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Cambodia

by Lorn Socheata

Introduction

Cambodia does not produce pesticides and all agricultural chemicals must be imported, and there are no important agrochemical distributors in the country. Pesticide management is high on the agenda of the Government of Cambodia. A number of reports that pointed at the broad availability and use of highly hazardous pesticides has accelerated government initiatives to tighten pesticide regulation. Several regulations and a pesticide registration system have been established. However, effective enforcement of the regulations remains a challenge that needs to be tackled soon.

The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) is responsible for the management of pesticides in the country, which has two main institutions that play an important role as implementing authorities.

The Department of Agricultural Legislation (DAL)

Under DAL there is a Bureau of Agricultural Material Standard (BAMS), which is responsible for registration for agricultural materials in Cambodia. With technical advices from concerned institutes, it acts as assisting unit for MAFF that is responsible for registering and enforcing measures to control the quality of Agricultural Materials such as pesticides, fertilizers, seeds and planting materials, veterinary medicines, feed stuffs and feed additives.

The functions and duties of the BAMS are as follow:

The Department of Agronomy and Agricultural Land Improvement (DAALI)

DAALI is responsible for technical advice to BAMS for registering and enforcing measures and managing the use of pesticides in the country. The Plant Protection and Phytosanitary Inspection Office (PPPIO), structured under DAALI, is responsible for implementation.

The functions and duties of PPPIO in management of pesticide are as follow:

Other institutes concerned with the management of pesticides are the Department of Animal Health and Production with its responsibilities, Ministry of Commerce, Health and Environment. Moreover, there are many NGOs that take an active role in pesticide uses such as Centre d'Etude et de Development Agricole Cambodgien (CEDAC) working closely with farmers in raising awareness on side effects of pesticides and its alternatives and NGOs Forum is expanding activities to the whole country with the aim of reducing pesticide dependency.

Existing legal legislations, regulations and institutes enact to manage pesticides in Cambodia:

A. Pest and pesticide management

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program was initiated in 1993 by MAFF after a National Workshop on "Environment and IPM". In 1998 MAFF officially declared Integrated Pest and Crop Management as one of the country key crop production strategies with the aim of making IPM the standard approach to crop management. This aim to make IPM the standard approach to crop management in Cambodia, with emphasis on rice, vegetables, fruit and field crops with pursuing a policy of sustainable food production to ensure food security in Cambodia. Further, on the 4th of July 2002, MAFF issued a Ministerial declaration (Prakas) No. 205 on the establishment of an Integrated Crop Management Program, called "National IPM Program" to facilitate coordination of all IPM activities in Cambodia irrespective of donor agencies and crops involved.

Goal of IPM Program

The overall goal of the program is to improve food security through the promotion of Integrated Pest and Crop Management skills at the farm level. The National IPM program is structured under MAFF and is now working in 14 provinces with major agricultural production.

Objectives of IPM

Strategies/Approach

The program has adapted the strategy of "learning by doing" using the Farmer Field School (FFS) model and the training methods are based on the principles of non-formal adult education with emphasis on a discovery learning approach. This approach allows farmer to participate in a season long training covering one full crop cycle with intensive field practice. To support the training exercise, a crop is grown for field study activity. Farmers observe and analyze the field situation to discover the dynamic relationship between plants, pests, natural enemies, nutrients, soil, water and other components in the crop ecosystem. After thoroughly analyzing the field situation, the participants discuss findings and together make decisions about crop management. In addition, the Program coordinates with research institutions to find new agricultural technologies and good experiences in response to the needs of the farmers.

IPM training achievement

The major training activities implemented are training of trainer courses on rice, vegetables, mung bean, and water melon. Training achievements are as follow:

Pest resistance

There is insufficient research on pest resistance to pesticide in Cambodia. However, many reports concluded that insects have developed resistance to pesticides in Cambodia.

B. Testing, quality control and effects in the field

Many reports published that many agricultural materials sold in the Cambodian markets are illegally imported and fake or substandard in quality. Some of these products are pesticides banned for use in Cambodia as well as in other countries due to their harm to health and the environment. To improve this situation, the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) particularly Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) introduced legislation and regulation to control pesticide in country.

On 28 October 1998 the RGC issued a Sub-decree No. 69 on Standard and the Management of Agricultural Materials aiming to guarantee consistent high quality agricultural material inputs especially for management of pesticide. Chapter III of this Sub-decree contains 14 articles, (11-24) mention about pesticide management, which was detailed in Annex 1.

