Introductions and movement of two penaeid shrimp species in Asia and the Pacific


Mathew Briggs
Aquaculture Consultant Bangkok, Thailand

Simon Funge-Smith
FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
Bangkok, Thailand

Rohana P. Subasinghe
Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service
FAO Fisheries Department
Rome, Italy


Michael Phillips
Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific
Bangkok, Thailand

Rome © FAO 2005


Cover photograph:
Penaeus vannamei and hatchery. Courtesy of Matthew Briggs, Phuket, Thailand

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ISBN 92-5-105362-6

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Preparation of this document


Background note

Abbreviations and acronyms

Executive summary


History of introductions of penaeid shrimp

Natural range of Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus stylirostris

Early movements for experimental culture

Movement for commercial production


United States of America

Pacific Islands


Advantages and disadvantages of P. vannamei and P. stylirostris

Growth rate

Stocking density

Salinity tolerance

Temperature tolerance

Dietary protein requirement

Ease of breeding and domestication

Larval rearing

Disease resistance

Specific pathogen free (SPF) shrimp

Specific pathogen resistant (SPR) shrimp

Post-harvest characteristics

Shrimp trade, marketing and economics

Current and potential world shrimp production levels

Marketing advantages

Market value and market competition of Asia and the Pacific with Latin America

United States shrimp market

Japanese market

European (EU) market

Trade advantages and disadvantages with P. vannamei and P. stylirostris

Threats and risks of introducing alien shrimp species

Procedures and precautions for introductions


Environmental effects

Viral diseases

Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV)

Infectious Hypodermal and Haematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV)

White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)

Yellow head virus (YHV)

Lymphoid Organ Vacuolization Virus (LOVV)

Other viruses

Other diseases

Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP)

Known and suspected impacts of viral disease

Endemic viruses affecting shrimp culture and capture fisheries

Introduced shrimp affected by native viruses

Native cultured shrimp affected by alien viruses

Wild shrimp populations affected by alien viruses

Socio-economic costs of shrimp viral diseases

Efforts in controlling alien species movement

International and regional organizations and their relevance to shrimp trade

World Trade Organization (WTO)

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Asia Regional Initiatives (FAO/NACA/SEAFDEC/ASEAN)

Selected national initiatives relevant to movement of shrimp species

United States of America

Ecuador and Mexico


Pacific Islands



The Philippines

Viet Nam



Sri Lanka

Mainland China and Taiwan Province of China

Constraints to effective control of shrimp movements in the Asia-Pacific region

Producer driven importations

Perceived benefits of introduced species

Limitations on law enforcement

Inadequate testing facilities and protocols for viral pathogens

Lack of understanding of viral pathogen transfer pathways

Incomplete inventory of potential pathogens

Mistaken perceptions of SPF and SPR shrimp

Summary and recommendations

Recommendations for controlling the introduction and culture of P. vannamei and P. stylirostris in Asia

Legislation, policy and planning

Disease management issues

Environmental and biodiversity concerns

Codes of conduct, practice, guidelines and management of impacts

Markets and price trends

Other issues

Regional and international cooperation

Recent guidelines, code of practice and other instruments


Annex I - Recommendations on shrimp health management (based on a workshop held in Cebu, Philippines in 1999 [WB/NACA/WWF/FAO, 2001])

Legislation, policy and planning

Regional and international cooperation

Certification, best practice and codes of conduct

Disease management issues

Research and development

Infrastructure, capacity building and training

Recent guidelines, code of practice and other instruments

Annex II - Hatchery guidelines for health management

Annex III - Farm guidelines for health management