Recent Trends in Monitoring, Control and Surveillance Systems for Capture Fisheries


by
Peter Flewwelling
Cormac Cullinan
David Balton
Raymond P. Sautter
and
J. Eric Reynolds

ISSN 0429-9345

FAO FISHERIES TECHNICAL PAPER
415

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2003

Table of Contents



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ISBN 92-5-104876-2

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© FAO 2003


Table of Contents


PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview - Status and Challenges

1.1.1 Misperceptions of MCS
1.1.2 Civilian versus military involvement in MCS
1.1.3 Fisheries as a lead ministry
1.1.4 MCS tools for management

1.2 Definition of MCS
1.3 Role of MCS in Fisheries Management
1.4 Emerging Trends in MCS

1.4.1 Devolution of authority
1.4.2 Participatory management
1.4.3 New technology

1.5 MCS Spatial Components

CHAPTER 2 - LEGAL ASPECTS OF MCS

2.1 Introduction
2.2 International Law Relevant to MCS

2.2.1 International law
2.2.2 The 1982 UN Convention (UNCLOS)
2.2.3 FAO Compliance Agreement
2.2.4 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement
2.2.5 FAO Code of Conduct
2.2.6 Other international agreements and obligations

2.3 The Powers of States to Make and Enforce Fisheries Laws

2.3.1 Internal waters, the territorial sea and archipelagic waters
2.3.2 The exclusive economic zone (EEZ)
2.3.3 The continental shelf
2.3.4 The high seas
2.3.5 Port State control
2.3.6 Flag State powers

2.4 Strengthening National Regulatory Frameworks for MCS

2.4.1 The role of domestic (national) law
2.4.2 Key issues
2.4.3 Introduction of VMS
2.4.4 Security and confidentiality of information
2.4.5 Facilitating legal enforcement

2.5 Synopsis of Implications of the Emerging International Fisheries Regime for MCS

CHAPTER 3 - DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR MCS

3.1 Influencing Factors
3.2 Geographic and demographic aspects

3.2.1 Size of the EEZ and the fishing area within the Zone
3.2.2 Topography of the coastline
3.2.3 Area of active fisheries
3.2.4 Fishing fleet profile
3.2.5 Precautionary approach
3.2.6 International pressures
3.2.7 Bilateral and regional cooperation
3.2.8 Demographics of the domestic fishery

3.3 Socio-economic Factors

3.3.1 Contribution of fisheries to the GNP
3.3.2 Employment opportunities
3.3.3 Benefits to other ocean users
3.3.4 Food security

3.4 Political will and commitment

3.4.1 Control domestic as well as foreign fishing
3.4.2 Scientific advice and the precautionary approach
3.4.3 Participatory management and MCS

3.5 Synopsis of Design Considerations

CHAPTER 4 - ORGANIZATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR MCS

4.1 National, Subregional and Regional Structures
4.2 Roles and Responsibilities
4.3 Core Infrastructure Requirements

4.3.1 Monitoring
4.3.2 Control
4.3.3 Surveillance

4.4 Staffing
4.5 Financial Aspects

4.5.1 Resource rent
4.5.2 Cost-effective data collection and verification
4.5.3 Fisheries management strategy
4.5.4 Legislation
4.5.5 Licences
4.5.6 "No force" strategies
4.5.7 Private sector MCS

CHAPTER 5 - MANAGEMENT MEASURES, CONSULTATION AND PLANNING

5.1 Management Measures

5.1.1 Mesh size
5.1.2 Chafers and strengthening ropes
5.1.3 Area closures
5.1.4 Windows or zones
5.1.5 Catch or quota controls
5.1.6 Individual transferable quotas (ITQs)
5.1.7 Trip limits
5.1.8 Minimum or maximum fish sizes
5.1.9 Vessel movement controls
5.1.10 Vessel sightings reports
5.1.11 Vessel inspections
5.1.12 Observers
5.1.13 Licences
5.1.14 Participatory management
5.1.15 Use of new technology
5.1.16 "No force" measures

5.2 Consultation

5.2.1 Fishing industry inputs
5.2.2 Inter-agency liaison

5.3 MCS Plans

5.3.1 How to write an Action Plan

CHAPTER 6 - OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT

6.1 Licensing
6.2 Vessel Marking
6.3 Data Collection
6.4 Verification of Catches

6.4.1 Estimation of total catch of trawlers
6.4.2 Catch estimation for other fisheries and product types
6.4.3 Estimation of catch composition
6.4.4 Estimation by production category

6.5 Transshipment
6.6 MCS Equipment

6.6.1 Radar
6.6.2 Vessel monitoring systems
6.6.3 Satellite imagery
6.6.4 Geographic information systems (GIS)

6.7 Operational Infrastructure for MCS

6.7.1 Land-based activities
6.7.2 Air surveillance
6.7.3 Surveillance at sea
6.7.4 Provision of firearms

CHAPTER 7 - PATROLS, BOARDINGS, INSPECTIONS AND PROSECUTION

7.1 Fisheries Patrols

7.1.1 Land patrols
7.1.2 Air patrols
7.1.3 Coastal patrols
7.1.4 Offshore patrols

7.2 Boardings

7.2.1 Pre-boarding procedures
7.2.2 Boarding procedures

7.3 Verification of Position
7.4 Fisheries Prosecutions

7.4.1 Preparation and training
7.4.2 Recording observations
7.4.3 Decision to prosecute

CHAPTER 8 - COASTAL MCS

8.1 Coastal Areas and Integrated Coastal Management
8.2 Challenges Facing Fisheries Administrators in Coastal Areas

8.2.1 Stakeholder participation in ICM
8.2.2 Socio-economic status of coastal fishers and "open access"
8.2.3 Coral reefs and mangrove nurseries
8.2.4 Non-fisheries interests
8.2.5 Political context
8.2.6 Research and information

8.3 The Role of Fisheries MCS in ICM
8.4 Establishing an MCS System for Coastal Waters

8.4.1 Step One: Assessment of the influencing factors
8.4.2 Step Two: Inter-Agency Mechanisms
8.4.3 Step Three: Preventive MCS in CRM planning
8.4.4 Step Four: Coastal MCS options

8.5 Safety-at-Sea and Coastal MCS

8.5.1 Strategy and cost
8.5.2 Institutional supporting structures
8.5.3 National, regional and international responsibilities

8.6 Synopsis of Coastal MCS Considerations

ANNEX A. BIBLIOGRAPHY

ANNEX B. MCS COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENT COSTS

ANNEX C. STRENGTHENING NATIONAL LEGISLATION RELEVANT TO MCS

ANNEX D. REGIONAL MCS THE SOUTH PACIFIC FORUM FISHERIES AGENCY EXPERIENCE

ANNEX E. CORE COMPONENTS OF FISHERIES OFFICER TRAINING

ANNEX F. CORE COMPONENTS OF OBSERVER TRAINING

ANNEX G. CORE COMPONENTS OF A FISHERIES OFFICER OPERATIONS MANUAL

ANNEX H. FISHING GEAR IDENTIFICATION

ANNEX I. CORE COMPONENTS OF MCS REPORTS

ANNEX J. FISHING VESSEL IDENTIFICATION AND MARKING (FAO and Malaysian systems)