For implementing the Sub-decree above, MAFF made a ministerial declaration (Prakas) No. 038 on the creation of the Bureau of Agricultural Material Standard to response the registration of agricultural inputs, issued 21 January 1999. Its functions and duties are described in the introduction above.

In order to implement Sub-decree No. 69 efficiently and effectively, MAFF also developed Prakas No. 245 issued in detailed guidelines for implementation on 21 October 2002. This Prakas details the procedures on how to register products, exploitation, import and export, register or revoke the permissions, packages and label, disposal of empty container, selling, prohibition of exploitation, advertisement, trader obligation, and control and management of officers.

In addition, MAFF further created a Prakas No. 064 on Formats of Application Forms relating to Agricultural Materials issued on 27 February 2003 to standardize forms used in the country. This Prakas develops unique application forms for use by all distributors or importers.

Subsequently, MAFF issued another Prakas No. 598 with Lists of Pesticide in Cambodia on 15 December 2003. This declaration contains three lists of pesticides such as pesticides banned for use (116 common names), pesticides restricted for use (40 common names) and pesticide permitted for use (136 common names) (see Annex B). In this regulation, pesticides classified as banned and restricted conform to WHO classification by hazard (Ia and Ib) and some pesticides are recently concerned with environmental pollution. Lists of pesticide are normally updated every two years.

Since Prakas No. 064 had not enough procedures to implement pesticide management properly, MAFF developed a Prakas No. 204 on Amendment of Declaration No. 064, issued 12 July 2004.

Even thought, all Prakas above still give no power to enforce pesticide management. Under the mutual declaration No. 02/04 between MAFF and Ministry of Justice (MoJ) on Formats and Police of Justice for MAFF/DAL/BAMS officers, issued 26 October 2004, officers and staff are being trained by resource persons on procedures how to take action against violation. Full implementation will be done in year 2006.

For controlling the pesticide quality, MAFF currently has one Pesticide Formulation Analysis Laboratory supervised by DAALI and implemented by PPPIO to monitor quality of pesticide products in country. However this laboratory has limited facilities and technicial capacity. Most product samples analyzed were from imported pesticides or distributors officially registering their products in MAFF/DAL/BAMS and some pesticides on sale in the markets. Only 55 samples of pesticide products were analyzed in the year 2004. On the other hand, PPPIO has further made trials on pesticide effectiveness in the field. 45 sample pesticides were tested before officially registered by MAFF/DAL/BAMS.

There is no collaboration between industries and the government to monitor pesticide use in the field, however there is a program called "Safe and Responsible Use of Pesticide" (SARUP) to raise awareness of farmers on pesticide application and safe protection.

C. Health and environmental information

There are still not enough data to identify the impact of pesticides to human health and the environment. Cooperation between MAFF, MoH and MoE initially conducted an inventory on POP pesticides (Persistence Organic Pollutants) focusing on the production, use, stockpile, contaminated sites in country. Result found that no production, stockpile and contaminated site of POP pesticides in country but there are some DDT and Chlordane remains on sale in the markets. However, they do not have records on the impact to human health and the environment (MoE, 2005).

Regular surveys done by PPPIO on pesticide use by farmers and pesticides on sale in the markets found that the areas of heavy use and sale of pesticides is the area located on both sides of the Mekong River and the Tonle Sap Lake. 109 common names with 419 trade names of pesticide were available in the markets in year 2004 and all farmers who grow vegetables and beans in above region used pesticide seriously (PPPIO, 2004).

Furthermore, a few survey done by local NGOs on occupational poisoning among farmers showed that 96 percent farmer interviewed had experienced at some point symptoms or signs consistent with those of acute pesticide poisoning during or shortly following the use of pesticide (CEDAC, 2004) and similar results were researched by Sodavi et al., (2000).

In addition, there is a collaboration research done by Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Cambodia and the Department of Environment Conservation, Ehime University, Tarumi, Japan on Persistent Organoclorine Residues in Marine and Freshwater Fish in Cambodia. Results showed that DDTs, HCHs, CHLs, and HCB were detected in fish samples collected from inland and coastal water. DDTs were the predominant contaminants with concentrations ranging from 0.5-25 ng/g wet wt, HCHs, CHLs and HCB accumulated at lower levels in fish ranging 0.01-0.22 ng/g, 0.1-0.34 ng/g and <0.01-0.32 ng/g respectively (In Monirith, et al. 1999).

