LIBFISH FIELD DOCUMENTS,
|--TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT--|
PLANNING FOR AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN LIBYA: A REVIEWby J.E. Reynolds, D. Hadoud & F. Vallet
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Tripoli/Rome, September 1995
Table of Contents
LIBFISH publications prepared thus far appear as Technical Briefing Notes (TBN) and Field Documents (FD). The TBN series consists mostly of preliminary communications about ongoing or recently completed work undertaken through the various Project components, whereas the FD series is intended for more comprehensive reports and compilations of work in advanced stages or already finalised.
This ninth number in the FD series was prepared as a perspective on aquaculture possibilities and development options within Libya. It is based in part on an earlier technical paper submitted by Dr. F. Vallet (FAO Senior Aquaculture Advisor). Mr. D. Hadoud (Chief, Benthos Section, MBRC) contributed a good deal of supplementary information related to site characteristics, past and current aquafarming project activities, and maps. The authors arc indebted to a number of individuals for their assistance in providing background information and in reviewing the preliminary draft document. Thanks are especially due to Dr. C. Agius (Director, National Aquaculture Centre, Malta), Mr. M. Lamboeuf (FAO Sn. Fishery Biologist/Statistician), Mr. H. El Gomati (MBRC Research Officer), Ms. R. El Sherif (MBRC Research Officer), Ms. K. Ben Taleb (MBRC Research Officer), Dr. S. Gashout (Head, Dept. of Scientific Research Studies, MBRC), Mr. M. Zorgani (Consultant, General Aquaculture Development Authority - Khums); Capt. . Mangush (RV NOUR/MBRC), Mr. A. Abukhader (MBRC Research Officer), Mr. A. Fituri (National Service/MBRC), and Mr. A. Ben Abdallah (FAO National Project Consultant). Appreciation is also expressed for the kind help in map preparation work provided by members of the Physical Planning Project (United Nations Centre for Human Settlements - LIB/91/X01), Mr. J. Hatva (Chief Technical Advisor), Mr. M. Santiago (Architect Planner UNV), and Mr. M. Abeykoon (Urban Planner UNV). Mr. M. Hamada, Project Translator/Computer Operations Assistant, provided valuable help with the typing and graphics presentations needed to produce this report, and his efforts are also gratefully acknowledged.
FD 9 documents further progress towards the fulfillment of Project terms of reference related to aquaculture and planning/statistics in Libya. The Project's Aqua group is concerned, amongst other things, with: assessment of national aquaculture potential and existing capacity and requirements; site visits and evaluation; training activities in a wide array of aquaculture techniques including fry and feed trials, operation of experimental feed, hatchery, and supporting laboratory and production-related facilities; and the preparation of advisory reports to the Secretariat of Marine Wealth.
The Plan/Stat Group is concerned, amongst other things, with: review and analysis of national fisheries and aquaculture activities, socioeconomics and marketing, and policy instruments and institutional capabilities; assessing on this basis development constraints and potentials; advising the Secretariat of Marine Wealth on strengthening the national fisheries management system; improved monitoring of inshore and commercial fisheries; and related training of national personnel in survey methodology and computerised data management.
The original version of this report is written in English. Interpretations and/or translations into other languages should be verified against the original.
-- J.Eric Reynolds
|This report was prepared during the course of the project identified on the title page. The conclusions and recommendations given in the report are those considered appropriate at the time of its preparation. They may be modified in the light of further knowledge gained at subsequent stages of the project.|
|The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the United Nations or the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.|
For bibliographic purposes this document should be cited as follows:
Reynolds, J.E et al. 1995 ‘Planning for aquaculture development In Libya: A review’ Tripoli/Rome. FAO. 94p. Fl: DP/LIB/88/009 - Fl: GCP/LIB/021/lsDB, Field Document 9 (En).
