12. Three national papers dealing with fisheries development and management, problems, constraints and solutions were presented and discussed. The summary of the status and distribution of some exploited fish stocks is given in Appendix E.
Status of the fisheries in the Malawi sector
13. The fisheries sector plays an important role in providing income, employment and is main source of animal protein particularly in the rural areas. The meeting was informed that at least 43 000 people derive their livelihoods directly from fisheries. The shallow water stocks are generally over exploited while the deep water fish stocks are under exploited.
14. The delegates were informed that the Malawi fisheries sector was generally grouped into: small-scale fisheries comprising of gillnets, open waters seines, beaches seines, hook-and-line as well as fish traps; large-scale fisheries consisting of pair-trawlers, mid-water trawlers and stern trawlers. The lake fisheries are dominated by the small-scale fishers and commercial fisheries contribute less than 10 percent of the total catch landings.
15. The main problems affecting the fisheries sector were highlighted as follows:
limited skilled personnel resources;
limited budget; and
limited means and facilities for collecting processing, collating and dissemination of fisheries data, statistics and socio-economic information.
16. The Malawi national paper concluded that fishing effort has been increasing in the artisanal sector and that; socio-economic studies are needed to understand the shifting and switching from use of one gear to another. It was recommended that gear technology studies should be carried out to understand the impact of new gears on the fishery resources and the environment. At regional level information sharing on fishery and socio-economic issues was highlighted.
Status of the fisheries in the Mozambique sector
17. The Mozambique delegation presented the country profile on fisheries, highlighting the evolution of the fisheries sector; fisheries policy and strategies; fishery development and management problems; past, ongoing and pipeline programmes as well as projects.
18. The Technical Consultation was informed of the fisheries sector objectives and strategies, viz:
sustainable economic growth; and
creating opportunities for employment and poverty alleviation.
19. The fisheries sector specific objectives were identified as:
improving fish supply for domestic consumption;
increasing foreign exchange earnings; and
improving living condition of the local communities.
20. The meeting was informed that in order to achieve the above objectives, Mozambique has adopted the following strategies;
monitor and where appropriate, control the exploitation of fish fauna from the lake on a continuing basis;
undertake a programme of research to identify and quantify underutilized fish resources;
encourage the appropriate exploitation of underutilized resources as they are identified;
promote regional cooperation in fisheries matter on all shared water to minimize resource duplication and risk of overexploitation;
disseminate the results of research for the benefit users;
identify and establish priority viable infrastructure requirements needed to held improve the efficiency of the commercial fishery;
promote and encourage exports of ornamental fish;
prohibit the introduction of live exotic fish species; and
develop the institutional capacity of the small-scale fisheries sector (as stipulated in the laws).
21. It was concluded that the constraints to fisheries development and management of Lake Niassa included the remoteness of fishing areas from centres of administration; limited financial and human resources; weak infrastructure and facilities; inadequate information on statistics, biological data and socio-economics of fishery factors.
22. The following challenges facing fisheries in Mozambique were highlighted:
needs and opportunities for scientific studies;
measures for conservation and management on natural resources and the lake environment;
enforcement of fishery laws;
improvement of infrastructure and deployment of fisheries staff in the field;
strengthening regional collaboration; and
development of fisheries and tourism to alleviate poverty among fishing communities.
Status of the fisheries in the Tanzania sector
23. The Tanzania fishery is dominated by small-scale operators operating in the inshore waters due to limited range of fishing vessels. The common gears used include seine nets, gillnets, hooks on lines and the open water seine-nets.
24. The following were identified as constraints to the Tanzania Lake Nyasa fishery:
insufficient information on the fishery resources;
inadequate infrastructure and inefficient utilization;
poor handling and inadequate processing methods and technology as well as poor quality control mechanisms;
environmental degradation and inability to integrate environmental protection with development;
insufficient empowerment of the local communities;
unfavourable lending conditions from financial institutions;
low level of technology among fishers;
inadequate support services including research and extension personnel as well as poor equipments for fishing, handling, transportation as well as distribution facilities; and also
donor reliance on funding national projects.
25. It was emphasized that in order to solve the above constraints, Tanzania has identified the following main areas of concern for action:
improved resource management and control;
integration of environmental protection and development;
improved training and education at various levels;
efficient resource utilization and marketing;
aquaculture development to complement capture fisheries;
improved fisheries information and data systems for management;
gender development and balance in the fisheries sector;
cross sectoral collaboration;
integrated coastal area management; and
strengthening regional and international cooperation.
26. Tanzania provided a summary of past fishing projects. It was stressed that considering the decline in project support there is an urgent need for sourcing national and international funding for the Tanzania sector of Lake Nyasa.