Ministry of Environment is responsible for monitoring environmental quality (air, water, and soil), controlling environmental pollutants release, and participates in collecting, compiling, and managing data related to toxic and hazardous chemical and managing all kinds of waste in terms of a safe environment. But they have no program to monitor or research on the effect of pesticide to human health and the environment. Similarly Ministry of Health has its mandate to treat and prevent human health but they have no specific programs to monitor the impact of pesticide yet (Mandates of MoE & MoH).

Cambodia has created a National Codex Committee (NCC) to standardize all commodities for export by Sub-decree No. 05 issued on February 1998 and amended by Sub-decree No. 28 issued on March 2001. Ministry of Commerce is a focus point of this committee with other ministries as member (MoC, 1998). No progress of this committee.

D. Trends in pesticide manufacture, use and trade

It is difficult to describe the trend in pesticide manufacture, use and trade in Cambodia. So far Cambodia does not produce or export pesticides but imports predominantly from abroad with legal and illegal permissions from Viet Nam, Thailand, China, Malaysia, France, Singapore and Taiwan etc. A system has been established to registe pesticides in Cambodia as well as to collect or record data on pesticide importation. However, few data were recorded in some institutions of government.

The legal statistic recorded by MAFF/DAL/BAMS is as follows:

Pesticide imported

2005

2004

2003

Total

Commercial products (Tons)

84

42.274

47.500

173.774

In addition, there have also reported by the Ministry of Commerce, Department of CAMCONTROL recorded in year 2002 in table below:

Year 2002

Tons
Commercial products

Value
USA Currency

Insecticides

145.42

127 337.00

Fungicides

7.02

10 262.00

Herbicides

16.14

69 731.00

Rodenticides

29.88

18 526.00

Total

198.46

225 856.00

Besides these, pesticide importation also occurred by illegal importers along the uncontrollable borders of Cambodia. A survey done by local NGOs estimated the value of farmer expenditure at about 20 000 000 USD every year (CEDAC, 2004) and approximately 6-9 million dollars every year (Environment Justice Foundation).

E. Selected standards

Effort made by the government to reduce risks associated with pesticide in term of toxicity, packaging, labeling and application method is the establishment of legislation and regulations as mention in point B. Furthermore PPPIO conducted a program "Safe Use of Pesticide" which aims to provide knowledge on selection and application of pesticides in the field, and prevention of pesticide hazards to human health and the environment. In addition a collaboration with other agencies conducting a program called "Safe and Responsible Use of Pesticide" (SARUP) with similar objective above to expand activities in whole country. SARUP program was initially established in 1995 by the DAALI and supported by Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) for two years and then the Royal Government of Cambodia decided to allocate funds to continue this important program. Moreover, Crop Life Asia has recently supported a pilot program since year 2002.

SARUP training achievement

Achievement

JICA

RGC

CropLife Asia

Schools

Person

Schools

Person

Schools

Person

Trainer





3

74

Farmer

63

1 953

143

4 290

50

1 571

Pesticide seller






63

(Hean Vanhan, 2004)

Moreover trainings conducted by local NGOs such as CEDAC and NGOs Forum on pesticide hazards and its alternatives to farmers who grown vegetables and cash crops located in major agricultural provinces around Tonle Sap Lake, Mekong River and areas of intensive use of pesticides along the border of Cambodia.

There are small amounts of obsolete pesticides stocked in Cambodia. Approximately 25 tons of obsolete pesticides are stored in the warehouse of DAALI and they proposed for phasing out by a project cooperated with Ministry of Environment. (DAALI, 2004).

Through existing regulations, Sub-decree 69 addressing that the disposal of waste and unwanted pesticides and empty containers should be permitted by MAFF and MoE but procedures to discard them have not been established yet. Although farmers dispose of their empty containers and left over pesticides in the field freely.

In accordance with legislation and regulations of RGC, producers or importers must follow the system of registration formatted by MAFF/DAL/BAMS. In fact 8 Prakas above continually issued are proven.

Licensing systems

Requirement for obtaining a permit/license

Registration of pesticides

No pesticides shall be manufactured, imported, formulated, repacked, distributed, sold or offered of sale, used unless it has been duly registered by MAFF/DAL/BAMS.

Requirements for registration

Pesticides are allowed to register

Pesticides are not allowed to register

Types of pesticide registration

  1. Provisional registration shall be granted to all pesticides listed in the provisional clearance by the MAFF and are sold in the market.