Cover Photograph: ‘SEA FISHERS’*
|This mosaic, dating back some 1800 years, is now exhibited at the Jamahiriya Museum of Tripoli. Although fish and marine life motifs are common in the Libyan archeological record, realistic sea fishing scenes such as the one depicted here are quite rare as mosaic subjects, which more often express mythological themes. The ‘Sea Fishers’ piece, measuring 1.25 by 3.80 m overall, originates from the site of an ancient country villa near Leptis, close to the modern town of El Khoms. Such villas were constructed by owners of estates along the coast in the vicinity of major urban centres like Leptis, Oea, and Sabratha. They were usually quite elaborate establishments that included bath complexes and water reservoirs and, often, defensive walls and ditches as well. The residence that yielded this mosaic is known as the ‘Villa of the Nile,’ since the floors of two of its rooms were decorated with scenes from the River Nile. A third room was decorated with the ‘Sea Fishers’ mosaic. It is fashioned according to the Alexandrian technique that spread from the Nile delta to the rest of North Africa from about 2000 to 1600 years ago. ‘Sea Fishers’ was assembled entirely from locally obtained stone material. Around two-thirds of the whole mosaic is shown here. Sections of the remaining left side of the panel are missing and have been patched over. ‘Villa of the Nile’ was discovered accidently by local farmers working in fields midway between the Leptis Port and the Amphitheatre in 1916. It was subsequently excavated by a team of archaeologists between 1923 and 1930.|
|--||Dr. Giuma Anag|
Technical Advisor, Department of Antiquities &
Director, The Jamahiriya Museum
* Mosaic panel, Jamahiriya Museum
Catalogue No. 416; reproduced by kind permission of the Jamahiriya
Museum, Department of Antiquities, Tripoli. (Photograph by M. Lamboeuf, October 1994.)
Hyperlinks to non-FAO Internet sites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided. The sole purpose of links to non-FAO sites is to indicate further information available on related topics.
This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software. FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.
2. INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS.
2.1 Capture Fisheries and Aquaculture.
2.2 Aquaculture and National Objectives.
2.3 Cost Factors.
2.4 Financial and Socioeconomic Benefits.
3. SITE SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS.
3.1 Water Quality and Environmental Concerns.
3.2 Other Physico-Chemical Parameters.
4. PRODUCTION MODALITY CONSIDERATIONS.
4.1 On-Shore Installations: Ponds and Raceways.
4.3 Sabkha/Salt Marsh and Wetlands Environments.
4.4 Cage Culture
5. DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS FOR LIBYAN COASTAL AREAS
5.1 Tunisian Border to Sabratah,
5.2 Sabratah to Missurata.
5.3 Misratah to Benghazi: Gulf of Sirt
5.4 Benghazi to Bumbah: Jebal Akhdar
5.5 Bumbah to Egyptian Border
6. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.
6.1 Scope of Review.
6.2 Aquaculture in Global, Regional, and National Context.
6.3 Site Selection and Production Modalities: Possibilities and Constraints.
6.4 Major Observations and Recommendations.
7. REFERENCES CITED.
ANNEX 1. MAPS
• MAP 1. COASTAL ZONES: OVERVIEW
• MAP 2. COASTAL ZONES: ZUWARA - TRIPOLI
• MAP 3. COASTAL ZONES: GULF
• MAP 4. COASTAL ZONES: JABEL AKHDAR-TUBRUK
• MAP 5. FARWA LAGOON
• MAP 6. FARWA LAGOON, EXAMPLE PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT SCHEME
• MAP 7. AL HISHA AREA SABKHAT
• MAP 8. AL HISHA AREA SABKHAT, POSSIBLE FISH FARMING SITE
• MAP 9. AIN ZIANA LAGOON
• MAP 10. KHALIJ BUMBA
• MAP 11. AIN EL GHAZALA
ANNEX 2. TABLES.
TABLE 1. MULTIPLE USES OF COASTAL RESOURCES: ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS.
TABLE 2. POSSIBLE SITES AND OPTIONS FOR LIBYAN COASTAL AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT.
TABLE 3. LIBYAN COASTAL SITE SUITABILITY FOR VARIOUS AQUAFARMING PRODUCTION MODALITIES.
ANNEX 3. EXTRACT FROM TECHNICAL INTERPRETATION OF LAW 14 OF 1989
ANNEX 4. FIGURES.
FIGURE 1. EXAMPLE OF SOIL PONDS (DRAINED)
FIGURE 2. EXAMPLE SMALL-SCALE POND FARM
FIGURE 3. EXAMPLE SMALL POND WITH LINER
FIGURE 4. EXAMPLE LARGE-SCALE POND OPERATION
FIGURE 5. EXAMPLES FATTENING RACEWAYS (I)
FIGURE 6. EXAMPLE FATTENING RACEWAYS (II)
FIGURE 7. EXAMPLE LARGE-SCALE SHRIMP FARM OPERATION
FIGURE 8. EXAMPLE INSHORE CAGES (I)
FIGURE 9. EXAMPLE INSHORE CAGES (II)
FIGURE 10. FARMOCEAN OFFSHORE CAGE, UNIT (MALTA)
FIGURE 11. ‘AQUASYSTEM 104’ OFFSHORE CAGE UNITS