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Integrated Development of Fishing Villages in Kagera Region, Tanzania

Project Formulation Framework for the Proposed Development Programme of Pilot Project URT/90/005.

Prepared by R.J.Beare Esq., Chief Technical Adviser, Senior Fisheries Development Specialist. K.E.Rushoke Esq., Regional Fisheries Officer, Project co-ordinator. Map of Tanzania - Click for Country Profile

Brief Description of the Programme:

During the development phase, the programme will seek to address the integrated, multi-sectoral and interlinked problems of the households of the fishing /farming communities of the Lake Victoria coastline of Kagera. This will be achieved by seeking to improve the efficiency and incomes of existing artisanal fishermen and their families and establishing a catalytic and facilitating role in support of additional socio-economic and farming interventions. This aim will be achieved by implementing a "core" fisheries development programme that recognises the need for the fisheries sector to adopt a catalytic and facilitating role to bring development to these communities in fields outside their area of expertise.

For ease of treatment, the overall development programme has been divided into "core" fisheries activities, on one side of the income earning equation, and "core" farming activities on the other. Between the two poles, the "interface" activities include those social and economic areas of development, which apply equally to fishing and farming.

Again, for ease of treatment and to clarify the role of the planned fisheries programme the suggested "core" farming and "interface" activities have been covered by a catalytic and facilitating objective included in the "core" fisheries programme. At the same time the suggested objectives and outputs for the "core" farming and socio-economic objectives of the "interface" (HIV/AIDS, health, nutrition etc) have been placed in appendices 1 & 2 for reference.

The Regional Authorities would co-ordinate the fisheries programme activities with interventions expected from other donors and agencies thereby creating a joint programme that treats fishing and farming issues as related parts of the same equation.

The Fisheries Programme involves the following: -

"Core" fishing activities.

(1) Improved access to fishing inputs (nets, outboard engines etc) -

Establishing an expanded system to provide fishing gear, outboard engines and spare parts through a Revolving Credit Fund and cash sales facility operated on a sustainable basis through the Co-operative and Rural Development Bank (CRDB) with equal co- operation of the Department of Fisheries and CRDB staff (Module 1).

(2) Improved income earning opportunities-in fishing communities (Module 2).

Improved income-earning opportunities for women and youth through a substantive and small-scale loan scheme and an apprenticeship scheme for unemployed youth to learn fishing.

(3) Increased range of sustainable fishing techniques (Module 3).

Increasing incomes of artisanal fishermen by demonstrating and encouraging the adoption of more efficient, selective and sustainable fish capture techniques such as the lift net for Dagaa and gill nets for Nile Perch. At the same time spreading fishing effort through increased canoe range.

(4) Increased sales of improved quality fresh and processed fish. (Module 4)

Enhancing quality and reduced post harvest losses by improving current fish processing practices and testing and encouraging the adoption of alternative more environmentally sustainable processing methods.

Improving market outlets for traditionally processed and fresh fish through the encouragement of improved handling practices and encouraging the establishment of alternative sources of fishing gear finance through the operation of the fish trading system.

(5) Sustainable resource development through a more effective fisheries administration (Module 5).

Improved Department of fisheries administration, especially in those areas that affect the management of fish and lake resources and the control of unsustainable fishing practices.

(6) Fisheries programme catalytic and facilitating role (Module 6).

The Kagera Regional Administration will co-ordinate the socio-economic "interface" and "core" farming programmes with the fisheries programme which will also establish a catalytic and facilitating role in the encouragement of others to help the fishing communities in their respective areas of expertise.

The "core" fishing programme will facilitate interventions in the "interface" and "core" farming activities which are briefly set out below and include suggested objectives, outputs and activities based on pilot phase investigations and experience.

A more detailed description of suggested "interface" and "core," farming activities is set out in appendix 1 & 2; and appendix 4 gives an overall diagrammatic view of the programme.

"Interface" programme of activities.

(1) Improved social services to fishing communities including attention to HIV/AIDS and other educational, health, nutrition and food security issues (Module 7).

(2) The encouragement of private enterprise in the fishing/farming communities (Module 8).

(3) Sustainable agricultural and rural develop sustainable use or woodland products (module 9).

(4) Improved communications between islands and lakeshore landing sites/markets and inland markets (Module 10).

(5) Improved development co-ordination through the Regional Administration (Module 11).

"Core" farming programme of activities.

Suggested outputs have been made under a single module.

Module 12.

(1) Increased production, with more varied cash and food crops, from small-scale farms.

(2) Improved variety of livestock kept in fishing farming communities.

(3) Improved extension services reaching the fishing/farming villages.

(4) Improved availability of farm inputs.

(5) Improved access to credit.

(6) Improved observance of bylaws.

(7) Island and lakeshore farmer/fishermen better able to market their produce to lakeshore and inland markets.

1. 0 Development Context.

Analysis of general country situation.

With World Bank assistance Tanzania is engaged in a structural adjustment programme through a series of initiatives which. began in the mid eighties. The latest tool for the implementation of those initiatives is the Revolving Plan Forward Budget (RPFB), which is intended to be a flexible and responsive guide to improving the performance of the public sector. Other initiatives have led to the liberalisation and encouragement of the private sector.

At the same time as the government has been pressing for increased domestic production and expert earnings from both the private and public sectors there has been a substantial increase in national and international awareness of the adverse environmental effects that such development could cause. In consequence there is a severe danger that the alarms raised by researchers and others may lead donors and the government to become sufficiently concerned to defer or cancel important development opportunities in potentially acceptable as well as unacceptable fields.

Conflict: development versus environment.

With these often-conflicting aims a need has arisen for development programmes associated with the development of natural resources to be based, wherever possible, on a balanced assessment of the effects of such development. However, this is not always possible, and many initiatives from necessity proceed without such information being available. In the context of Lake Victoria, it is necessary to ensure that programmes to develop fisheries are based as far as possible on the sustainability of the resource. This will be facilitated through the encouragement of selective exploitation according to known information regarding the target s-Locks. In this way the government and donor community will be able to promote developments, which are both sustainable and environmentally acceptable.

Nowhere in Tanzania is the need for a balanced assessment of the available information more needed than in the field of fisheries, which currently presents the government with several major areas of potential development. Among the areas with potential for additional fishing effort are the southern section of Lake Tanganyika, the Tanzanian sector of Lake Nyassa and most important of all, the Tanzanian sector of Lake Victoria. The inland fisheries of Tanzania are by far the most important in terms of fish products and their contribution to the nutritional state of the population (especially the poorest sections), the provision of gainful employment and potential export earnings. In comparison, the coastal fisheries are of relatively minor importance.

1.3 National Development Objectives.

With these potential areas of conflict in mind the Revolving Plan Forward Budget (RPFB) sets out the parameters within which to establish policies achieve the following Overall National objectives:

Increase output in all productive sectors.

Improve efficiency in all sectors.

Improve the welfare of all Tanzanians, particularly the poorest.

Reduce dependence on external sources of finance.

Employment creation.

Environment sustainability.

The Formulation Framework for the extension of the Kagera Fisheries Programme has derived its coherence and rationale from the national objectives and the sectoral guidelines outlined below.

2. Analysis of sector or theme/National Objectives/Strategy.

2.1 Status of the sector.

The artisanal fisheries sector of Tanzania has a very low status in terms of its perceived importance in the economy in spite of the fact that this sector produces some 30% of the animal protein consumed by the country. This low status has hitherto been accurately reflected by the very low levels of technical and financial assistance to the artisanal fishermen and their communities. Finance has, however, been directed towards industrial fisheries where for a variety of reasons the results have not been commensurate with the funds provided.

2.2 Reappraisal of the role of artisanal fishing communities.

With the poor performance of the industrial fishing sector in mind there has been a gradual reappraisal of the role of the small-scale fishermen especially in view of their unaided increase in fish landings. It is also being increasingly recognised that the real strength of the fishing Industry lies in the multitude of small-scale artisanal fishing communities scattered along the coast and especially around the major inland lakes, rivers and swamps. These small-scale fisheries employ some 2.5 million people and could provide more employment if assistance is given to the development of these often remote and deprived communities. In many cases, these communities still operate in areas where the resource base has not been overexploited and where considerable potential exists for sustainable increases in the efficiency of existing artisanal fishermen. Likewise, low levels of incomes among fishermen are a direct result of very low levels of investment and the employment of fishing techniques with a low level of efficiency.

2.3 Encouragement of artisanal fishing versus environment.

Such a strategy of supporting the artisanal fisheries requires an equally serious attempt to match increased efficiency with improved awareness and actions and techniques to minimise potential adverse effects to the environment within which the fisheries operate. Such assistance can, at this stage, only come from external technical and financial assistance.

2.4 The fisheries sector.

The fisheries sector of Tanzania can be broadly divided into the coastal salt-water fisheries and the fresh water inland fisheries. Of the two, the inland fisheries are by far the most important and provide over 80% of total fish landings while Lake Victoria alone provides some 60% of the total national catch.

The fishing sector is recovering from the economic crisis that afflicted the country during the late seventies and early eighties. However, the continuing shortage of foreign exchange exerts a negative impact on capital investment and the supply of fishing gear, outboard engines spare parts and equipment. This has also severely restricted the ability of local net producers to meet demand on a continuous and sustained basis and has led to the closure of one net making company and to a temporary halt in production at the other.

Hand in hand with the problems of low status and poor gear supply it has been almost impossible for the artisanal fishermen to raise the finance to make even the most rudimentary improvements to their gear and thereby improve the efficiency and incomes of their families and communities. The low availability of credit for the artisanal sector can be attributed to lack of funds and different priorities within the banking/credit organisations, lack of understanding of the fishing and the fishing communities as well as a lack of security and the historically nomadic nature of the fishermen themselves. All these problems are small, and manageable, in relation to the potential benefits that could be achieved with continuing encouragement to the artisanal sector in areas, such as Kagera, where sustained exploitation is possible with positive discrimination against certain fishing techniques and support to others, which are favourable.

2.5 Fisheries Programme Objectives

Overall. Objective (RFPB).

The main objective of the fisheries sub sector is to increase the utilisation of under-utilised resources and to improve the quality of products, increase exports of surplus production while maintaining rational and sustainable utilisation of fisheries resources.

1. Fisheries department aims.

2. Increased fish landings to raise average per a capita fish consumption from 16 kg to about '20 kg by 1992

3. To enhance the income of the artisanal fishermen and their communities

4. To favour employment for persons living in areas with abundant exploitable fish resources

5. Increase the operational efficiency of national training, research and fishing institutions

6. Promote and consolidate co-operation with neighbouring countries for the rational exploitation and management of fish resources in shared water bodies

7. Pursue efforts to provide adequate. Fishing gear

8. Improve monitoring, surveillance and management of fisheries and consolidate environmental conservation activities

9. Produce surplus for manufacture of animal feeds

10. Improve fishing craft based on boatyard rehabilitation and the promotion of motorization

Develop rural fish culture

The development programme will seek a positive contribution to the achievement of all these aims except 4 & 5, which need to be tackled at the national level, and numbers 8 & 10, which lie outside the present scope of the programme.

2.6 The Programme Area.

Within the national context the programme area lies in the northwest periphery of the country and many hundreds of kilometres from the major national consumer markets, with which communications are difficult with many roads impassable during the rains. In the past, the natural and nearest market outlets were with Uganda and moves to improve communications to the north, although planned, are far from being started and still prove difficult. This situation creates considerable problems for the fishermen with regard to access to markets and supplies of the inputs needed to maintain production. It also creates considerable problems for the fisheries authorities with respect to the planning and conduct of such activities as data collection, extension work and the enforcement of fisheries legislation.

Within the context of Lake Victoria itself, the Programme area of Kagera is relatively isolated and spread out over an extended island and lakeshore coastline of some 500 kilometres. The area is also under-developed in terms of services and infrastructure in comparison with most other areas of Lake Victoria. As a whole, the Tanzanian area of Lake Victoria is exposed only to local over exploitation through the concentration of unmotorised fishing canoes into a narrow coastal band centred in particular around fairly scattered fishing camps and villages. Attempts to reduce the concentration of effort in Kagera through a canoe motorization programme aimed at current fishermen as opposed to new entrants, should prove beneficial to the fishery by spreading catch effort over a wider area. This would enable fishermen to access currently under-utilised fishing grounds outside current paddling range and help reduce pressure on those stocks in the immediate vicinity of the fishing villages and camps.

Isolation from markets is a major factor, which affects all fishermen in the project area and attempts to improve island and lakeshore fish processing should facilitate improved long distance marketing with reduced post harvest losses. Continued support to the processing units at Bukoba and Nyainirembe should also assist with the marketing of fresh fish with the additional advantage that ice will be available for the improved distribution of fresh fish of higher quality to local markets. Sustained supplies in this respect would also require that no further encouragement be given to the construction of additional fish processing factories in the Kagera Region.

2.7 Research verification for Kagera resource base.

With regard to the" Programme" area along the Kagera coastline, the Netherlands funded HEST/TAFIRI research programme reported in 1990 that; "the trawl surveys in the Bukoba area revealed a good potential stock of the Nile perch which is exploited very lightly. The reason for this might be the wind, which is usually rather strong in this area and results in high onshore waves. For a paddled canoe without an outboard engine, it seems to be impossible to operate regularly. If an extension of the fishery in this region is desired, support to the provision of outboard engines should be considered.” In addition, the HEST/TAFIRI reports states “the strong increase in the standing stock of Dagaa could lead to recommendations for intensifying the Light Attraction Fishery". Especially a shift of the fishery to relatively offshore waters (10-20m depth), using "Purse Seines" and" Lift Nets "instead of "Beach Seines". This would also reduce the destruction of Tilapia spawning pits by beach seines, a serious problem. Furthermore, the report goes on to say, “exploitation of remote areas such as those offshore of Bukoba and along the Kagera coastline, could be a fruitful way to expand the fishery in Lake Victoria". In another equally important statement the HEST/TAFIRI report states that inadequate boat transport between offshore fishing grounds and the mainland as well as transport from the shoreline up the precipitous escarpment to mainland markets places a serious constraint to the development of these under utilised offshore fishing grounds. Any such development programme should therefore seek to address this constraint (UNCDF-possible feeder road programme).

Given the state of knowledge concerning the resources and environment of the Kagera coastline the fisheries development programme detailed in this document is entirely consistent and compatible with all those who have voiced concern about the state of the Lake Victoria basin. Every aspect of the proposed development programme from the Revolving Loan Fund to fuel efficient smoking ovens to the fishing techniques themselves have only been included on the basis of their environmentally acceptable effects and sustainability.

3. Prior and ongoing assistance and co-operation to the pilot phase.

The Kagera Integrated Fisheries Project Pilot Phase URT/90/005 was started as a direct follow on to the successful provision of credit by the FAO Kigoma Project- Integrated Technical Assistance and Credit for Artisanal Fishermen GCP/URT/066/NET.

The Lake Tanganyika based project provided the model upon which the FAO/TCP mission TCP/UR/0053 - Fisheries Credit for small- scale Fisher folk proposed a national scheme for the provision of Revolving Credit funds to be operated through the Credit and Rural Development Bank (CRDB) in all Regions of Tanzania. The first extension of this proposal was the Pilot phase project Integrated Fisheries Development in Rural Fishing Villages URT/90/005. This programme is due to end in July 1993 and following a satisfactory Tripartite Review in Novemberl992 it was agreed by UNDP that further support would be forthcoming for a full development phase.

During the Pilot Phase support was received from the UNDP/FAO Project URT/87/016 - Strengthening of the Fisheries Statistical Unit. Regretfully this project has now been concluded but there is a distinct need to continue the improvements started in order to continue to provide reliable information on the state of exploitation of Lake Victoria resources. This information will be needed more than ever when a Riparian State Control Body is instituted for the improvement of Lake Victoria management. As a result attention should be given to ensuring that fisheries data continues to be collected and processed.

The Regional FAO project Inland Fisheries Planning, Development and Management RAF/87/099 based in Bujumbura also provided assistance with the preparation of the Fish processing programme and the design of a questionnaire for a Fishing Village Household Census which was carried out in 1992. This work was supplemented by a Rapid Rural Appraisal carried out in October 1992 by Fisheries Department staff financed and trained by project GCPIINT/467/NOR based in FAO Rome.

3.1 Assistance from the UNDP Planning Project in Bukoba.

In future, it is recommended that the UNDP Project URT/89/018 - Strengthening the Kagera Regional Administration in Development Planning, Project monitoring and Data Management - which is based in Bukoba- play a much more active role in assisting the co-ordination of development inputs of this Fisheries/ Agriculture/ Social Programme. It is envisaged that the planning project could directly assist the local administration to co-ordinate the varied efforts of all those engaged in the development of Kagera. This could also involve this proposed programme and include such diverse activities as livestock improvements to bringing AIDS education to remote fishing communities. That the Fisheries Department should be the catalyst and facilitator in promoting such diverse development activities in the fishing communities is derived from the fact that fishing is a "core" productive activity in the communities studied and therefore plays a vital role in maintaining household livelihoods and incomes. The reason for addressing both occupations of fishing and

Preliminary discussions have been carried out with a, lumber of international and local organisations concerning possible future involvement in co-ordinated action in the lakeshore and island fishing / farming communities of Kagera. As none, including the regional and district authorities, has so far been able to establish contacts with either the mainland or offshore fishing communities the proposed catalytic and facilitating role for the fisheries programme appears to be essential to improving the social and economic development prospects of these communities.

Note: The precipitous escarpment along the entire lakeshore of Kagera isolates the fishing/farming communities from mainland roads and prevents the provision of services by government departments and other organisations. Similarly, lack of transport boats precludes the provision of services to the island communities.

4.2 Assistance to the programme already agreed in principle.

1. HESAWA. Health, Sanitation and Water. Their programme, which covers all Kagera, does not to date, include the fishing communities.

2. RED CROSS. Have actively sought out the assistance of the programme in helping them to address the problem of HIV/ AIDS in the offshore and coastal fishing communities. To date, no other programme is addressing the HIV/ AIDS problem in any of these communities, in spite of over exposure among easily accessible communities. Therefore, much work needs to be carried out with respect to HIV / AIDS education, alternative income earning schemes for women, medical advice to those who have the illness etc. as well as in every other area of social input, which have never been addressed in these communities.

3. The Netherlands financed Livestock improvement programme has expressed an interest in taking their programme to lakeshore communities as well as the offshore islands. This could significantly assist tree and crop growth by promoting zero grazing practices.

4. The Netherlands financed Assistance to the District Councils of Kagera could also play a role in the proposed fisheries programme.

5. There are many other potential contributors who may be able to assist with the overall programme. Such assistance includes the various agencies of the United Nations whose combined attention could be brought to bear through the co-ordinating role of the Regional Administration (UNCDF-feeder roads, WFP- food for work etc)

6. Finally, it should not be forgotten that the private sector is now being actively encouraged by donors and the government as well as Kagera regional and district authorities. In this respect, two private concerns, one in Nyamirembe and one in Bukoba, have agreed to help fisherman with canoe construction (100 to be built and dispersed through the CRDB credit scheme). Other similar contributions to the programme are envisaged.

B. Summary of National Programme.

This section is the core of the programme support document.

1.0 Problem to be addressed.

1.1 Present situation: Identify and describe the main problem to be addressed by a national programme.

The pilot phase has made it possible to validate all the original assumptions about the Kagera fishing communities and the problems detailed for attention in the original product proved both valid and significant to the local communities.

The problems of the Kagera coastline and offshore fishing communities can now be listed as follows:

1.1.1 Lack of fishing inputs.

Very limited access to fishing inputs especially in respect to canoes and their motorization (see HEST / TAFIRI research recommendation). Unlike other areas of Lake Victoria Motorization is crucial to spreading the fishing effort over a wider area, i.e., to more distant fishing grounds. This is because of the influence of high onshore winds and waves that severely limit paddled canoe range. Motorization of canoes (only 49 outboard engines along the entire 500 km coastline at start of the pilot phase) will have a beneficial effect by dispersing fishing effort, improving

communications between offshore islands with markets, health facilities (there are none on the islands), mainland farms (shambas) etc. Without improved access to credit through an extended Revolving loan fund such benefits will not be achieved.

Note: The promotion of sail power could be contemplated in the future but will require patient and extended training and the development of suitable cheap craft - the lateen type sail does not appear appropriate along this coastline. Local people are not natural seafarers.

1.1.2 Limited range of fishing techniques.

Reliance on a very limited range of fish capture techniques. This limits yields, fishing range and potential for generating more income. Low incomes and poor or non-existent access to credit reinforces the tendency to employ only a limited range of fishing techniques. FAO ( TCP/URT/0053) Credit for artisanal fishermen, recommended the provision of credit only where the resources were adequate and for particular selective fishing techniques. This excluded Beach seines and all assistance to trawling but favoured those techniques that exploited Dagaa and Nile Perch such as the lift net, surrounding net, hooks and lines and gill nets of above six inches. The provision of gear to exploit Tilapias was excluded thereby initiating a highly selective and ecologically sound approach to the provision of credit. The pilot phase of URT/90/005 Integrated Development of fishing villages- Kagera region has followed these recommendations closely thereby encouraging improved efficiency in the catching of under utilised stocks of Dagaa and Perch. Such activity actually promotes a diversion of fishing effort away from species that are under pressure. Evidence of this effect has been observed by rising catches of Tilapias and the endangered Haplochromines from reduced fishing effort.

1.1.3 Low quality fish processing.

Inadequate fish processing and marketing techniques leading to high levels of post harvest losses and restriction of the range over which fresh and smoked fish is marketed. This also reduces the value of the catch (Dagaa from Bukoba, for example, is sold at 20% to 30% below that brought and processed in the Mwanza area). Long distance marketing of both fresh and processed fish has considerable potential in internal as well as export markets. Results are however restricted by the limited shelf life caused by inadequate fish processing techniques. The best techniques in current use are adequate and a prime aim of the fisheries programme will be to seek the general adoption of these best techniques. This alone would ensure a considerable improvement in overall quality. At the same time the programme would seek to build on encouraging current product developments.

Note: marketing in this context is defined as care of the fish from the point of capture to the point of sale and therefore includes handling in the boat as well as all other activities concerning pre - sale product care and distribution.

1.1.4 Poor employment opportunities.

Opportunities for employment are severely restricted due to lack of investment in all sectors of the local economy and the prevailing conditions, which discourage enterprise. The poor producer prices for cash crops have had a downward multiplier effect on farm and farm linked incomes. As a result, it would appear from research that more members of the farming community are turning to fishing as a means of supplementing falling farm cash incomes. Fishing and associated activities have, in consequence, become more important to the local economy than in the past.

1.2 Other problems identified in the Kagera Region are as follows :

1. Low levels of access and exchange of existing fishing and fish processing techniques, which have proved acceptable elsewhere in Tanzania.

2. Considerable difficulty in transporting and storing processed fish especially between the offshore islands and mainland markets.

3. Inability to provide frozen fillets of Nile Perch for export markets due to the lack of freezer facilities. (this problem is being addressed by private enterprise but will take time to become fully active).

4.A chronic inability to finance even small improvements in fishing canoes, technology and fish processing due to low incomes and low levels of creditworthy security.

5. Lack of access to credit among all fishermen, including the best, to adopt more capital intensive and efficient methods of fish capture. In this context capital intensive does not mean industrial fishing it means employing a slightly safer and more seaworthy fishing canoe (most are seriously inadequate) and adopting the slightly more efficient forms of fish capture such as the catamaran

operated lift net and surrounding net ("hurry up") as recommended for the credit Programme.

This would allow and encourage fishermen to follow mesh size and other fishing regulations thereby causing less damage to fish resources.

6. Increased concentration of effort by the artisanal fishermen into the paddling (unmotorised) range, which fisheries biologists suggest, may lead to local overexploitation. As already pointed out motorization would assist in the dispersal of effort. This would be favourable to maintaining fish stocks.

7. Under-exploitation of existing Dagaa and Nile Perch stocks on both the coastal areas and offshore islands of Kagera.

8. Increasing fuel wood consumption and cost, which is leading to overexploitation of fuel wood, resources around all the fishing/farming communities of the Kagera coast.

9. Severe unemployment and underemployment of rural youth. 10. Pilot phase investigations have highlighted the almost total lack of contact between government and aid agencies and the coastal and island fishing communities. When one considers the severity of the HIV/ AIDS problem it is surprising, in view of excessive effort in some places, that these communities have somehow been ignored for assistance with this problem as well as help in other fields. The proposed identification of an "interface" section of socio-economic areas of concern and the "core" fisheries and farming programmes aim to highlight the types of interventions that, from field experience appear necessary. However, when other agencies are encouraged to assist and bring their expertise to the fishing communities the suggested objectives, outputs and activities may alter to accommodate the requirements of their respective programmes. See Appendix 1&2.

11. Finally, pilot phase research has emphasised the need for an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the solution of the problems outlined above. The need has also been identified to direct the fisheries programme towards what have proved to be fishing/farming communities rather than specialised fishing communities. These links between fishing and farming in terms of food and income security have proved to be significant in the Kagera context and it would not be logical for a development programme to be aimed at the fishing communities while ignoring the strong and complex interrelationship between the occupations of fishing and farming at the household level. The interactions and interrelationships between these two occupations are much

closer and more complex than hitherto realised. The same households juggle constantly with a range of income earning/survival strategies in both fishing and agriculture.

A sensitive and realistic approach to the development of lakeshore and island communities is to set up a joint farming and fisheries programme and treat fishing and farming issues as closely related parts of the same livelihood equation. This approach would also complement the Tanzanian Government's own wishes in the RPFB sector guidelines.

Note: Research indicates that it is the women and children who are left to run the Shamba (field) while the men go fishing.

1.2.1 Summary of the present situation.

Pilot phase research and experience has established the way in which the development programme should proceed. This includes establishing and verifying the methods for the successful operation of the Revolving Credit Fund, the fishing techniques to encourage and discourage the types of fish processing ovens, products and drying floors and how to encourage their adoption. The pilot phase has also exerted a positive effect on the awareness of the possibilities for co-operation between the public and private sector in the development of the Kagera fishery.

1.2.2 Pre-pilot phase situation.

Before the beginning of the pilot phase the artisanal fishermen of Kagera received no assistance in the pursuit of their trade. In consequence, there were very low levels of motorization with most canoes being of poor construction and restricted in range. Due to a combination of poverty and poor access to fishing gear and credit the fishermen employed a restricted range of fishing techniques with attendant low skill levels, which tended to reinforce their low standard of living.

With respect to fish processing the techniques employed are generally inefficient and fuel intensive for smoking/drying operations while Dagaa (sardines) continue to be largely sun dried on sand and grass which although an appropriate technique, results in a very low quality product which commands a low price more suited to chicken feed than human consumption. Whether cleaner, drier and more expensive Dagaa processing techniques are employed appears to be determined by the lack of incentive for producing a better product. Buyers are reluctant to pay a premium price for a better product and the high cost of current alternative drying methods.

The marketing of fish especially for island communities represents a serious problem with lack of outboard engines and large distances to travel e.g. Ekerebe Island is 24 nautical miles from Bukoba, Makibwa 14nm, Nyaburo 18 nm, Kinagi 22 nm. In addition, many of the lakeshore communities are from 4 to 70 kms from the main north/south road. The drying/smoking/salting of fish for long-range marketing is essential but in many island and lakeshore communities, the standard of processing is very low. The sale of fresh fish is confined to the immediate hinterland of the fishing villages concerned.

The activities of fishing/farming have led to considerable degradation of the woodlands especially those on the offshore islands where some have been completely stripped of trees.

The pilot phase was initiated at a time when background information on the widely scattered lakeshore and island communities was inadequate to ensure successful initiatives in all those fields appropriate to integrated development. However, actions were possible in the fields of providing more fishing gear, outboard engines and spares, establishing methods of delivery through the Credit and Rural Development Bank (CRDB) and informal loan systems for income earning activities. Catamaran canoes were introduced and training given in their use and in the construction of the lift and surrounding nets. Actions were also possible in fish processing and bringing near derelict fish stations into service for the artisanal fishermen. Help was also given to the improvement of the data collection system of the Kagera lakeshore.

3. Pilot phase impact.

The net effect of the pilot phase of the programme has been seen in the following: -

1. Fish stations at Bukoba and Nyamirembe have been and continue to be refurbished (private and public funds) with repaired and new ice facilities and serve the fishing community by buying fish, providing employment and construction of canoes.

2. Fishing gear dispersal and the adoption of new fishing techniques have led to significantly more efficient catches of both Dagaa and Nile perch with additional employment prospects for those in catching, processing/marketing of these two types of fish. All along the coast and offshore islands there are now fishermen using introduced techniques. Indicative results show that other fishermen are either copying or interested in adopting the lift net and employing more gill nets and long lines, all selective in the type of fish caught, and therefore likely to contribute to a sustainable fishery.

3. DANIDA funding and the assistance of private enterprise has made it possible to achieve more than intended in the original programme. In this respect, some six hundred thousand trees have been grown for sale and planting in the fishing/farming communities and the marketing situation for the Nile perch has been significantly improved. In this respect agreements have been made to purchase fish above a certain size for filleting, thereby leaving the smaller more marketable and palatable Nile perch for sale in local markets.

4. Finally, pilot phase field experience and research has provided sufficient background information for the development programme to be carried out with improved prospects of successful and sustainable development in the fishing/farming communities of the region.

Note: Pilot phase investigations have been carried out in the following areas: -

a. Fishing gear practices and requirements.

b. Current and proposed fish processing methods.

c. Household census.

d. Rapid Rural Appraisal (covering most of the sociological aspects of development).

e. Village/camp name and basic information survey of the Kagera lakeshore.

f. Forestry survey.

g. Women's income earning/ activities survey.

h. Extensive credit demand survey.

Development Objective of the Programme.

Improved Income Security and Access to Social Services for Households of The Kagera Coastline and Offshore Islands Engaged in Fishing and Farming Through the Use of More Efficient, Sustainable and Environmentally Sensitive Fishing and Fish Marketing Methods.

The proposed PFF is designed to address the problems of the communities of the Kagera coastline and offshore islands. These communities have been shown to be linked with both fishing and farming activities in a way, which makes it logical to prepare an integrated approach to their development.

The structure of the PFF is basically simple and treats the interlinked problems of the fishing farming communities in one overall development programme. For ease of treatment, the programme has been divided into three main groups of individually costed development modules. Each module represents a rational group of outputs and activities that are closely interlinked with both the achievement of the immediate objectives of the programme and to the overall development objective. See appendix 3.

This programme centres around the "core" fisheries activities that also include a module, which describes the catalytic and facilitating role of the fisheries programme in encouraging other agencies to bring their expertise to bear on the problems of the fishing communities.

The "core" fishing and "core" farming sections are self explanatory while the "interface" section refers to those aspects of development which apply in equal part to both fishing and farming. The "interface" objectives/outputs and activities are associated with interventions in fields such as HIV/ AIDS control and education, health and nutrition, skills training etc. Areas of expertise funding and direction, which are more, appropriate to other co-operating agencies. For this reason the detail of the "core" farming and "interface" activities have been placed in appendix 1 & 2 for reference.

The proposed programme has been derived from field experience, which has highlighted the close inter-relationships between fishing and farming activities in achieving income and food security among communities along the coast and offshore islands. See appendix 4.

Finally, the entire programme is both horizontally and vertically linked with the achievement of National and Regional objectives and the content closely follows the, UNDP priorities outlined in the 5th Country Programme. These priorities include

HIV/AIDS, Private Sector Development, Income and Employment Generation and care of the environment.

Core Outputs Associated with the Fisheries Programme

Module 1

More Efficient, Sustainable and Safer Fishing Operations.

Objective: The Artisanal Fishermen of Kagera Employing A Wider Variety Of More Efficient And Selective Types Of Fishing Gear And Better Canoes With Improved Delivery Of Both Fresh And Processed Fish To Local And Export Markets.

1.1. 0/PT 1. Some 300 existing fishermen receiving fishing gear outboard engines and canoes for cash and credit by means of an expanded CRDB Revolving Fund and cash sales facility.

A/TY 1.1.1 Enhance successful co-operative efforts between Fisheries, CRDB and FAO staff to identify suitably qualified recipients of fishing gear /outboards etc. for a sustained Revolving fund.

A/TY 1. 1. 2 Improve operational disbursement of credit in kind to the fishermen. Help 100 with lift nets + outboard engines (OBEs)+canoe for Dagaa; 150 with gill nets + OBEs; 50 with hooks and canoe. Revolve repayments to help more existing fishermen.

A/TY 1.1.3 Encourage deals between fishermen and private companies for the provision of canoes and other fishing gear. To supplement the CRDB scheme.

A/TY 1.1.4 Establish a project based cash sales facility to provide hooks, lines, floats, spares, leads etc.

A/TY 1.1.5 Monitor and make improvements to all aspects of Revolving Fund. Including repayments, liaison with fisheries staff, repurchases of fishing gear from local and external sources etc.

1.2 0/PT 2 Some 20 strategically placed Canoe builders of Kagera better trained employing better tools and construction techniques for motorised and non motorised fishing and transport canoes.

A/TY 1.2.1 identify all existing canoe builders and establish a skills enhancement-training programme.

A/TY 1.2.2 Construct 50 demonstration canoes for sale through the Revolving Credit Fund.

A/TY 1.2.3 Initiate a canoe safety programme and provide 1000 life jackets for sale to fishermen (Compulsory for credit recipients).

A/TY 1.2.4 Construct 2 appropriate sailing canoes for demonstration and training. Encourage sailing. A/TY 1.2.5 Initiate a capsize survival and canoe safety training programme in all major island and lakeshore villages, including training in swimming.

Module 2

Improved. Income Earning Opportunities in the Fishing/ Farming Communities.

Objective: Fishing and Fishing Community Related Income Earning Activities Established among Underemployed and Unemployed Women and Youth.

2.1 0/PT 1. Employment and income earning opportunities for 200 women and 150 youths identified in the field of private enterprise, feasibility tested and established in fishing and fisheries related activities.

A/TY2. 1. 1 Start a substantive Revolving Women's Development Fund operated through the CRDB for enterprises related to the needs of the fishing/farming communities (e.g., Bakeries, small mills, fish oil extraction processing schemes etc)

A/TY 2.1.2 Start a project/Natural Resources Department controlled Small Scale Women's Credit fund for such fisheries related activities as fish trading /processing.

A/TY 2.1.3 Select 100 youths for training with experienced canoe owners (make formal apprenticeship agreements on content of learning etc).

A/TY 2.1.4 Initiate a Tsh/= for forex purchased equipment support scheme to help establish two enterprises in the fishery waste utilisation business with the machinery etc. they require to improve business and employment opportunities.

A/TY 2.1.4 Encourage alternative credit outlets.

A/TY 2.1.5 Monitor progress of private enterprise /authorities relations; identify potential areas of conflict; encourage greater understanding and co-operation.

Module 3

Improved Sustainable Fishing Techniques.

Objective: Improved and Technically Appropriate Fishing Techniques Tested and Packaged for Adoption through More Effective Regional Fisheries Extension Services for Artisanal Fishermen.

0/PT 1. Appropriate sustainable fishing techniques (including scoop net, lift net, gill nets mesh 6 " +-, hooks and lines) popularised through a comprehensive training and demonstration programme in gear construction and outboard engine operation implemented in all major fishing/farming communities.

A/TY 3. 1. 1 Continue to identify credible experienced fishermen to train in new techniques (for others to copy) in conjunction with the CRDB revolving credit programme.

A/TY 3.1.2 Hold fishermen's workshops, training sessions on methods/ results and markets to popularise and increase variety of sustainable fish capture techniques employed. Discourage unsustainable fishing methods/ practices.

A/TY 3.1.3 Purchase spare parts for selected old outboard engines for refurbishment. (many lie idle). A/TY 3.1.4 Initiate a continuous training programme to upgrade the operational skills of outboard users to maximise engine life/fuel efficiency, and hence returns.

A/TY 5. Convert MV heron to "lift net" operations to demonstrate commercial Dagaa techniques as a means of diverting investment away from ecologically harmful trawlers and proving prospects of offshore fishing grounds and dispersal of fishing effort.

3.2 O/PT 2. Fisheries and CRDB staff working together providing an extension support service to those who have taken loans and others as the demand arises.

A/TY 3.2.1 Monitor credit scheme and identify those in difficulty or not employing new technology to optimum.

A/TY 3.2.2 Initiate training, technical and managerial, assistance to encourage increased catches and improved loan repayment rates.

A/TY 3.2.3 In conjunction with the CRDB carry out education and information training sessions in fishing farming/ communities to improve understanding of loans processing/repayments etc. Possibly in conjunction with farming credit exercises.

A/TY 3. 2. 4 In co-operation with the CRDB devise more streamlined loan procedures for the issue of

loans. especially for small-scale loans to women). A/TY 3.'2.5 Devise alternative ways of educating villagers in the various aspects of the programme e.g. use of actors/plays in absence of videos etc.

3.2 0/PT 3, 'Community based sustainable resource management established through improved information on fishing grounds, environment / conservation, markets, fisheries legislation etc accepted, understood and acted upon in all lakeshore island fishing/ farming communities.

A/TY 3.-2.1 Make a survey of underused fishing grounds, identify potential and bring potential to notice of fishermen. Help disperse effort in conduction with outboard motorization programme/location new grounds.

A/TY 3.2. 2 Encourage community based policing/solution of fisheries legislation and conservation practices through training and meetings/workshops etc.

A./TY 3.2.3 Improve linkage between appropriate research/findings etc and fishing/farming communities through fisheries extension services.

A/TY 3.-2.4 Encourage sustainable exploitation practices in fishing/farming communities through education in conservation practices, effects of fires, forestry/fuel wood etc.

Module 4.

Improved Marketing of Fresh and Processed Fish.

Objective: Increased Sales of Improved Quality, and a Wider Variety of Fresh and Processed Fish Products from Traditional Processors Reaching Local Consumers and Export Markets for Better Prices to Fishermen and Improved Prospects of Local and National Nutrition.

4. 1 0/PT 1 300 Fish processors employing a wider variety of environmentally sound and appropriate fish processing methods with increased fresh and processed sales to local, regional and export markets and reduced post-harvest losses.

A/TY 4.1.1 Continue pilot phase programme of kiln improvement through self-help/grant kiln construction to 300 traditional processors for increased fuel efficiency/better longer lasting product.

A/TY 4.1.2 Continue to develop the processing capacity of the dual-purpose Dagaa / Nile perch kiln for move versatile approach to catches and improved fuel efficiency.

A/TY 4. 1. 3 Improve fish handling practices from catching point (insulated canoe containers etc) to final sale at local markets by foot and bicycle, regional markets with motorcycles using insulated containers and fish factory supplied ice.

A/TY 4.1.4 Build on success of pilot phase developed new Dagaa products by expanding the marketing effort and training to improve/develop and popularise new tastes and products (construct 50 Dagaa ovens).

A/TY 4.1.5 Encourage and popularise alternative processing methods- especially those which avoid the use of fuel wood (salting and sun drying/smoking, icing) Programme to supply salt, plastic covers etc.

A/TY 4.1.6 Continue to identify and link new uses for fish by-products to improving the marketing potential of local fish. (chicken feed, swim bladder processing, fish oil, leather etc).

A/TY 4.1.7 Reduce post harvest losses of Dagaa by provision of covers, salt, use of drying kiln and further develop the sand coated plastic sheet as an improved and cost effective drying floor for Dagaa.

4.2 0/PT 2. Some 120 women identified/trained for an increased role in the processing and marketing of fresh and processed fish in island and coastal villages.

A/TY 4.2.1 Encourage women to involve themselves in fish sales and processing as a supplementary source of income through in-village training schemes.

A/TY 4.2.2 Encourage small-scale loans by building on pilot phase CRDB and individual loan schemes.

A/TY 4. 2. 3 Enhance probability that women with sufficient and necessary skills have equal access t o loans.

4.3 0/PT 3 Requirements of local and export markets in approximate balance; with fishermen linked into improved contacts with export and local market

A/TY 4.3.1 Encourage and establish a balance between local and export demand for fresh and processed fish products.

A/TY 4.3.2 Identify and promote increased trading contacts between fishing/farming communities and local, regional, national and export markets for fresh and processed fish.

A/TY 3. Liaise with local authorities and visitors to encourage exports of fresh and dried fish.

Module 5

Improved regional /district fisheries department administrative practices.

Objective: Improved departmental training, use and exchange of research information, monitoring, surveillance and canoe registration contributing towards a community-based approach to the management and sustainable development of fisheries resources along the Kagera coastline.

5.1 O/PT 1 Kagera Regional and District Fisheries Officers trained in the encouragement of sustainable fisheries development through the adoption of participatory self-regulatory practices in the fishing communities.

AT/Y 5.1.1 train 30 Fisheries officers in participatory approach to self-regulation of sound fishing and environment practices in the fishing communities.

AT/Y 5.1.2 Initiate an extension programme including village-based seminars/meetings to popularise the self-regulatory approach.

AT/Y 5.1.3 Maintain self-regulatory approach 'through regular Fisheries Officer/village liaison visits.

AT/Y 5.1.4 Encourage the consultative/participatory approach among other agencies participating in the overall development programme.

5.2 0/PT 2 Improved regulatory practices contributing towards better resource management, increases revenue and streamlined administrative practices.

AI/TY 5.2.1 Consolidate the improved statistical system for more effective monitoring data.

A/TY 5.2.2 Monitor programme effects in fishing/farming communities.

A/TY 5.2.3 Improve effectiveness of export procedures and formalise unregulated trade patterns. A/TY 5.2.4 Improve licensing of artisanal/trading canoes, including safety checks.

A/ TY 5.2.5. Improve control of illegal fishing practices, especially the use of farming chemicals (Thiodan) for fishing.

A/'rY 5.2.6 Promote sustainable fishing practices by refining/enforcing current legislation and prepare and introduce new legislation on mesh sizes, undesirable fishing techniques (e.g. poisons) and methods of capture (e.g. trawling).

Module 6

Co-ordination of development effort in lakeshore and island fishing communities.

Objective: Kagera regional authorities achieving more effective development in the fishing/farming communities through co-ordination of socio-economic and farming activities with those of the core fisheries programme.

5.1 OP/T 1 The fisheries department adopting a catalytic and facilitating role in the encouragement and implementation of development initiatives in the fishing/farming communities of the lakeshore and offshore islands of Kagera

AT/Y 6.1.1 Exert a catalytic role by identifying agencies, donors etc who are willing to initiate their own development programmes in the fishing/ farming communities in their particular areas of expertise. These include the following:-

"Interface" Activities.

a. Improving health sanitation and water supplies.

b. Access to HIV/AIDS education programmes.

c. Access to advice on nutrition/medical problems.

d. Encouragement of private enterprise.

e. Skills training.

f. Improving the safety of lake transport canoes.

"Core" Farming activities.

a. Improving availability of inputs.

b. Improving extension services.

c. Improving production.

d. Access to credit for buyers and producers.

d. Links to fertiliser programme GCP/URT/106/NET.

e. Improved marketing from small-scale farms.

g. Sustainable agriculture and rural development promoted.

h. Sustained exploitation of forest products promoted.

f. Improving communications between the lakeshore and main inland roads.

N.B. see appendix 1 & 2 for additional details of suggested "interface" and farming modules.

AT/Y 6.1.2 Establish a facilitating role for the Regional fisheries department by co-ordinating other donor inputs into the fisheries programme through the Regional authorities by providing boat transport and logistic advice to those involved.

AT/Y 6.1.3 Establish the catalytic and facilitating role of the fisheries department programme by initiating and attending co-ordination meetings between the regional authorities and other donors etc.

2.4. End of Programme Situation.

Results due to the Achievement of "Core" Fishing Outputs.

1. More fishermen will be operating safer canoes of improved construction powered by increasing numbers of sails and outboard engines. Fishing effort will in consequence be spread over a wider area with favourable effects on fishing resource sustainability.

2. More fishermen will be repaying loans through a sustainable CRDB Revolving Credit Fund with the co-operative efforts of the CRDB and fisheries extension services leading to improved knowledge of fishermen clients with high levels of repayment and improved possibilities for low collateral loans.

3. More fishermen will be using more efficient fishing techniques and gear.

4. Fishing gear supplies will be available through normal retail channels including agencies and traders as well as continuing supplies through the CRDB.

5. Fishermen with improved incomes will be in a better position to save the money needed to purchase fishing gear through retail outlets.

6. Women will have equitable access to substantive as well as small-scale loans and therefore will be playing an enhanced role in fishing related activities.

7. Youths will have improved opportunities for employment and of learning practical skills of fishing.

8. Fishing methods/techniques, which are not environmentally friendly, will have been banned or controlled.

9. Significant investment in Lake Victoria fishing will be diverted away from trawling towards deep water Dagaa catches using evolved catamaran craft.

10. Participatory fisheries community self management will have been instituted in the fields of mesh size regulation, fishing techniques regulation, trade regulation and environmental aspects of burning, forestry and cattle regulation.

11. The Fisheries Department will be better placed to enforce fisheries legislation through co-operative efforts.

12. Fish processors will have improved access to the inputs, skills and markets for fresh smoked, salted and sun dried fish.

13. Fishing effort will be more widely dispersed through the effects of the motorization programme.

14. Canoe builders making better-constructed and safer boats.

15. The fishing sector of Kagera will be playing an enhanced role in fishing/farming household income generation food security and contributing significantly to the economy of Kagera.

16. The fisheries department will be continuing its catalytic and facilitating role in helping -those engaged in farming and socio-economic initiatives to consolidate their work.

3.1 Programme Strategy.

3.1.1 Global Approach.

Define the strategy to be adopted to achieve the programme objectives. Also, address critical issues and bottlenecks.

1. A co-ordinated rather than piecemeal approach to the problems of the fish-production chain and of fishing villages.

2. Full village level participation in the identification, planning, implementation and evaluation of project activities.

3. Mobilisation of local resources, human, financial and physical so that the achievements of the project are sustained locally.

4. Long- term technical and managerial support through the Regional Programmes.

5. Explicit attention to the particular needs of women and youth.

6. Protected access to and participation by the local fisher folk in the ecologically and economically profitable management of the local fisheries resources.

7. An integrated, locally based communications system for the planning, monitoring, evaluation and revision of all project interventions.

During implementation the Kagera programme will continue the association with the Regional Inland Fisheries Programme (IFIP) and, where appropriate, take account of the internationally agreed principles for artisanal development.

3.2 Participation of National Institutions, UNDP and other Donors:

Describe their role in support of the national programme.

This fisheries development programme will be initiated through the Fisheries Department of the Ministry of Natural Resources, Tourism and the Environment and implemented at the local level by the Regional Fisheries Department in Bukoba. The integration of other activities with the "core" fisheries programme will be managed by the Regional Administration who has some responsibilities for the sector.

Operational responsibility for the activities of the fisheries programme will be through the offices of the Regional Fisheries Department while the activities of those, such as the Red Cross, who have already expressed interest in contributing to the programme will be co-ordinated through the Planning Department of the Regional Administration.

Others who have agreed, in principle, to assist with the programme in the fishing communities include the following: -

1. The Red Cross Organization Funded by DANIDA.

2. HESAWA, HEalth, SAnitation, WAter, funded by the Swedish aid organisation.

3. Various Netherlands assisted interventions including the long-term Livestock programme and assistance to District authorities.

4. Others who have already provided assistance such as The Peace Corps and the British High Commission will also be encouraged to provide further assistance.

5. DANIDA, who have provided the funds for the fishing village based tree-planting programme.

The Fisheries offices at Bukoba will be the administrative centre for the programme and extension work with fishermen and fish processors will be carried out under canvas on the offshore islands and along the coastline. During the development programme, a secondary local Fisheries office will be established at Nyamirembe with a senior fisheries officer to take charge of local administration, extension services and the tree-planting programme in the fishing villages.

Critical Issue: The Revolving Loan Fund has been successfully implemented through the Credit and Rural Development Bank, which has started collecting repayments after the initial grace period. This credit scheme provides fishing gear, canoes, and outboard engine maintenance and extension advice to the most disadvantaged groups of fishermen to be found anywhere in Tanzania. The scheme closely follows the same programme first established in Kigoma and operated through the CRDB.

For various reasons, there is concern over the financial viability and capacity of the Credit and Rural Development Bank (CRDB) to provide credit on a sustainable basis. These concerns, at the programme level, include time-consuming and bureaucratic methods of processing loans; inability to handle small-scale loans

efficiently and a poor record of debt recovery. With regard to the pilot-phase fisheries credit programme local experience has indicated that the scale of loans to fishermen have been appropriate to the requirements of both fishermen and the CRDB with preliminary estimates of repayments of over 90%. Funds have also been remitted to the Headquarters of CRDB, where they will be transferred into foreign exchange and the fund revolved with the purchase of more fishing gear.

This programme seeks to continue the achievements of the pilot phase through the tried and tested channels of the CRDB. These channels have proved effective during the pilot phase and, given current performance and continued reform could continue to provide an improving service.

Experience has, however, shown -that the CRDB is not, at present, suitably organised for the disbursement of micro loans where operational requirements are too cumbersome. In this respect, the fisheries programme will continue to seek to increase the diversity of credit sources and methods of financial control.

The continuation of the CRDB operated revolving loan fund to artisanal fishermen is an essential component in supporting the development programme envisaged in this document.

3.3 Rationale for UNDP Involvement:

Describe the comparative advantage for UNDP involvement and the role ascribed to it.

UNDP helped with the preparation of the Kagera Region Development Programme in liaison with the Ministry of Finance, Economic Affairs and Planning. This document detailed some fifty potential development "projects" of which fishing was one. As a result of this and local pressure for UNDP assistance, the Kagera Fisheries Pilot Programme URT/90/005 was designed and implemented. During the Tripartite Review held in November 1992 it was agreed that progress had been satisfactory and UNDP agreed to continue its support for a further period of five years.

The justification for continued UNDP support can be divided into the benefits, which could continue to accrue to the fishing communities of Kagera and the benefits to UNDP itself.

The benefits to the communities have already been detailed.

1) Benefits to UNDP.

Continued support would be a very efficient use of scarce UNDP funds because support to the "core" fisheries programme will facilitate actions in all the fields of major concern of the UNDP 5th Country Programme by: -

1. Encouraging poverty alleviation through income generation and employment among severely disadvantaged fishing/farming households of the Kagera coastline and offshore islands.

2. Improvements to fishing operations processing and marketing will materially help encourage enterprise in the fishing/farming communities. This will lead to a multiplier effect on local incomes and employment which could, to some extent, alleviate the effects of reduced levels of income derived from the agricultural sector.

 3.  Support to the catalytic and facilitating  rôle of the "core" fisheries programme will encourage a multiplicity of social and farming interventions implemented by others in such fields as HIV/AIDS education and control. In this area no other agency has yet become involved in the fishing/farming communities of which there are over 100, along the lakeshore and offshore islands, according to a recent survey.

Other interventions which would be encouraged include those of health, which a Rapid Rural Appraisal Survey recently highlighted as a major concern with no assistance being received from any source. Such problems as post natal mortality, still births, relapsing fever (one project fisherman died from this cause), worms, anaemia, TB and measles were encountered in the fishing communities. Other areas of equal concern, and lack of attention, include sanitary conditions, education and communications. The facilitating  rôle of the programme is designed to promote these interventions.

 4. Although UNDP is not being asked to finance the whole programme it would be possible for UNDP to use this programme to introduce a very strong Technical Assistance component to this integrated approach. It would also facilitate the co-ordinated interventions of other UN programmes such as the Food Security Programme, UNICEF and UNFPA.

 5.  UNDP will be involved in a fisheries development programme which is both environmentally sensitive and promoting the type of development which is sustainable in terms of the resource.

 6.  The UNDP financed pilot phase has validated the approach outlined in the original project document. Continuity to the developments already initiated depends on continuity of funding.

4. Financial Summary and Estimated Input and Output Budget

4. 1 Input Budget To Cover All Development Modules

Total Estimated Cost of Inputs for 3 Years


Staff, consultancies, national professors, universities, equipment.


Lorry 7 Ton   (1)


Four-by-four Vehicle  (1 +2 small)


Operations and Maintenance




Three years total inputs


4.2 Output Budget to Cover "Core" Fisheries Programme for Three Years

N.B *** = Revolving Loan Fund (RLF) Included.

Total Estimated Cost Of "Core" Fisheries Outputs



module 1 improved fishing efficiency's



module 2 improved income earning  



module 3 improved fishing techniques



module 4 improved marketing



module 5 improved administration



module 6 catalytic  rôle  






Total Estimated Development Cost of the Core Fisheries Programme for Three Years.

Input Budget                                                                    $759,000

Output Budget                                                                   $1,410,000

Total Budget for UNDP Contribution to the Programme:-

$2,169,000 / 3 = $723,000

4.2 Projected Resources

Projected resources from external sources include the following:- 

1. The sum of £17,000 from the British High Commission for the Refurbishment of the fisheries Motor Vessel Heron. This vessel will be used for experimental fisheries work as well as transport.

 2.  Two Peace Corps Volunteers have been working with the forestry component of the programme and will continue with the programme until the end of 1993.

 3.  DANIDA provided $111,111 for the forestry component, which should enable the forestry programme to continue to the end of 1993 and possibly the beginning of 1994.

 4.  Additional resources for the programme are expected through agencies running their own programmes such as the Red Cross, HESAWA, and the Netherlands are all potential sources of additional expertise as well as funding.

 5. The government has also given support to the existing programme in terms of staff and a 3.5 ton lorry which has been used extensively in project operations.  In addition the Fisheries department and regional administration have agreed to an improved recurrent expenditure budget and a small development budget. This will be used to construct a roof at the boatyard under which canoes and fishing gear construction and fish processing can be carried out.

These positive signs of contribution from both official and external sources will not however bridge the development needs of the whole programme which still has a substantial shortfall. However, the intention is to improve on the current situation and new budget estimates for mid 1993 to mid 1994 have been submitted for approval. It is anticipated that the programme will not receive all the support it has asked for but over the three year period of this proposal, substantial improvements will have been made. In this respect it is anticipated that improved budget allocations will coincide with reduced "core" fisheries "programme" requirements so that recurrent expenditure will match commitments.

5. Implementation Arrangements

5.1 Management

Describe the arrangements envisaged for the execution and management of the programme.

5.1.1 The programme outlined in this document is designed to build on the favourable arrangement which was tested during the pilot phase. The rationale of the pilot phase programme was that it would operate through the existing administrative structure using existing government employees of the Fisheries Department and the Credit and Rural Development Bank. The Revolving Loan Fund has been successfully operated through the co-operative efforts of the Fisheries Department, CRDB and technical support of FAO. This arrangement has worked well and these efforts have been coordinated through the office of the Regional Development Director who has acted as chairman of the committee which finally sanctions loans to the fishermen.

In addition to the fisheries Department staff and staff of the CRDB the pilot phase was also engaged in the DANIDA funded forestry programme. This exercise was again operated through employees of the Forestry Department and has operated smoothly with some very positive results. The only real problem with the current administrative structure is the difficulties raised from having a dual administrative system. This has not, however, prevented progress during the pilot phase.

For the full development programme it is recommended that the current co-operative arrangements are maintained and the programme continues to be executed through the Fisheries Department with FAO Technical support for the first three years of the five year programme. This should allow time for the intended training programmes to facilitate a smooth transition to continued operation through the Fisheries Department. It would also allow sufficient time to elapse for interventions in the private sector to prove their durability in continuing those aspects of the development programme which is best left in private hands. Given that this programme is needed to provide an initial impetus to the Kagera fishery it should not be necessary, at least in the “core” fisheries aspects of the programme, for continued external assistance after the elapse of the first three years. By this time the process of encouraging the government to progressively take over the full weight of the departments recurrent and development expenditure should also be complete. Likewise the level of total commitment experienced during the initial will progressively diminish leaving a Fisheries Department which is better equipped to carry out its original and primary functions.

To deal with the ''catalytic"  rôle of the programme in "interface” and farming it is proposed that the fisheries programme takes the initiative in encouraging other participants to co-operate in helping the fishing/farming communities. However, to consolidate these different interventions it will be necessary for the Regional Planning Department of the Regional Development Director to take the lead  rôle in coordination.  

5.2 Coordination:

 The need for the efforts of the various donors and agencies to be coordinated has already been dealt with in some detail in section 3. Prior and ongoing assistance. Briefly It Is recommended that the UNDP Planning Project “Strengthening the Kagera Regional Administration In Development Planning, Project Monitoring and Data Management" URT/89/018 be encouraged to assist the Regional Authorities to tackle the job of co-ordinating the inputs of all donors. For the fisheries/farming programme this would be a quite finite area as there are currently no other agencies acting In the fishing communities especially those along the coastline and the offshore Islands. This would make co- ordination of the fisheries activities a relatively simple matter.

 Apart from the need for some formal arrangement between the fisheries programme and other line Ministries, who may become Involved, the day to day coordination would operate on a much more informal basis and be centred around the logistic problems of arranging transport, timing, safety etc.

5.3 Implementation:

5.3.1 Fishing

"Core" fisheries programme inputs will be achieved through the efforts of the Fisheries Department staff operating normally under the Regional Fisheries Officer who will continue to act as programme coordinator. This arrangement has proven satisfactory during the pilot phase and will be continued during the main development programme. The staff  of the fisheries department will be  carrying out their  normal functions of statistical and revenue collection  and ensuring fisheries legislation Is followed etc.

5.3.2 Revolving Loan Fund.

In addition Fisheries Department Staff will continue to develop their liaison and co-operative  rôle with the Credit and Rural development Bank (CRDB) In the disbursement and control of the Revolving Loan Fund.  So far this arrangement has proven satisfactory with funds remitted to the Head Office of the CRDB for conversion to foreign exchange for the repurchase of more fishing gear.

5.3.3 FAO/Fisheries/CRDB liaison»

 Specifically the Fisheries staff will assist the staff of the CRDB to Identify registered fishermen who are known to be good at their job and who are likely to repay the loans provided. To Improve the performance of the fisheries and CRDB staff in this function further training will be provided. There will also be jointly agreed criteria which can be followed by all Involved in the fair and open provision of loans.

 In the recovery of loans the CRDB and Fisheries staff will work together and thereby ensure the continuation of the initially favourable rate of repayment. 

As the area is remote and inaccessible and the recipients not used to contacts with officials of any kind, especially those associated with lending, additional efforts will be made to ensure that the loans in kind (nets, engines canoes etc) are used to the optimum. This will Involve  the training of fishermen  In the construction of the gear concerned as well training In the proper use of the equipment concerned and In the proper operation and maintenance of the outboard engines.

Note: experience of the programme area fishermen has emphasised the low levels of practical skill available In all normal fishing activities. This includes Inability to repair, construct or use alternative gear and techniques. Much training will be needed.

5.3.4 Loan repayment problems.

In cases where an individual Is having difficulty in repaying the loan extent Ion work will be carried out by a team consisting of the Credit Control Officer and a senior Fisheries staff member. Together with the local fisheries officer, or nearest available, they will ascertain the reasons for default and Initiate actions to either call in the loan, or preferably If it Is a technical matter, put the matter right through further training. In any case the intention Is not to leave defaulters In any doubt about the commercial nature of the loans or the willingness of the fisheries extension team to help where possible.

5.3.5 Revolving Loan Committee.

Overall control of the Revolving Loan Fund will be through the Regional Management Committee which will be convened at least every quarter or more as the need arises. This Committee Is responsible for all final decisions concerning disbursements of loans In kind (no cash Is Involved) and twice a year will be attended by the Director of Fisheries. Others who will attend the Committee on a regular basis will be the Regional Development Director or his deputy; the Regional Natural Resources Officer, Regional Fisheries Officer /Coordinator and his deputy. The Regional Planning Officer will also attend together with the District Fisheries Officers from Biharamulo, Muleba and Bukoba Rural and Urban Districts.

5.3.6  Rôle of the CTA.

Finally, the FAO Chief Technical Adviser will backstop all operations and offer advice where needed. This will Include the day to day operations of the programme which will be managed by the Regional Fisheries Officer with technical and administrative advice and financial control continuing through the Chief Technical Adviser. The Chief Technical Adviser will also be responsible for raising additional funding and assistance In the execution of the overall programme and will be held accountable for the overall achievements of the programme.

The achievement of outputs In the fields of Fishing, Fish Processing, Mechanical, Women’s   Development Programme, Canoe construction etc will be the responsibility of each Section Head respectively. Their operational control and guidance will be through the means of fortnightly meetings Chaired by the Regional Fisheries Officer / Coordinator or In his absence the next most senior member of staff. The CTA will always be present at these meetings to provide guidance where necessary.

5.3.7 Forestry

With regard to the forestry programme, this will continue to be operated through a member of the regional forestry department Seconded to the programme with back-up from two Peace Corps Volunteers. When visiting the Districts liaison with the respective District Forestry Officers will be maintained wherever practical. Arrangements for the continued operation of the Nyamirembe nursery will also be made and efforts to increase exposure in the fishing communities of Biharamulo will be achieved through establishing a subsidiary fisheries office where most of the fishermen live and where there is a need for closer links with what may become the most important mixed fishery of the entire Kagera coastline. There may also be the need to place the District Fisheries Officer in Nyamirembe and not, as at present, 70 km away at the District Headquarters.

Island visits involve extended journeys over water and require food and  accommodation to be  carried on board.  To facilitate this type of extension work tented camps will be necessary and sound transport vessels will be needed. Suitable vessels have already been constructed locally but will need the provision of additional lifejackets to reassure staff and visitors who are not used to boat travel.

5.3.8 Fund raising and programme support. 

It will be the responsibility of the CTA and counterpart to raise  the additional funding  and co-operative assistance  required to achieve the full programme and to add other aspects as and when the need arises. In this activity the programme will be backstopped by the head offices of UNDP and FAO who will be able to bring the attention of the programme management to potential sources of extra funding. This activity may prove vital in view of likely reductions in external support

5.3.9 Liaison with other Agencies and Donors.

With success in encouraging other agencies to support the programme it will be necessary to liaise with them on two levels. First, at the formal level in conjunction with the Regional Planning Authorities, to prevent duplication of effort, especially where AIDS/HIV interventions are concerned, but it is equally important to avoid interventions which conflict with one another. In this respect areas of easy access to a variety of uncoordinated interventions often confuse the situation. Fortunately, the project area is relatively difficult to get to, but with coordination through the Planning Office of the RDD (helped by URT/89/018), there will be a reduced likelihood of conflicting aid interventions.

5.4 Substantive support: Describe the support which may be required from UN agencies. 


This programme provides considerable scope for the coordinated actions of a variety of United Nations Agencies and Technical Assistance inputs. Such assistance could be forthcoming from e.g., UNCDF, WFP, UNFPA, UNICEF etc. 

6. Monitoring And Evaluation Arrangements.

6.1 This section  will be completed  when the content  of the programme and extent of UNDP commitment is known.

C. Sustainability Analysis.

Definition: This programme aims to achieve continuity in Regional Fisheries Department activities in those areas which are essential (Regulation, licensing etc) by the end of the programme.   Those interventions such as the Revolving Loan Fund will depend for their continuity on the stability of the rate of exchange and the CRDBs' ability to continue its restructuring policy. In marketing, repair and maintenance, and fishing gear and outboard engine supply,   sustainability will be achieved through the normal operation of the retail system where the initial impetus to the improvement of fishing community incomes in Kagera will enable fishermen to save enough from fish sales to purchase their own gear without continuing   assistance.

1. Institutional.

The institutional support for this programme starts with the Department of Fisheries which is in turn a part of the Ministry of Natural Resources, Tourism and the Environment. In terms of levels which accord with the planned reduction in the range of activities in which the Kagera Fisheries Department will become involved during the main thrust of the development programme. This approximate balance should be achieved by the end of the three year period and largely depends on three main factors:-

a) The reform of the administrative system to facilitate direct control over Regional and District fisheries policy, control and direction. In turn the Regional fisheries authorities should have direct control over the District authorities. Currently this is not the case and leads to a less effective administration.

b) The control of the fisheries research institutions by the Fisheries Department in order to make research more responsive to the needs of fisheries management and the environment.  

c) The success or otherwise of the National and local Fisheries Departments to raise funds for their operations in competition with other Ministries

Summary: The chances are that current attempts to raise funds for capital and recurrent expenditure from both national and regional budgets will, by the elapse of three years, cover the fisheries departments' normal non - programme rôle of regulation, licensing, extension etc., as well as the catalytic rôle envisaged for helping other agencies and government departments to continue to provide administrative assistance to the island and mainland fishing communities.(see attached capital budget). It will not cover those programme inputs, which were designed to give the Kagera fisheries sector a boost in improving its contribution to the regional economy. These activities will be sustained by others.

2. Technical:

Given the appropriate technologies that the programme intends to introduce and the extent of programme coverage in the fields of fishing, fish processing and canoe construction etc. It is likely that the programmes technical inputs will  become self self-sustaining through their relevance to the needs of the fishermen The technologies introduced are aimed to be slight, but significant improvement on existing practices , not radically different, such as industrial fishing would cause. These new practices will be adopted by other fishermen on the basis of the example of those others in the fishing communities who will have successfully adopted the introduced technologies.

3. Economic/financial:

As already mentioned, there is a good chance of the national authorities sustaining those aspects of the programme, which were historically their responsibility.

Also, the CRDB will be able to sustain its lending rôle to fishermen if the currently established mark-ups and attention to the parallel market exchange rate are taken into account when loan disbursements are made. Attention to these commercial aspects of the loan programme should enable the CRDB to continue to revolve the Fund for several years after the conclusion of the inputs from external sources.

External events, which will seriously affect the revolving  value of the Fund include problems of national inflation and the withdrawal of external financial support to the economic recovery  plan. Current intentions make this unlikely.

4. Cultural/Sociological.

The project is currently engaged in the encouragement of small scale loans to women. These loans are being disbursed by means of informal channels through local banks, shops and trustworthy individuals. The scheme will be monitored by project staff initially, but through the Regional Natural Resources Department in future. One of the most important cultural factors, which affect all loans to women in Kagera, is that the husband of the woman receiving the loan is entitled to that money. This can remove the incentive to repay the loan to revolve the fund. Cultural aspects of development are still under scrutiny and more needs to be done, especially in relation to this and similar problems.

5. Environment:

This programme is concerned with the sustainable exploitation of fish stocks in Lake Victoria vis-à-vis the types of fishing techniques employed. It is also concerned with the sustainable exploitation of fuel wood resources in relation to the methods of processing employed.

Fishing gear.

With regard to the provision of fishing gear, only appropriate and sustainable fish capture techniques are being encouraged through the Revolving Loan Fund. e.g., Minimum 6" mesh size nets do  not catch Tilapia  or the endangered indigenous Haplochromines, but do catch sizeable Nile perch which are found in abundance; likewise, the encouragement of lift nets and scoop nets targets Dagaa (sardine), stocks of which have increased dramatically since the reductions in the Haplochromines. In addition, the lift net is used in deeper water than the traditional scoop net and therefore spreads Dagaa fishing effort to areas which have not hitherto been exploited. Local over concentration of effort is also relieved by the effects of the adoption of outboard engines, which similarly help reduce the risk of over fishing from gill nets lift and scoop nets, as well as long line fishing. The programme does not encourage beach seines or trawling which, in the context of Lake Victoria, could prove damaging to the lakebed and juvenile fish stocks and lead to conflict.

Fish processing methods.

Fish processing in the region is largely carried out by smoke drying in simple open sided ovens or sun drying the product. This programme seeks to encourage the adoption of more fuel efficient smoking ovens and at the same time try to divert attention away from the use of wood resources in the processing of fish. This will be done by encouraging the use of salt and sun drying of Nile perch as well as improved sun drying methods for Dagaa.

Trees are being planted (1 million in two years) in the fishing villages with a range of strategies to ensure survival (formal legal agreements, individual and communal woodlots, reserves etc).

At the moment, the stock of trees, especially in the outlying islands, is very poor and is receiving the immediate action of the programme. The stocks of target fish, in terms of research and visual evidence, are more than adequate to sustain many times the inputs considered under the proposed programme.

As already argued elsewhere, the whole programme has been conceived with the sustainability of the programme interventions in relation to the environment as a major concern.

6. Risks.

The major risk concerning the whole programme is that the Revolving Loan Fund will not be increased to provide the very things the fishermen need most. If the programme is to be responsive to the real needs of the fishing communities, expansion of the Revolving Fund is an essential element. The reason for this is that the lack of fishing gear is the primary concern of the fishermen of the entire coastline. If further assistance is unlikely to be forthcoming, it will affect the success of every other intervention being considered. The fishing communities are, for example, more likely to listen to the need for care with respect to HIV and AIDS and other intangible social benefits if they also expect assistance with the important business of making a living. There is also good cause to believe that providing fishermen with the physical equipment to earn an increased income also helps them to do without external assistance. At the same time, it raises their own expectations of being able to live a better life; and with improved expectations the fishing communities may be more open to suggestions for improving their own immediate environment.

If nothing else, the pilot phase has emphasized the linkages between interventions of different types in the fishing communities. Providing loans to women, for example, without similar loans to fishermen would be entirely counterproductive in the context of these fishing communities.  Likewise, many other interventions would be affected by the same problems.

Appendix 1.

Module 7.

Core Objectives Associated with the Interface

between Fishing and Farming Communities.

Improved access to social services in fishing and farming communities.

Objective: Health, nutrition, and socio-economic agencies reaching the fishing and farming communities (encouraged by fisheries programme catalytic rôle).