  2. Conditional registration is granted when there are data requirements or conditions that are still to be met by the applicant, such as results of local efficacy studies and/or on the acceptability of the pesticide in terms of quality and indication of safety as required by the MAFF.

  3. Full registration is granted when the applicant has satisfactorily completed all the technical requirements regarding bio-efficacy, protection of the environment, safety in humans and animals.

  4. Experimental use permit is a permit granted to research institutions the importation of unregistered pesticide for research purposes.

Validity of pesticide registration certificate

Pesticide Control

Punishment

Penalties

Conclusions

Comments

References

H Vanhan (2004). Cambodian Paper on POPs Pesticides in Cambodia.

N Chhay (2005). The impact of IPM programme in Cambodia.

CEDAC (2004). Pesticide use and consequence in Cambodia.

MoE (2004). National profile on chemical management in Cambodia.

National Conference on Pest and Pesticide Management in Cambodia, 2005.

PPPIO (2004). Annual report on pesticide use and market surveys.

DAALI (2004). Report on obsolete pesticide in Cambodia.

DAALI (2004). Report on primary inventory on POP pesticides in Cambodia.

RGC (1998). Sub-decree No. 69 on Standard and the management of Agricultural materials.

MAFF (1999). Prakas No. 038 on the creation of the Bureau of Agricultural Material Standard.

MAFF (2002). Prakas No. 245 on the implementation of the Sub-decree No. 69.

MAFF (2003). Prakas No. 064 on Formats of Application Forms relating to Agricultural Materials.

MAFF (2003). Prakas No. 522 on the Mandate of the Department of Agronomy and Agricultural Land Improvement.

MAFF (2003). Prakas No. 598 on the Lists of Pesticide in Cambodia.

MAFF (2004). Prakas No. 204 on Amendment of Declaration No. 064.

MAFF & MoJ (2004). Prakas No. 02/04 on Formats and Police of Justice for MAFF/DAL.

MoC (1998). Sub-decree No. 05 on the Creation of Cambodian National Codex Committee.

Flow of Pesticide Registration in Cambodia

Cambodia Annex 1

Sub-decree 69 on the Standard and Management of Agricultural Materials

Chapter III. Pesticides

Article 11.

No pesticides shall be imported, manufactured, formulated, repackaged, distributed, sold or offered for sale, or used unless it has been duly, registered or given provisional clearance by the MAFF.

Article 12.

Any physical or juridical person who did, does and whishes to do business in pesticide should register their product and obtain the permit in MAFF.

Article 13.

The following products must be registered with the MAFF:


1. Pesticides that are not listed in the current MAFF list of permitted pesticide in use in Cambodia but are currently being sold.
2. Pesticides those are included in the MAFF list of permitted pesticides.
3. New pesticides that do not belong to class I, according to WHO classification.
4. Registered pesticides with changes in formulation or trade name.

Article 14.

Pesticides which are included in the MAFF list of banned pesticides, pesticides imported without permission from MAFF and pesticides belonging to Toxicity/Hazard Class I, according to WHO classification are not allowed for registration, except in case of emergency or for special purposes as determined by the MAFF.

Article 15.

There are 4 types of pesticides registration:


1. Provisional registration shall be granted to all pesticides listed in the provisional clearance by the MAFF and are sold in the market.
2. Conditional registration is granted when there are data requirements or conditions that are still to be met by the applicant, such as results of local efficacy studies and/or on the acceptability of the pesticide in terms of quality and indication of safety as required by the MAFF.
3. Full registration is granted when the applicant has satisfactorily completed all the technical requirements regarding bio-efficacy, protection of the environment, safety in humans and animals.
4. Experimental use permit is a permit granted to research institutions the importation of unregistered pesticide for research purposes.


A provisional or conditional registration shall be converted into full registration status within on year when conditions and requirements have been met satisfactorily. Extension for another year may be granted for valid reasons.

Article 16.

Full registration shall be valid for a period of 3 years, unless earlier revoked or cancelled. A renewal for similar period may be obtained after submitting the appropriate fee and additional data when required. Failure to renew registration will mean automatic cancellation of such.

Article 17.

The MAFF is empowered to charge fee for registration and renews with agreement of Ministry of Economy and Finance.

Article 18.

Every container or package of pesticide offered for sale, storage and use shall bear a label printed in Khmer language and easy to understand. The format and characteristic of the label should comply with the labelling standard prescribed by MAFF.

