Atmospheric fumigation of sweet corn (maize) on the cob to control Japanese beetle and European corn borer

Temperature

Dosage g/m (oz/l 000 ft) Exposure period, hours
C F    
10 - 15 50 - 59 48 4
16 - 20 60 - 69 48 3
21 and above 70 and above 40 2.5

Atmospheric fumigation for 4 hours of potatoes, sweet potatoes (Ipomoea) and yams (Dioscorea) for borers such as the potato tuber moth (Pthorimaea operculella)

Temperature

Dosage g/m (oz/1 000 ft)
C F  
21 - 26 70 - 79 56
27 - 31 80 - 89 48
32 - 36 90 - 96 40

Mac.kie and Carter, 1937; Lubatti and Bunday, 1958; Pradhan et al, 1960; Roth and Richardson, 1965. *Injury to some varieties of potatoes may occur at dosages of 48 g/m and above at 25C (Bond and Svec, 1977).

The following specialized schedules may be found in USDA (1976).

A. Methyl bromide in partial vacuum (380 mm or 15 in)

1. Green pod vegetables for Maruca testulalis, Epinotia aporema and Laspeyresia leguminis.

2. Root crops, including ginger.

3. Garlic for Brachycerus sp. and Dyspess ulula.

4. Cipollini bulbs for Exosoma lusitanica.

5. Horseradish for Baris lepidi.

B. Methyl bromide at atmospheric pressure. Asparagus for Halotydeus destructor, the rag-legged earth mite.

TOLERANT CROPS

IMPORTANT. The information on tolerance is based on vegetable reaction only and is given for guidance. It is not implied that the fumigant is necessarily effective under the given conditions aginst all the pests found in or on the vegetable. As suggested before, tests should always be made to deal with specific problems under local conditions.

Beans, lima beans (b,c); but the pods of green lima beans may be seri ously injured (9); string beans (b)

Beets (c)

Cabbage (c, d)

Carrots (c)

Celeriac (knob celery) (i)

Celery (c)

Cippollini bulbs (i)

Garlic (c, h)

Horseradish (in vacuum fumigation) (i)

Maize, table (d)

Melons, Casaba

Melons, Crenshaw

Melons, watermelon (g)

Onions (c, d)

Papayas (j)

Parsnips (i)

Peas (b, c, d)

Peppers, bell (c, g)

Potatoes (c, f)

Radishes (c)

Squash, winter (g)

Sweet potatoes. Tolerant if cured 15 days or more or kiln dried for 10 days at 26 to 29C. Newly harvested, noncured tubers are likely to be severely injured (e).

Tomatoes (c, d, g). Delayed ripening of tomatoes may be induced by fumigation (a, g); late autumn-harvested tomatoes are less tolerant than those harvested earlier (g).

Turnips, white (c)

Yams (g), more susceptible to injury when fumigated below 21C (i)

PARTIALLY TOLERANT CROPS (varied reaction)

Cauliflower (g)
C.ucumbers (g)
Melons, Persian (g)

NONTOLERANT CROPS

The following crops are intolerant when exposed to 32 g/m for 4 h at 21 to 27C, as shown in the experiments of Pratt et al (1953)(g).

Artichokes
Beans, snap
Broccoli
Eggplants
Melons, cantaloupe
Melons, honeydew
Peppers, chili
Squash, summer

RESIDUES

See Getzendaner and Richardson (1966) and Lindgren et al (1968).

REFERENCES

(a) Knott and Claypool (1940)
(b) Latta (1941)
(c) Mackie and Carter (1937)
(d) McLaine and Monro (1937)
(e) Phillips and Easter (1943)
(f) Pradhan et al (1960)
(g) Pratt et al (1953)
(h) Roth and Richardson (1963)
(i) Roth and Richardson (1965)
(j) USDA (1958)

General reference - USDA (1976) with periodic revision.


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