Title:  The Second Report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
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  The Second Report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture


The Second Report on the
State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture



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Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
2015


ABSTRACT

Animal genetic resource diversity underpins the supply livestock products and services across a wide range of production environments. It promotes resilience and serves as a basis for adapting livestock management to changing conditions. It is vital to the livelihoods of many of the world’s poor people. It can contribute to the delivery of ecosystem services such as landscape management and the maintenance of wildlife habitats. However, it is often undervalued, underused and under threat.

This report updates the global assessment provided in the first report on The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, published in 2007. It focuses particularly on changes that have occurred during the period since the first report was published. It serves as a basis for a review, and potential update, of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources, which since 2007 has provided an agreed international framework for the management of livestock biodiversity. Drawing on 129 country reports, 15 reports from international organizations, 4 reports from regional focal points and networks for animal genetic resources and 2 thematic studies, it presents an analysis of the state of livestock diversity, the influence of livestock-sector trends on the management of animal genetic resources, the state of capacity to manage animal genetic resources, including legal and policy frameworks, and the state of the art in tools and methods for characterization, valuation, use, development and conservation.



Table of Contents

Foreword
Acknowledgements
Abbreviations and acronyms
About this publication
Summary

   [1.6Mb]

Annexes

 
   

Part 1 THE STATE OF LIVESTOCK DIVERSITY

      Section A: Origin and history of livestock diversity
            1. Introduction
            2. The domestication process
            3. Dispersal of domesticated animals
            4. Introgression from related species
            5. Adaptation of livestock following domestication
            6. The recent history of livestock diversity
            7. Conclusions
            References

   [905Kb]
      Section B: Status and trends of animal genetic resources
            1. Introduction
            2. The state of reporting
            3. Species diversity and distribution
            4. Breed diversity and distribution
            5. Conclusions
            References

   [520Kb]
      Section C: Flows of animal genetic resources
           1. Introduction
           2. Status and trends of global gene flows
           3. Drivers of gene flow in the twenty-first century
           4. Effects of gene flows
           5. Conclusions
           References

   [5.3Mb]
      Section D: Roles, uses and values of animal genetic resources
            1. Introduction
            2. Contributions to food production, livelihoods and economic output
            3. Sociocultural roles
            4. Ecological roles – the provision of regulating and habitat ecosystem services
            5. Roles in poverty alleviation and livelihood development
            6. Conclusions and research priorities
            References

   [165Kb]
      Section E: Animal genetic resources and adaptation
            1. Introduction
            2. Global information on adaptations
            3. Adaptation to non-disease stressors
            4. Disease resistance and tolerance
            5. Conclusions and research priorities
            References

   [201Kb]
      Section F: Threats to livestock genetic diversity
            1. Introduction
            2. Livestock sector trends
            3. Disasters and emergencies
            4. Animal disease epidemics
            5. Conclusions
            References

   [3.1Mb]
      Section G: Livestock diversity and human nutrition
            1. Introduction
            2. Growing interest in food biodiversity
            3. Filling the knowledge gap
            4. Potential significance for human nutrition
            5. Research priorities
            References

   [124Kb]

Part 2 LIVESTOCK SECTOR TRENDS

      Section A: Drivers of change in the livestock sector
            1. Introduction
            2. Changes in demand
            3. Changes in trade and retailing
            4. Changing natural environment
            5. Advances in technology
            6. Policy environment
            References

   [748Kb]
      Section B: The livestock sector’s response
            1. Landless industrialized production systems
            2. Small-scale landless systems
            3. Grassland-based systems
            4. Mixed farming systems
            References

      Section C: Effects of changes in the livestock sector on animal genetic resources and their management
            1. Overview and regional analysis
            2. Specific effects on animal genetic resources management – examples at country level
            References

      Section D: Livestock sector trends and animal genetic resources management – conclusions
            References

 

Part 3 THE STATE OF CAPACITIES

      Section A: Institutions and stakeholders
            1. Introduction
            2. Institutional capacities at country level
            3. Institutional frameworks at subregional and regional levels
            4. Institutional frameworks and stakeholders at international level
            5. Changes since 2005
            6. Conclusions and priorities
            References

   [3.6Mb]
      Section B: Characterization, inventory and monitoring
            1. Introduction
            2. Development of national breed inventories
            3. Baseline surveys and monitoring of population sizes
            4. Phenotypic and molecular genetic characterization
            5. Constraints to characterization, surveying and monitoring
            6. Conclusions and priorities
            References

   [281Kb]
      Section C: Breeding programmes
            1. Introduction
            2. Global overview
            3. Stakeholder involvement
            4. Educational, research and organizational capacities
            5. Breeding methods and activities
            6. Breeding policies
            7. Regional overviews
            8. Changes since 2005
            6. Conclusions and priorities
            References

   [1.5Mb]
      Section D: Conservation programmes
            1. Introduction
            2. Global overview
            3. In situ conservation programmes – elements
            4. In situ conservation programmes – the roles of the public and private sectors
            5. Ex situ in vitro conservation programmes
            6. Regional overviews
            7. Changes since 2007
            8. Conclusions and priorities
            References

   [2.4Mb]
      Section E: Reproductive and molecular biotechnologies
            1. Introduction
            2. Global overview
            3. Stakeholders involved in service provision and research
            4. Regional summaries
            5. Changes since 2005
            6. Conclusions and priorities
            References

   [231Kb]
      Section F: Legal and policy frameworks
            1. Introduction
            2. International frameworks
            3. Regional frameworks
            4. National frameworks
            5. Changes since 2005
            6. Gaps and needs          
            References

   [2.9Mb]
 

Part 4 THE STATE OF THE ART

     Section A: Characterization, inventory and monitoring
            1. Introduction
            2. Characterization as the basis for decision-making
            3. Tools for characterization, surveying and monitoring
            4. Information systems
            5. Changes since 2005
            6. Conclusions and research priorities
            References

   [386Kb]
      Section B: Molecular tools for exploring genetic diversity
            1. Introduction
            2. Developments in the use of DNA markers
            3. Characterization of within-population diversity
            4. Characterization of between-population diversity
            5. Molecular tools for targeting functional variation
            6. The role of bioinformatics
            7. Conclusions and research priorities          
            References

   [272Kb]
      Section C: Breeding strategies and programmes
            1. Introduction
            2. Scientific and technological advances
            3. The elements of a breeding programme
            4. Breeding programmes in high-input systems
            5. Breeding programmes in low-input systems
            6. Conclusions and research priorities
            References

   [342Kb]
      Section D: Conservation
            1. Introduction
            2. Planning a conservation strategy
            3. Identifying breeds at risk
            4. Determining the conservation value of a breed
            5. In vivo conservation
            6. Cryoconservation
            7. Conclusions and research priorities             
            References

   [317Kb]
      Section E: Economics of animal genetic resources use and conservation
            1. Introduction
            2. Developments in animal genetic resources economics
            3. Challenges and opportunities
            References

   [195Kb]
 

Part 5 NEEDS AND CHALLENGES

Section A: Challenges posed by livestock sector trends
Section B: Characterization and monitoring
Section C: Sustainable use and development
Section D: Conservation
Section E: Policies, institutions and capacity-building

   [401Kb]
   

Annexes

Country reports

Survey responses – national legal and policy frameworks

Reports from regional focal points and networks for animal genetic resources and from international organizations

Thematic studies


Supplementary tables for Part 3

   [457Kb]

List of references reviewed for Part 4 Section E - Economics of animal genetic resources use and conservation

   [78Kb]

List of authors, reviewers and their affiliations

   [141Kb]




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