Article 19.

Pesticide container and related outer packaging should comply with the standards and regulations prescribed by MAFF.

Article 20.

Repacking of a pesticide is prohibited, unless it has been permitted by MAFF. Decanting or dispensing of any pesticide in food or beverage containers is prohibited.

Article 21.

Importation, production and sale of adulterated pesticide, damaged pesticide or pesticide which does not contain the quantity and type of active ingredient declared on the label or pesticide listed in conditional registration are prohibited.

Article 22.

Procedures and conditions for storage of pesticides shall be regulated by MAFF. The location of warehouse for pesticide shall be permitted by MAFF with agreement of the Ministry of Environment.

Article 23.

The disposal of waste and unwanted pesticides and empty containers should be permitted by MAFF with agreement of the Ministry of Environment.

Article 24.

The advertising of pesticide shall be regulated by the MAFF. Only pesticides, which are fully registered, may be advertised.

Cambodia Annex 2

LIST OF PESTICIDES BANNED FOR USE IN THE KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA

No.

COMMON NAMES

USE

WHO
Toxicity Class

Family

1

1, 1, 2, 2-Tetrachloroethane

FM


Org

2

2, 4, 5-T

H

O

OC

3

2, 4, 5-TP (Fenoprop)

H

O

OC

4

Aldicarb

I

Ia

CA

5

Aldoxycarb (Aldicarb sulfone)

I

O


6

Aldrin

I

O

OC

7

Aminocarb

I

O

Org

8

Amitraz

I

O

Triazapentadiene

9

Antu

R

O

CA

10

Aramite

I

O

OC

11

Arsenic compound (AS)

F


AS

12

BHC/HCH, Lindane

I

II

OC

13

Binapacryl

I, F

O

Org

14

Bis(tributyltin) oxide


O


15

Bromophos

I

O

OP

16

Bromophos-ethyl

I

O

OP

17

Cadmium compound (Cb)

F


Inorg

18

Calcium arsenate

I

Ib

AS

19

Calcium cyanide

FM

Ib

Inorg

20

Camphechlor

I

O

OC

21

Captafol

F

Ia

OC

22

Captan

F

Un

Phtgalimide derivative

23

Carbophenothion

I

O


24

Chlordane

I

II

OC

25

Chlordecone

I

O

OC

26

Chlordimeform

I

O

Formamidine

27

Chlorfenvinphos/CVP

I

Ib

OP

28

Chlormephos

I

Ia

OP

29

Chlorthiophos

I

O

OP

30

Coumaphos

AC

Ia

OP

31

Crimidine

R

O


32

Crotoxyphos

I

O


33

Cyanthoate/Tartan

I

O

OP

34

Cycloheximide

PGR

O

Org

35

Cyhexatin

I

III

OT

36

Cytokinin (Zeatin)

PGR


Antibac

37

Daminozide

PGR

Un

Org

38

DBCP (Dibromochloropropane)

FM

O

OC

39

DDT

I

II

OC

40

Demephion

I

O

OP

41

Demeton

I

O

OP

42

Demeton-S-methyl

I

Ib

OP

43

Diamidafos

N

O


44

Dieldrin

I

O

OC

45

Dimefox

I

O


46

Dimetilan

I

O


47

Dinoseb/Dinosebacetate, amine

H

O

Dinitrophenol

48

Dinoterb

H

Ib

NP

49

Dioxathion

I

O

OP

50

Disulfoton/Ethylthiodemeton

I

Ia

OP

51

DNOC

I

Ib

NP

52

Edifenphos

F

Ib

OP

53

Eldrine/Endrine/Nendrine

I

O

OC

54

Endosulfan

I

II

OC

55

Endothion

I

O


56

EPN

I

Ia

OP

57

Ethoprop/Ethoprophos

I

Ia

OP

58

Ethylene dibromide

FM


Org

59

Ethylene dichloride

FM


Org

60

Ethylene oxide

FM


Org

61

Fenamiphos

N

Ia

OP

62

Fensulfothion

I

O

OP

63

Fentin (Fenbutatin oxide)

I

Un

OT

64

Fluoro acetamide

R

Ib

Org

65

Fonofos

I

Ia

OP

66

Fosthietan

N

O

OP

67

Heptachlor

I

II

OC

68

Hexachlorobenzene

F

Ia

OC

69

IPSP

I

O


70

Isobenzan

I

O

OC

71

Isodrin (Isomer of Aldrine)

I

O


72

Isoxathion

I

Ib

OP

73

Lead arsenate

I

Ib

AS

74

Lead compound (Pb)



Inorg

75

Leptophos

I

O

OP

76

MCPB

H

III

OC

77

Medinoterb acetate

H

O


78

Mephosphoslan

I

O

OP

79

Mercaptophos

I

O

OP

80

Mercury compound (Hg)

F



81

Methacarbate


O


82

Methamidophos

I

Ib

OP

83

Methidathion

I

Ib

OP

84

Methomyl

I

Ib

CA

85

Mevinphos

I

Ia

OP

86

Mirex

I

O

OC

87

Monocrotophos

I

Ib

OP

88

Nitrilacarb


O


89

Nitrofen

H

O

Nitrophenol

90

Oxamyl

I

Ib

CA

91

Oxydeprofos (ESP)

I

O


92

Paraquat

H

II

BP

93

Parathion (Parathion-ethyl)

I

Ia

OP

94

Parathion-methyl

I

Ia

OP

95

Pentachlorophenate de sodium

F

Ib

OC

96

Pentachlorophenol/PCP

I, F, H

Ib

OC

97

Phenothiol

H

III

OC

98

Phorate

I

Ia

OP

99

Phosfolan

I

O

OP

100

Phosphamidon

I

Ia

OP

101

Prothoate

I

O

OP

102

Schradan

I

O

OP

103

Scilliroside/red squill

R

O

Org

104

Selenium compound (Se)

F



105

Sodium chlorate

H

III

OC

106

Sodium compound

F



107

Sodium fluoroacetate

R

Ia

Org

108

Strobane (tepene polychlorinated)

I



109

Sulfotep

I

Ia

OP

110

Talinum compound

R

O

Inorg

111

TEPP

I

O

OP

112

Terbufos

I

Ia

OP

113

Thionazin

I

O

OP

114

Triamiphos

F, I, AC

O


115

Triazophos

I

Ib

OP

116

Trichloronat

I

O

OP

LIST OF PESTICIDES RESTRICTED FOR USE IN THE KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA

No.

COMMON NAMES

USE

Toxicity Class

Family

1

Acrolein

H

Ia

Org

2

Alachlor

H

Ia

Acetanilide

3

Allyl alcohol

H

Ib


4

Aluminium phosphide

FM


IP

5

Azinphos-ethyl (Triazotion)

I

Ib

OP

6

Azinphos-methyl (Metiltriazothion)

I

Ib

OP

7

Azocyclotin

AC

II

OT

8

Blasticidin-S

F

Ib

 

9

Brodifacoum

R

Ia

CO

10

Bromadiolone

R

Ia

Anticoagulant

11

Bromoxynil/Ioxynil

H

II

Org

12

Buto carboxim (Butacarboxim)

I

Ib

CA

13

Carbofuran

I

Ib

CA

14

Chloropicrin

FM


IC

15

Dichlorvos/DDVP

I

Ib

OP

16

Dicofol

AC

III

OC

17

Dicrotophos

I

Ib

OP

18

Diphacinone

R

Ia

Anticoagulant

19

Fenthion

I

II

OP

20

Flocoumafen

R

Ia

Anticoagulant

21

Flucythrinate

I

Ib

PY

22

Formetanate

I

Ib

CA

23

Heptenophos

I

Ib

OP

24

Isazofos

I-S

Ib

OP

25

Isofenphos

I

Ib

OP

26

MAFA

F

III

Org

27

Magnesium phosphide

FM


IP

28

Mecarbam

I

Ib

OP

29

Methyl bromide

FM


AB

30

Nicotine

I

Ib

Org

31

Omethoate

I

Ib

OP

32

Oxydemeton-methyl

I

Ib

OP

33

Pirimiphos-ethyl

I

Ib

OP

34

Propaphos

I

Ib

OP

35

Propetamphos

I

Ib

OP

36

Strychnine

R

Ib


37

Thiofanox

I-S

Ib

CA

38

Thiometon

I

Ib

OP

39

Vamidothion

I

Ib

OP

40

Zinc phosphide

R

Ib

IP

LIST OF PESTICIDES PERMITTED FOR USE IN THE KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA

No.

COMMON NAMES

USE

WHO
Toxicity Class

Family

1

1-naphthylaceticacide

PGR

Un

Org

2

2, 4-D

H

II

PAA

3

Abamectin

I

III

Bio pesticide

4

Acephate

I

III

OP

5

Acrinathrin

I

Un

PY

6

Alpha-cypermethrin

I

II

PY

7

Ametryn

H

III

TD

8

Amitraz

I

III

OP

9

Anilofos

H

II

OP

10

Atrazine

H

Un

Triazine

11

Azadirachtins

I

III

BP

12

Bacillus thuringiensis

I

III

Baterium

13

Benfuracarb

I

II

CA

14

Benomyl

F

Un

Org

15

Bensulfuron

H

Un

Org

16

Beta-cyfluthrin

I

II

PY

17

Bromacil

H

Un

Org

18

Bromuconazole

F

II

Triazole

19

Buprofezin

I

III

TC

20

Butachlor

H

Un

OC

21

Butralin

H

III

Dinitroaniline

22

Calcium polysulfide

F

II

Inorg

23

Carbaryl

I

II

CA

24

Carbendazim

F

Un


25

Carbosulfan

I

II

CA

26

Cartap

I

II

CA

27

Chlomethoxyfen (Chlomethocynil)

H

Un

OC

28

Chlorfenapyr

I

II

OC

29

Chlorothalonil

F

III

Chloronitrile

30

Chlorpyrifos

I

II

OP

31

Cinmethylin

H

Un

Cineol

32

Clomazone

H

Un


33

Copper hydroxide

F

III

CU

34

Copper oxychloride

F

III

CU

35

Copper sulfate

F

II

CU

36

Coumatetralyl

R

Ib

Anticoagulant

37

Cyfluthrin

I

II

PY

38

Cypermethrin

I

II

PY

39

Cyproconazole

F

III

Azole

40

Dalapon

H

Un


41

Deltamethrin

I

II

PY

42

Diafenthiuron

I

Un

TU

43

Diazinon

I

II

OP

44

Difenoconazole

F

III

OC

45

Dimethoate

I

II

OP

46

Diniconazole

F

III

OC

47

Diuron

H

Un


48

Epoxiconazole

F

III

Triazole

49

Esfenvalerate

I

II

PY

50

Ethephon

PGR

Un

Org

51

Ethofenprox

I

II

OC

52

Fenitrothion

I

II

OP

53

Fenobucarb/BPMC

I

II

CA

54

Fenpropathrin

I

II

PY

55

Fenthion

I

II

OP

56

Fenvalerate

I

II

PY

57

Fipronil

I

II

PY

58

Fluazifop-p-butyl

H

III

Org

59

Flufenoxuron

I

Un

CU

60

Flusilazole

F

III

Triazole

61

Flutriafol

F

III

Triazole

62

Folpet/Folpel

F

Un

Org

63

Fosetyl

F

III

Org

64

Fthalide

F

III

Reductase

65

Gibberellic acid

PGR

Un

Org

66

Glufosinate

H

III

OP

67

Glyphosate/IPA Salt

H

Un

OP

68

Hexaconazole

F

Un

Triazole

69

Hexythiazox

I

Un

OC

70

Imibenconazole

F

Un

Triazole

71

Imidacloprid

I

II

Fichlomicotmile

72

Iprobenfos

F

III

OP

73

Iprodione

F

Un

Org

74

Isoprocarb

I

II

CA

75

Isoprothiolane

F

III

Org

76

Kasugamycin/Fthalide

F

Un

Org

77

Lambda-cyhalothrin

I

II

PY

78

Linuron

H

Un

SU

79

Lufenuron

I

II

BC

80

Malathion

I

III

OP

81

Mancozeb

F

Un

DC

82

Maneb

F

Un

DC

83

MCPA

H

III

Phenoxy

84

Mecoprop

H

III

Phytohormone

85

Metiram

F

Un

CA

86

Metolachlor

H

III

Chloracetanilide

87

Metribuzin

H

Un

Triazinon

88

Metsulfuron

H

Un

Org

89

Molinate

H

II

TC

90

Monosultap

I

III


91

Naled/Bromchlophos

I

II

OP

92

Nereistoxin/Dimehypo

I

II

Pyridine

93

Oxadiazon

H

Un

Oxadiazole

94

Oxolinic acid

F, B


Org

95

Pencycuron

F

Un

Phenylurea

96

Pendimethalin

H

III

Org

97

Permethrin

I

II

PY

98

Phenthoate/Dimephenthoate

I

II

OP

99

Phosalone

I

II

OP

100

Pretilachlor

H

Un


101

Prochloraz

F

III

CA

102

Procymilone

F

Un

OC

103

Profenofos

I

II

OP

104

Propanil

H

III

Anilide

105

Propargite

I

III

OP

106

Propiconazole

F

II

OC

107

Propineb

F

Un

CA

108

Pyraclofos

I

II

OP

109

Pyrazosulfuron

H

Un

CA

110

Pyridaphenthion

I

III

OP

111

Quinalphos

I

II

OP

112

Quinclorac

H

Un

OC

113

Rotenone

I

II

PY

114

Sethoxydim

H

III

CO

115

Simazine

H

Un

Triazin

116

Sodium Ortho-nitrophenolate + Sodium para-nitrophenolate + Sodium 5 + nitroguaiacolae

PGR


Org

117

Spinosad

I

III

Bio pesticide

118

Sulfosate

H

III

Org

119

Sulphur

F

Un

Inorg

120

Tebuconazole

F

Un

OC

121

Tebufenozide

I

III

PGR

122

Thiamethoxam

I

III

Org

123

Thiobencarb (Benthiocarb)

H

II

TC

124

Thiodicarb

I

II

CA

125

Thiophanate-methyl

F

Un

CA

126

Thiram (Thiuram, TMTD)

F

III

CA

127

Tralomethrin

I

II

PY

128

Triadimefon

F

III

Triazole

129

Triadimenol

F

III

Triazole

130

Trichlorfon/Chlorophos

I

III

OP

131

Tricyclazole

F

II

Triazole

132

Tridemorph

F

II

Org

133

Validamycin

F

Un

OP

134

Virus+Bacillus thuringiensis

I

II

Bacterium

135

Warfarin

R

Ib

Anticoagulant

136

Zineb

F

Un

CA

QUESTIONNAIRE SUMMARY

Cambodia

Selected Country Statistics:

Agricultural Population

9.6 million

Agricultural Land

3.8 million ha

GDP $4 299 million

Agric. GDP: 35.6%

GNI per capita: $310

Hunger: 33%

FAOSTAT Pesticide Data

Export

Import: $0.76 million

Use:

GDP = Gross Domestic Product; GNI = Gross National Income; Hunger = Population below minimum energy requirement; FAOSTAT = latest data entry between 1998 and 2002

Institutional Profile

Ministry

Legislation

Registration

Licensing

Enforcement

Testing

Training

Monitoring

Environm.

Health

Agriculture

DAL, DAALI

BAMS


BAMS

PPPIO

DAE, PPPIO



Environment









Health









Industry Associations:

Non-Governmental Associations: CEDAC, SRE KHMER, NGO Forum

A. Pest and Pesticide Management

IPM policy declared?

Yes

IPM mentioned in...



Crop Protection Policy?

Yes

Agric. Sector Policy?

Yes

Other laws/documents?


National IPM Program?

Yes


 

Dept: DAALI

IPM extension projects?

Yes

IPM research projects?

Yes

Pest resistance problems?

-


B. Testing, Quality Control and Effects

Laws for pesticide specifications?

Yes

Low quality products in market?

Yes

Quality control laboratory?

Yes


Own analyses in 2004: 55


Outside analyses in 2004:



C. Health and Environmental Information

Data on pesticide poisoning cases?

-


occupational exposure cases:


accidental exposure cases:


intentional/suicide cases:


Pesticide poison facilities?

-


Number of facilities:


Poison Information and Control Centers?

-


Number of centers:


Significant environmental contamination?

?

Data on effects on wildlife & ecosystems?

-

Pesticide residue monitoring system?\

-


Number of analyses 2004:



D. Pesticide Manufacture, Use and Trade

Pesticide Volume

Tons

$'000 Value

Imports

39


Manufacture



Exports



Sales






Pesticide Use Profile

Tons

$'000 Value




Agriculture (total)

198

226


Insecticides

73%


Fungicides

3%


Herbicides

8%


Other

15%


Veterinary



Public Health



Household



Other



TOTAL




E. Selected Standards of Code of Conduct

Illegal trade estimates?

-


Estimated amount 2004


Collection of old containers and pesticides?

-

Inventory of outdated/obsolete products?

-

Operational pesticide registration system?

Yes


Violations in 2004


Existing facility licensing system?



Inspections in 2004


Highly toxic products restricted?

Yes

Questionnaire responses: Yes = Yes; - = No;? = don't know; (blank) = no answer


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