Title:  State of the art report on quinoa around the world in 2013
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  State of the art report on quinoa around the world in 2013

State of the art
report on quinoa
around the world in 2013

Edited by
Bazile, D., Bertero, D. & Nieto, C.

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Santiago, Chile
Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD)
Montpellier, France


In 2013, the United Nations declared the International Year of Quinoa. It gave global priority to quinoa, fostering expectations and highlighting challenges. The scientific studies and articles compiled herein describe with precision the potential contribution of quinoa and its limitations with regard to its cultivation, and promote its consumption in different parts of the world.

The state of the world’s quinoa tracks the “footsteps” of quinoa to determine current sectorial trends in 2013 for this exceptional crop which, due to its nutritional qualities, its diversity and its resistance to drought and cold, has been identified as an important alternative to contribute to global food security, especially in areas where the population has no access to adequate sources of protein, or where there are environmental constraints to food crop production. In this context, the main aim of the State of the Art Report on Quinoa around the World is to bring together, within a single document, upto- date technical and scientific data on growing quinoa so as to encourage the dissemination of this knowledge, promote dialogue and debate amongst partners in the development of quinoa worldwide, and generate new expectations for the crop around the world, in view of its contributions to food security and the family farming economy and also considering the inherent risks of uncontrolled expansion. Special emphasis is given to the need to regulate the use of plant genetic resources, sustainability of agricultural systems and the fair and equitable distribution of benefits from using quinoa outside the Andean region.

Table of contents

List of authors
General introduction


Section 1. Botanics,Domestication and Exchanges of Genetic Resources

Chapter 1.1. Botany, phylogeny and evolution


Chapter 1.2 Quinoa molecular and genomic tools


Chapter 1.3 Domestication and prehistoric distribution


Chapter 1.4 The dynamics of the global expansion of quinoa growing in view of its high biodiversity


Chapter 1.5 Quinoa genetic resources and ex situ conservation


Chapter 1.6 Quinoa and the exchange of genetic resources: Improving the regulation systems


Chapter 1.7 Voluntary payments for the conservation of quinoa diversity: exploring the role of payments for ecosystem services in the Andes


Section 2. Agronomic and ecological aspetcs

Chapter 2.1. Environmental control of development


Chapter 2.2 Seed physiology and response to germination conditions


Chapter 2.3 Tolerance to saline conditions


Chapter 2.4 Quinoa drought responses and adaptation


Chapter 2.5 Quinoa breeding and modern variety development


Chapter 2.6 Principle quinoa pests and diseases


Section 3. Nutritional and technical aspetcs

Chapter 3.1. Traditional processes and Technological Innovations in Quinoa Harvesting, Processing and Industrialization


Chapter 3.2 Fodder and animal feed


Chapter 3.3 Saponins


Chapter 3.4 Quinoa: Nutritional Aspects of the Rice of the Incas


Chapter 3.5 Nutraceutical perspectives of quinoa: biological properties and functional applications


Chapter 3.6 Quinoa, coeliac disease and gluten-free diet


Section 4. Social and economic aspects

Chapter 4.1. International quinoa trade


Chapter 4.2 Quinoa trade in Andean countries: Opportunities and challenges for family


Section 5. Quinoa crop in Andean countries

Chapter 5.1.a Quinoa in Bolivia: The PROINPA Foundation’s Perspective


Chapter 5.1.b The Southern Altiplano of Bolivia


Chapter 5.2 Peru


Chapter 5.3 Quinoa in Ecuador


Chapter 5.4 Quinoa in Chile


Chapter 5.5 Argentina


Section 6. Experimentation and current distribution

Sub-section 6.1 Europe and in theMediterranean basin

Chapter 6.11 Adaptation and scope for quinoa in northern latitudes of Europe


Chapter 6.12 « Quinoa d’Anjou »: the beginning of a French quinoa sector


Chapter 6.13 Quinoa in Italy: research and perspectives


Chapter 6.14 Quinoa experimentation and production in Turkey


Chapter 6.15 Status of quinoa production and research in Morocco


Chapter 6.16 Greece


Sub-section 6.2 Asia

Chapter 6.21 Quinoa in the Indian subcontinent


Sub-section 6.3 Africa

Chapter 6.31 Assessment and adaptation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) to the agroclimatic conditions in Mali, West Africa: an example of South-North-South cooperation


Chapter 6.32 Production and utilization of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) outside its traditional growing areas: a case of Kenya


Sub-section 6.4 North America and Brazil

Chapter 6.41 Quinoa in the United States of America and Canada


Chapter 6.42 Advances and Challenges for Quinoa Production and Utilization in Brazil



Chapter 7.1 Conclusions: Challenges, opportunities and threats to quinoa in the face of global change



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ISBN 978-92-5-108558-5

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