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This is a state of the art review paper which analyses the changes taking place in livestock production management in mixed crop-livestock farming systems. It focus on the area of the Hindu-Kush Himalayas that are under pressure. The paper describes the changes taking place in livestock population and composition in the hills and mountains of Nepal and in the Central and Western Indian Himalayas. It examines the increasing trend of smallholder dairy farming in mountain areas and discusses up various issues related to it. In light of the transition taking place in livestock production management, implications on soil fertility, demand for fodder, and changing linkages to the environment are assessed. Gender aspects in livestock management are also explored. Livestock development policies of the past are reviewed and the necessity for renewed focus emphasised. In concluding, based on the changing patterns of livestock production systems and the lack of success of past development experiences, strategies for sustainable management of livestock production in mixed crop-livestock farming systems of the Hindu-Kush Himalayas are outlined.

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