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10.1 Development of NPOAs
10.2 Suggested format for NPOAs
10.3 Suggested format for reports to FAO on implementation

10.1 Development of NPOAs

The IPOA-IUU calls upon all States to develop and adopt, as soon as possible but not later than 3 years after the adoption of the IPOA-IUU (i.e. by March 2004 at the latest), NPOAs to further achieve the objectives of the IPOA-IUU and to give full effect to its provisions as an integral part of their fisheries management programs and budgets. A primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide suggestions to national governments on the development of these NPOAs.

As noted above, the IPOA-IUU is a "toolbox" - a set of tools that are available for use in many different situations to combat IUU fishing. Not all tools in the toolbox will be appropriate for use by each State. Nevertheless, to the extent possible, each State's NPOA should at least consider how each of the basic tools could be put to use in the fisheries in which it is involved.

As provided in paragraph 26 of the IPOA-IUU, at least every four years after the adoption of their national plans of action, States should review the implementation of their respective NPOAs for the purpose of identifying cost-effective strategies to increase their effectiveness and to take into account their reporting obligations to FAO under Part VI of the IPOA-IUU.

10.2 Suggested format for NPOAs

Each State is of course free to develop its NPOA in whatever way corresponds best to its particular situation. One obvious way to organize a NPOA, however, would be to follow the outline of the IPOA-IUU, using headings such as "All State Responsibilities," "Flag State Responsibilities," "Coastal State Measures," etc. The elements for inclusion under each heading could be developed along the following lines:


1.1 Review of national laws, regulations and practices relating to IUU fishing

1.2 General measures needed to conform national laws, regulations and practices to international standards

1.3 Plans to become party to and/or implement relevant international instruments (1982 UN Convention, 1993 FAO Compliance Agreement, 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement, Code of Conduct, relevant agreements establishing RFMOs) to the extent not yet done

1.4 Measures to improve State control over nationals

1.5 Measures to deal with vessels without nationality that conduct IUU fishing

1.6 Elimination of subsidies and other economic support relating to IUU fishing

1.7 Measures to improve monitoring, control and surveillance

2.1 Measures to improve registration system for fishing vessels
2.1.1 Measures to extend registration requirement to as many vessels as possible, including small vessels

2.1.2 Measures to ensure ability to control vessels before granting registration

2.1.3 Measures to coordinate activities of relevant government agencies involved in the registration process

2.1.4 Measures to ensure that chartering arrangements do not lead to IUU fishing

2.2 Creatiomn of a comprehensive record of fishing vessels
2.2.1 Inclusion of data from Box 2 of these guidelines

2.2.2 Steps to submit data on high seas fishing vessels to FAO

2.3 Measures to require vessels to receive an authorization to fish prior to engaging in fishing activities

2.4 Measures to control transport and support vessels

2.5 Other control measures

2.5.1 Measures to track fishing vessels and their activities (including data collection and reporting requirements, VMS, observer programmes, etc.)

2.5.2 Measures to improve at-sea surveillance, including through consensual boarding and inspection arrangements on the high seas

2.5.3 Measures to ensure proper marking of fishing vessels and fishing gear

2.5.4 Imposition of sufficiently severe penalties for IUU fishing

3.1 Recap of flag State measures to combat IUU fishing in waters under national jurisdiction by vessels of the coastal State

3.2 Measures to combat IUU fishing in waters under national jurisdiction by foreign vessels, including through use of access agreements

3.3 Cooperation with other coastal States to combat IUU fishing

4.1 Improvement of port State measures to combat IUU fishing
4.1.1 Requirement that foreign fishing vessels provide advance notification in seeking port access

4.1.2 Measures to improve inspection of foreign fishing vessels in port

4.1.3 Measures to be taken if evidence is found to indicate that a foreign vessel in port has engaged in or supported IUU fishing, including prohibition on landing or transshipment of fish in port

4.1.4 Denial of port access to foreign vessels suspected of engaging in or supporting IUU fishing

4.2 Cooperation with other port States to combat IUU fishing

4.3 Implementation of port State measures adopted by RFMOs

5.1 Implementation of market-related measures adopted by RFMOs
5.1.1 Provision of information to RFMOs on vessels suspected of engaging in or supporting IUU fishing

5.1.2 Measures to prevent importation of fish and fish products from vessels and/or States identified by RFMOs as engaging in or supporting IUU fishing

5.1.3 Measures to implement catch documentation and certification schemes adopted by RFMOs

5.2 Implementation of other market-related measures
5.2.1 Measures to improve the transparency of markets to allow the traceability of fish or fish products

5.2.2 Measures to disseminate information on IUU fishing to individuals and companies whose activities are related to fishing

5.3.3 Enactment of legislation that makes it a violation to conduct business or to trade in fish or fish products derived from IUU fishing

6.1 Recap of actions to implement measures adopted by RFMOs to combat IUU fishing

6.2 Proposals for institutional strengthening of RFMOs

6.3 Proposals for additional compliance mechanisms to be adopted by RFMOs

6.4 Proposals for better collection and exchange of information through RFMOs

6.5 Proposals to strengthen monitoring, control and surveillance through RFMOs

6.6 Proposals to develop comprehensive port State systems through RFMOs

6.7 Proposals to improve documentation and certification schemes of RFMOs

6.8 Proposals to regulate chartering arrangements through RFMOs

6.9 Proposals to address remain non-member IUU fishing through RFMOs

6.10 Proposals to formalize cooperation among RFMOs and between RFMOs and other international organizations

7.1 Participation in efforts to assist developing States through multilateral mechanisms

7.2 Bilateral assistance to developing States

10.3 Suggested format for reports to FAO on implementation

As provided in paragraph 87 of the IPOA-IUU, States and RFMOs should report to FAO on their progress in implementing the IPOA-IUU and their respective NPOAs as part of their biennial reporting to FAO on the Code of Conduct. FAO, in turn, will publish these reports in a timely manner.

As with the NPOAs, each State and RFMO is free to organize these reports in whatever way corresponds best to its particular situation. However, analysis of these reports would be facilitated if they followed the outline of the IPOA-IUU, using headings such as "All State Responsibilities," "Flag State Responsibilities," "Coastal State Measures," etc., along the lines of the outline suggested above for NPOAs.

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