Energy and protein requirements
This report contains the collective views of an international group of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, or the United Nations University
Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation
World Health Organization Technical Report Series 724
Reprinted 1987, 1991
ISBN 92 4 120724 8
© World Health Organization, Geneva 1985
Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the Universal Copyright Convention. For rights of reproduction or translation of WHO publications, in part or in toto, application should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. The World Health Organization welcomes such applications.
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.
PRINTED IN SWITZERLAND
87/7325 - Schüler SA - 2000 (R)
91/8836 - Schüler SA - 2000 (R)
The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations with primary responsibility for international health matters and public health. Through this organization, which was created in 1948, the health professions of some 165 countries exchange their knowledge and experience with the aim of making possible the attainment by all citizens of the world by the year 2000 of a level of health that will permit them to lead a socially and economically productive life.
By means of direct technical cooperation with its Member States, and by stimulating such cooperation among them, WHO promotes the development of comprehensive health services, the prevention and control of diseases, the improvement of environmental conditions, the development of health manpower, the coordination and development of biomedical and health services research, and the planning and implementation of health programmes.
These broad fields of endeavour encompass a wide variety of activities, such as developing systems of primary health care that reach the whole population of Member countries; promoting the health of mothers and children; combating malnutrition; controlling malaria and other communicable diseases including tuberculosis and leprosy; having achieved the eradication of smallpox, promoting mass immunization against a number of other preventable diseases; improving mental health; providing safe water supplies; and training health personnel of all categories.
Progress towards better health throughout the world also demands international cooperation in such matters as establishing international standards for biological substances, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals; formulating environmental health criteria; recommending international nonproprietary names for drugs; administering the International Health Regulations; revising the International Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death; and collecting and disseminating health statistical information.
Further information on many aspects of WHO's work is presented in the Organization's publications.
The WHO Technical Report Series makes available the findings of various international groups of experts that provide WHO with the latest scientific and technical advice on a broad range of medical and public health subjects. Members of such expert groups serve without remuneration in their personal capacities rather than as representatives of governments or other bodies. An annual subscription to this series, comprising 12 to 15 such reports, costs Sw. fr. 100.- (Sw. fr. 70.- in developing countries).
Hyperlinks to non-FAO Internet sites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided. The sole purpose of links to non-FAO sites is to indicate further information available on related topics.
2. Energy and protein requirements—some unifying concepts
2.2 Individuals and groups
3. Considerations common to the estimation of energy and protein requirements
3.2 Body size: reference standards for children, adolescents, and adults
3.3 Body composition
3.4 Physical fitness and functional capacity
3.5 Expression of requirements in relation to body weight and age
3.6 Interpretation of tables of requirements
4. Principles for the estimation of energy requirements
4.1 General considerations
4.2 Components of energy requirement
4.3 Changes in energy requirements with age
4.4 Sex differences in energy requirements
4.5 Variability in energy expenditure
4.6 Measurement of energy expenditure
4.7 Adaptation in energy requirements
5. Principles of estimating protein requirements
5.1 The metabolic background
5.2 Adaptation to low protein intakes
5.3 Relationship between energy and protein requirements
5.4 Requirements for total nitrogen
5.5 Principles of nitrogen balance
5.6 Requirements for essential amino acids
5.7 General comments on methods of assessing protein requirements
6. Estimates of energy and protein requirements of adults and children
6.2 Pregnancy and lactation
6.3 Infants, children, and adolescents
7. Factors affecting energy and protein requirements
7.1 Available energy
7.2 Energy density
7.3 Quality and digestibility of dietary proteins
7.4 Environmental effects on energy and protein requirements
8. Summary of requirements for energy and protein
8.4 Infants and children
8.5 Pregnancy and lactation
8.6 Corrections for the quality of the diet
9. Energy and protein requirements for catch-up growth and the influence of infections on requirements
9.1 Catch-up growth
9.2 Effects of infection on energy and protein requirements
10. The protein-energy ratio as a measure of dietary quality
10.2 Derivation of reference PE ratios
10.3 Factors that affect the PE ratio
11. Some principles and issues in the application of requirement estimates
11.2 Aggregation of requirement estimates
11.3 Matching the time-frame of intake and requirement
11.4 Adjustments for digestibility and amino acid score
11.5 Modelling of distributions
12. Future research
Annex 1. Equations for the prediction of basal metabolic rate
Annex 2. Anthropometric data of children and adolescents
Annex 3. Gross energy cost of walking on the level
Annex 4. Estimates of energy cost of weight gain
Annex 5. Gross energy expenditure in specified activities
Annex 6. Miscellaneous nitrogen (N) losses
Annex 7. Calculation of BMR and total energy expenditure
Annex 8. Additional requirements for catch-up growth
Annex 9. Statistical principles for estimating protein and energy requirements
Annex 10. List of participants
ENERGY AND PROTEIN REQUIREMENTS
Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation