BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY: A TRAINING MANUAL FOR EXTENSION

NEP/99/023: SPPD REPORT


NEPAL
AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND STRATEGIES
FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND FOOD SECURITY

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

Kathmandu, Nepal




TABLE OF CONTENTS

Main Report
Annex I
Annex II
Annex III
Annex IV
          - part 1
          - part 2



Main Report - June 2003

Cover Page and Abbreviations
Table of Contents
Acknowledgement
Executive Summary
Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Background
1.2 Objectives
1.3 Scope and Coverage
1.4 Approach and Methodology
1.5 Organization of the Report
Chapter 2: Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of Food Security and Poverty
2.1 Poverty: Concepts and Analysis
2.2 Food Security: Concepts and Analysis
Chapter 3: Economy, Poverty and Food Security
3.1 Physiography and Administration
3.2 Growth record: Overall Economy and Components
3.3 The Poverty and Food Insecurity Situation and Underlying Causes
3.4 Food security
3.5 Forces Contributing to Poverty and Food Insecurity
3.6 Historical Roots of Institutional Dimensions of Poverty and Food Security
Chapter 4: The Macro Policy and Institutional Environment
4.1 Development Strategy
4.2 Economy-wide Policy on Poverty Alleviation and Food Security
4.3 Sectoral Policies and Strategies for Poverty Alleviation and Food Security
4.4 Institutional Framework for Planning, Development and Policy Implementation
4.5 The NGO Sector
4.6 The Private Sector
4.7 Important Legal and Customary Institutions
4.8 Decentralization and Poverty Reduction
4.9 Institutional Adequacy and Gaps
Chapter 5: The MESO Setting: Intermediate Process and Linkage
5.1 Effects and Impacts on Consumption, Savings and Investment
5.2 Effects and Impacts on Government Revenues and Expenditures
5.3 Effects and Impacts on the External Sector
5.4 Impact on Prices and Economic Incentives
5.5 Effects and Impacts on Social and Development Infrastructure
5.6 Effects of Recent APP Strategy on Agricultural Production and Productivity
5.7 Impact of the APP on Food Security
5.8 Impact on Poverty
5.9 Programme Management, Monitoring and Evaluation
5.10 Key Findings
Chapter 6: The Micro Setting: Household Response and Outcomes
6.1 Major Characteristics of the Study Sites
6.2 Poverty, Food Security and Gender Issues
6.3 Development Opportunities and Interventions
6.4 Conclusion from the Village PRAs
6.5 Linking the Meso and Micro Levels
6.6 Micro Effects of Macro Policy
Chapter 7: A Policy and Investment Framework for Poverty Alleviation and Food Security in Nepal
7.1 Background and Policy Contours
7.2 Strengthening Agricultural Sector Production Base
7.3 Strengthening Participatory Institutional Arrangements
7.4 Gender Sensitive Rural and Agricultural Development Strategies
7.5 Child Development, Education and School Feeding Programmes
7.6 Infrastructure Development and Employment Guarantee Schemes
7.7 Social Safety Nets and Welfare Supports
7.8 Investment Framework and Market-State Synergies
Appendices
References


Annex I - October 2001

Cover Page and Abbreviations
Table of Contents
Acknowledgement

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Background
1.2 Objectives
1.3 Methodology
1.4 Organization of the Report
Chapter 2: Agricultural Resource Base and Distribution
2.1 Physiography and Development Regions
2.2 Land Use and Land Use Changes
2.3 Population, Labour Force and Employment
2.4 Landholding and Holding Size
2.5 Production and Productivity of Crops
2.6 Pattern of Use and Level of Modern Inputs
2.7 Food Security Status
Chapter 3: An Overview of the Strategy, Policy and Programmes of the Agriculture Sector
3.1 The Agriculture Perspective Plan
3.2 Agriculture Sector Objectives, Strategies and Policies of the Ninth Plan
3.3 Major Agriculture Sector Programmes
3.4 Important Legal and Customary Institutions
Chapter 4: Implementation Status of APP Priority Inputs
4.1 Priority Inputs: Irrigation
4.2 Priority Inputs: Fertilizer
4.3 Priority Inputs: Agriculture Credit
4.4 Priority Inputs: Agricultural Research and Extension
4.5 Priority Inputs: Agriculture Roads
4.6 Priority Inputs: Rural Electrification
Chapter 5: Performance of Priority APP Outputs
5.1 Priority Outputs: Livestock
5.2 Priority Outputs: High Value Crops
5.3 Priority Outputs: Agribusiness
5.4 Priority Outputs: Forestry
Chapter 6: Effects and Imputs for APP Implementation
6.1 General Impact
6.2 Macrolevel Effects
6.3 Mesolevel Effects
6.4 Microlevel Effects
6.5 Impacts of APP Implementation
Chapter 7: Strategic Thrust to Address Problems and Challenges in the Implementation of the APP to Ensure Food Security and Poverty Alleviation
7.1 Framework for Policy Feedback Analysis
7.2 An Overview of the Implementation Status of Envisaged Policies
7.3 An Overview of Effects and Impacts
7.4 Major Problems, Challenges and Recommended Actions
Appendices

Annex II - October 2001

Cover Page and Abbreviations
Table of Contents
Acknowledgement
Annex II Document

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
1.2 Objectives
1.3 Scope and Limitations
1.4 Methodology
1.5 Report Outline

2. POVERTY AND FOOD SECURITY IN NEPAL: THE INSTITUTIONAL DIMENSION

2.1 Historical Perspective
2.2 Poverty and Food Security Issues in the Recent Past
2.3 Policy and Mechanisms Regarding Institutions

3. NATIONAL LEVEL INSTITUTIONS

3.1 Policy Level Institutions
3.1.1 Advisory bodies
3.1.2 Policy implementing institutions
3.1.3 Autonomous entities
3.2 Implementation Level Institutions
3.2.1 Typology of the institutions
3.2.2 Departments
3.2.3 Affiliated parastatals
3.2.4 Autonomous boards
3.2.5 Public sector institutions outside government
3.3 NGO Sector
3.3.1 Genesis of NGOs in Nepal
3.3.2 Growth of the NGO sector
3.4 Important Legal and Customary Institutions
3.4.1 Economic institutions
3.4.2 Social institutions

4. DISTRICT, SUBDISTRICT AND LOCAL LEVEL INSTITUTIONS

4.1 District-Level Institutions
4.1.1 Public sector
4.1.2 Non-governmental sector
4.1.3 Institutions representing the private sector
4.2 Subdistrict Level Institutions
4.2.1 Public sector entities
4.2.2 Subdistrict level self-governing institutions
4.2.3 Institutions in the private sector
4.3 Local Level Institutions
4.3.1 Government institutions
4.3.2 Local-level self-governance institutions
4.3.3 Non-governmental institutions
4.3.4 Private sector institutions

5. INSTITUTIONAL GAPS

5.1 Historical Context of Institution Building
5.2 Issues Facing the Government and Parastatals
5.2.1 Across-the-board issues
5.2.2 Sector-specific issues
5.2.3 Consequences
5.3 Issues Facing Local Self-Governance
5.4 Issues Facing NGOs
5.5 Issues Facing Private Sector Institutions
5.6 Institutional Issues Vis-A-Vis The App
5.6.1 Irrigation
5.6.2 Fertilizer
5.6.3 Agricultural credit
5.6.4 Technology system
5.6.5 Agricultural roads
5.6.6 Livestock
5.6.7 High value crops
5.6.8 Agribusiness
5.6.9 Forestry

6. SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 Conclusions
6.2 Emerging Dimensions of Institution Building
6.3 Recommendations
6.3.1 International economic relations
6.3.2 Line agencies
6.3.3 Decentralized decision-making
6.3.4 NGO's and civil society

Appendices


Annex III - October 2001

Cover Page and Abbreviations
Table of Contents
Acknowledgement
Annex III Document

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
1.2 Gender and Human Development
1.3 Objectives
1.4 Methodology
1.5 Report Organization

2. WOMEN'S STATUS, POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES

2.1 Gender Disparity and Poverty
2.2 Policies and Programme Implementation Status
2.2.1 Policies and programmes
2.2.2 Implementation status of programmes
2.3 Women and Education
2.3.1 Literacy and educational status
2.3.2 Government plans and policies
2.3.3 Educational programmes for women
2.3 Women and Nutrition
2.4.1 Nutrition status and problems
2.4.2 Government plan and policies
2.4.3 Nutrition programme and implementation status
2.5 Women and Health
2.5.1 Health situation
2.5.1 Government policies and programmes
2.5.2 Health sector programme and implementation status : Womens perspective
2.6 Women in Agriculture
2.6.1 Government policies and programmes
2.6.2 Implementation status of programmes

3. MICRO LEVEL FINDINGS

3.1 Studied Districts and Villages
3.2 Gender issues of Poverty
3.1.1 Workload
3.1.2 Mobility pattern
3.1.3 Decision-making
3.2 Nutritional Dimensions of Food Security Perceptions on food shortage

4. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Appendices


Annex IV - October 2001

Cover Page and Abbreviations
Table of Contents - List of Tables - Executive Summary - Key findings - Conclusions
Acknowledgement

Annex IV Document - part 1

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
1.2 Objective of the PRA
1.3 PRA technique
1.4 Study districts and PRA sites/VDCs
1.5 Data analysis and processing
1.6 Report organization

2. MUGU DISTRICT

2.1 District Background
2.2 Background of Rara VDC
2.3 Murma Village

3. ACHHAM DISTRICT

3.1 District Background
3.2 Background of Sokat VDC
3.3 Sokat

Annex IV Document - part 2

4. KAILALI DISTRICT

4.1 District background
4.2 Background of Pratappur VDC
4.3 Kharaula

5. SUNSARI DISTRICT

5.1 District background
5.2 Background of Amahibelaha VDC
5.3 Belaha (study village)

6. DISTRICT LEVEL INSTITUTIONS AND THEIR FUNCTIONING

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Institutions for technology dissemination
6.3 Inputs Supplying Agencies
6.4 Public Sector Organizations for the Management of Food Grains
6.5 District Workshops
6.6 Worsening Food Security Situations

7. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

7.1 General
7.2 On study villages
7.3 Key Findings
7.4 Conclusions

Appendices


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