1 0/PT 7.1 Where appropriate health, sanitation and water   improvements in operation   in the fishing/farming communities.

0/PT 7. 2 Aids control programmes reaching all island and mainland fishing/farming communities.

0/PT 7.3 Access to advice on nutrition and medical problems established.

0/PT 7.4 Transport by boat for health/aids etc. programme workers available and in operation from fisheries Department. (covered by fisheries programme).

A/TY 7.4.1 Fisheries programme to provide canoe transport/advice on villages etc. to co-operating agencies in the execution of their respective action programmes. (covered by fisheries programme).

A/TY 7.4.2 Construct six base camps in selected island and coastal fishing/farming communities for erection of tents under a protective corrugated iron roof. (covered by fishing budget)

0/PT 7 .5 Aids widows/single vulnerable women in alternative forms of employment to prostitution.

0/PT 7.6 Additional funds and personnel from a variety of donors and sources assisting in the implementation of the  health and socio-economic programme.

A/TY 7.6.1.

Identify and pursue funding in this field.


Increased private enterprise activity in Kagera Fishing/farming communities.

Objective:   increased activity from businesses and entrepreneurs in the private Sector contributing towards improved employment and income earning opportunities.

0/PT 8.1 Private enterprise occupants of the fish receiving stations and boatyard with improved business  prospects and employment potential.

A/TY 8.1.1.Help LIC engineering (situated  in boatyard) with working capital to purchase raw materials, steel, etc for    more effective fishing/farming related output.

A/TY 8.1.2 Encourage additional funding/finance for appropriate capital  development schemes.(small scale business support, loans for machinery, feeder road construction etc.)

A/TY 8.1.3 Continue to monitor/encourage private enterprise and  mutual understanding of  market economy with advice  on agreements in  the fishing/farming communities.

A/TY 8.1.4 Promote saving schemes in fishing/farming communities.

Module 9.

Improved production and conservation practices in the fishing and farming communities.

Objective:   sustainable agricultural and  rural Development practices  adopted at household and Community level in the fishing/farming communities.

0/PT 9.1 Appropriate  actions taken for  the conservation of the   environment in the fishing/farming villages of the offshore islands and lakeshore.

A/TY 9.1.1 Improve environment monitoring capacity of the Regional Administration.

A/TY 9.1.2 Strengthen the Regional Administration by recruiting an environmental specialist to verify and co-ordinate the  actions of the  participants fishing/farming/forestry   programmes preventing the actions  of one undermining the actions  of others e.g., fires, goats eating crops/trees.( to be placed  as adviser to  the Regional Natural Resources officer of Kagera  and covering game conservation as well).

A/TY 9.1.3 prepare recommendations for the Region to tackle its environment problems.

0/PT 9.1. 2 Fuel wood and fruit tree resources of the lakeshore and offshore islands utilised on a sustainable basis for fish processing, canoe construction and domestic uses.

A/TY 9.2.1 Survey all coastal and offshore Islands for camps/villages with regard to state of fuel wood resources establishing priorities for action.

A/TY 9.2.2 Devise a variety of appropriate strategies, including   -  community forestry- government plantations-individual woodlots and other approaches, to ensure that fuel wood and fruit trees meet the needs of the fishing/farming communities.

A/TY 9.2.3 Establish  two nurseries for  the production and sale  of fuel wood and  fruit trees. Use nurseries for training people in tree planting for personal source of income.

A/TY 9.2.4 Train foresters in establishment of a participatory approach to tree planting where such an approach is appropriate.

A/TY 9.2.5 Initiate a tree planting programme in the fishing/farming communities which Is sustainable through the efforts of the community / individual / school based etc.,

A/TY 9.2.6 Devise  strategies to give  legal protection to those who engage in tree planting (legal agreements,  solve land tenure  problems, especially on islands etc.,).

A/TY 9.2.7 Encourage the planting of fruit/fuel wood trees (including oil palm, coconut, citrus etc) for medium long term source of income and nutrition. etc.,

Module 10

Improved Communications Between Fishing/Farming

Communities and Mainland and Inland Markets. 

Objective: Improved Access to Markets Through Improved Communications between Islands and The Lakeshore and Between the Lakeshore and Main Inland Roads.

10.1 0/PT 10.1   Transport canoes better constructed and operating with improved margins of safety.

A/TY 10.1.1 Implement appropriate safety changes to transport canoes/boats through improved construction techniques.

A/TY 10.1.2 Improve fuel efficiency and safety of

transport canoes through the introduction for sale

of diesel outboard engines (credit scheme).

A/TY 10.1.3  Implement village based safety and

rescue procedures.

A/TY 10.1.4 Refurbish dredger for the deepening of the Kagera River entrance to facilitate the transport of sugar, bananas, beans etc from Karagwe to lake Victoria markets (the forgotten road to the interior of Kagera).

10.2 0/PT 2 Feeder  roads constructed between  eight strategically situated lakeshore communities and the main north/south road.

A/TY 10.2.1 Encourage UNCDF or others to fund the construction of the feeder roads.

A/TY 10.2.2 Construct feeder roads.

A/TY 10.2.3 Maintain roads.

Module 11

Improved Development Co-Ordination in Kagera Fishing/Farming Communities

Objective: Improved Development Coordination and Integration of Development Interventions Through Improved Regional Administration Practices.

0/PT 1   Regional Administration initiating coordination activities for development initiatives in the fishing/farming communities of Kagera

A/TY 11.1.1 Establish the co-ordination rôle of the Regional Administration with the support of the UNDP Planning assistance project URT/89/018.

A/TY 11.1.2 Identify and encourage potential and existing contributors to co-ordinate their activities through the Regional Administration with the "core" fisheries programme.

A/TY 11.1.3 Promote  government department cooperation with the fisheries/ farming programme through the Regional Administration.

A/TY 11.1.4 Promote  the co-operation of  UNDP agencies through the Regional Administration. ( UNFPA, WFP, UNICEF, Food security programme).

A/TY 11.1.5 Encourage the participation of the CRDB in co-ordination meetings.

11.2 0/PT 2 Operational modalities established through formal and informal links with others working in the interlinked programmes. fisheries/sociological/farming

A/TY 11.2.1 Co-ordinate and integrate development initiatives through formal and Informal meetings and logistics planning with the Regional Administration.

A/TY 11.2.2 Liaise with the Regional Administration In the selection of participants In the programme.

Appendix 1.

Results Due to the Achievement of Outputs in the Socio-Economic Aspects of the Interface.

1. Health  sanitation and water problems within many of the fishing communities will have been identified and improved through a HESAWA action programme.

2. AIDS  control/information programmes  will have helped  to curb the spread of AIDS/HIV in the fishing /farming communities.

3. Access to advice on matters of health and nutrition will have improved through interventions from government and non- government agencies.

4. Education opportunities in fishing/farming communities will have improved due to NGO and government interventions.

5. A UNCDF funded feeder road programme will have improved transport between the coast and hinterland main roads and markets.

6. Private enterprise will be playing amore important rôle in the provision of jobs in fishing and fishing related enterprises.

7. Skilled  and semi-skilled artisans  will employ improved methods and tools within their respective trades.

8. Private  enterprise will have improved access to working capital.

9. Canoe transport between the islands and mainland will have improved.

10. The  main thrust of  development in Kagera will  be coordinated through the Regional Office of the RDD.(helped in this rôle by the UNDP planning project URT/89/018)

11. By the end of the five year programme government internal recurrent expenditure will be covering a much reduced level of direct input to the fisheries and have reverted to the rôle of regulator. This will occur after the initial kick start provided by the fisheries credit programme etc has enabled the fishery to be self sustaining in its operations.

Appendix 2

Core outputs associated with the farming programme.

Module 12

Increased production from small scale farms on the offshore islands and lakeshore fishing/farming Communities.

Objective: increased production of more varied cash and food crops marketed for increased income and food security.

(Suggested outputs)

0/PT 12.1 Farmers growing more varied food and cash crops in fishing/farming camps and villages.

0/PT 12.2 Farmer/fishermen keeping a wider variety small 'and large livestock (ducks, chickens to sheep and cows) on islands and coastal strip.

0/PT 12.3 Improved extension services reaching those engaged in crop and livestock production with particular emphasis on women as cow raisers and the keeping of small livestock.

0/PT 12.4 Improved availability of farm  inputs including fertilizers (GCP/URT/106/NET).

0/PT 12.5 Improved access to credit for farming operations(storag6Jacilities, implements, fertilizers etc. , )

0/PT 12 . 6 Improved observance of bye-laws regulating farming/livestock practices.

0/PT 12. 7. Island  and lakeshore farmer/fishermen better able  to market their  mixed produce to lakeshore and inland markets.

Appendix 2.

Results Due To The Achievement Of Outputs In The Farming


1. Improved and more varied crop production from small scale farms.

2. Fishing/farming communities keeping more small and large livestock under better control vis-à-vis attempts to grow crops and trees.

3. More villages with access to milk and milk products.

4. Improved use of manure in small scale shambas.

5. Women  receiving improved extension  services in animal husbandry.

6. Small  scale cultivators in  fishing/farming communities employing better techniques of crop cultivation.

7. Improved incomes in fishing farming villages from improved crop marketing through improved communications.

8. Village   populations with improved   understanding of environmental issues  and taking actions  favourable to their immediate environment-.

9. Regional  and District authorities better advised on the environmental impact of  the policies they pursue through UNV advice. 

10.Sustained production of forest products.

11. Offshore islands and coastal farming fishing communities engaged in a range of tree planting schemes from plantations to individual woodlots.

12.Better communications between fishing/farming communities and inland main roads and markets.

The combined effects of the achievement of the outputs detailed in this integrated programme will lead to a measurable impact on the development objective through   environmentally favourable initiatives leading to improved incomes and better standards of health and nutrition through improved food security.

Appendix 3: National Development Programme

Appendix 4: Overall Stricture of the Development Programme

Appendix 5: Interrelationships in the Kagera Fihing/Farming Communities

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This treatise was uploaded to the web in September-December,2001 and is dedicated to the memory of the author, my old school friend, Roderick.J.Beare Esq..
Contact Richard D. Kneller.