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CHAPTER 10
MISCELLANEOUS TECHNIQUES

10.1 MICROSCOPY

The close study of tsetse anatomy and trypanosomes cannot be done with the unaided eye. The following three instruments are routinely used:

  1. the hand lens

  2. the binocular or dissecting microscope

  3. the compound microscope (usually called the microscope).

10.1.1 The hand lens (Figure 10.1) This can give magnifications from x5 to x10 or x15. some high quality lenses can give x20.

The hand lens is used in the field to identify tsetse species by examination of external features (colour, shape of antennae, presence or absence of bristles, etc.). The use of the hand lens is described briefly under 9.2.

10.1.2 The binocular or dissecting microscope

(Figure 10.2) This can give magnifications of from x10 to x10O or slightly more.

The binocular microscope is useful both in the field and in the laboratory. It is used, for instance, for species identification, wing fray analysis, dissection of the ovaries and uterus, mouthparts and salivary glands, and for any types of research concerning the internal and external anatomy of tsetse.

The binocular microscope consists of a stand and a moveable optical part.

Fig. 10.1

Fig. 10.1 A hand lens

Fig. 9.16

Fig. 10.2 A binocular dissecting microscope; A, objective; B, stage; C, paired eyepieces; D, milled wheel for adjustment of focus; E, foot and stand; F, clip.

The stand consists of a base or foot (sometimes with a system of illumination within it), a stage, and an adjustable limb connected with the optical part.

The optical part can be raised or lowered by means of a focussing wheel.

The paired objective lenses are at the lower end of the optical part.

The paired eyepieces are at the upper end of the optical part. They can be lifted out and replaced by others of higher or lower power, as required. The distance between the eyepieces can be altered to suit the eyes of the user.

The amount to which an object placed on the stage is magnified depends on which objective lenses and eyepieces are selected for use. Some binocular micro-scopes have a zoom objective lens, allowing the objective to be adjusted to give any degree of magnification between an upper and a lower limit.

The total magnification can be calculated by multiplying the magnification of the eyepiece and that of the objective. For example, an eyepiece of x7, used with an objective lens of x10, will give a total magnification of x70.

The object to be studied is placed on the stage. In the field during daytime, it can be illuminated by ordinary daylight, but at night, and in the laboratory, an electric or other lamp is normally used. Sometimes the binocular microscope has an electric lamp supplied with it. Stronger light is needed to study an object under high magnification.

To focus on an object, the user looks through the eyepieces and moves the focussing wheel until the fine details of the object can be seen clearly.

To examine a pinned fly, it is convenient to push the point of the pin into a piece of cork, and hold this, rather than to hold the pin directly.

10.1.2.1. Dissection To examine the internal organs, the fly may be pinned to a piece of plasticine in a watch glass (or to a waxed dissecting dish), and covered with a 0.9% saline. The watch glass is then placed on the stage of the binocular microscope.

Opening up the abdomen is done under low power magnification. Examination and dissection of the parts of particular interest are carried out under higher power magnification.

The parts needed for closer examination are dissected out using fine forceps and find dissecting scissors, and placed in a drop of saline solution on a glass slide. The drop is then covered with a cover glass, to prevent evaporation.

If a permanent preparation of chitinous parts (e.g. genitalia) is to be made, the procedure is as described under 10.1.4.

For routine dissections there are normally quick methods of isolating the organs required (see 8.5.2.1, for example).

10.1.2.2 Dissecting instruments for use with the binocular microscope The following instruments (Figure 10.3) are used for making dissections under the binocular (dissecting) microscope:

  1. a pair of fine, sharp pointed scissors

  2. two mounted needles

  3. one fine mounted blade (Borradaile needle)

  4. one bent seeker

  5. one fine-bladed scalpel

  6. two pairs of watchmakers' forceps (fine pointed forceps)

  7. watch glasses (the solid type is preferred)

  8. entomological pins

10.1.3 The compound microscope (Figure 10.4) This can give magnifications of x50 to x1500.

Fig. 10.3

Fig. 10.3 Dissecting instruments; A, mounted needle; B, bent seeker; C, mounted blade; D, fine pointed scissors; E, scalpel; F, forceps.

Fig. 10.4

Fig. 10.4 A compound microscope; A, milled wheel for coarse adjustment of focus; B, milled wheel for fine adjustment of focus; C, limb; D, clip; E, foot; F, eyepiece; G, objective; H, stage; I, condenser; J, mirror.

It can he used only to study very thin objects, which are usually mounted on a glass slide and covered with a glass cover slip (see 10.1.4). It is used mainly to study very small parts of the anatomy (for instance, the inferior claspers and other details of the genitalia), trypanosomes, blood and tissue films, and parts of organs that have been specially prepared by sectioning and staining (sectioning and staining are not dealt with in this Manual).

The basic parts are as in the dissecting micro-scope: the stand, consisting of a base or foot, a stage and a limb connecting with the optical part; and the optical part which has an eyepiece and an objective.

In addition, a compound microscope has:

  1. a sub-stage condenser, which focusses light reflected off a mirror, on to the object being examined.

  2. an objective lens of higher power (up to x100).

  3. a fine adjustment for fine focussing, in addition to the usual coarse adjustment.

Strong illumination is needed for the micro-scope, particularly at higher magnifications. Strong daylight or electric light are used.

After adjusting the illumination of the micro-scope stage, so that a good even light passes through the eyepiece, the glass slide to be examined is placed on the stage and held there with spring clips.

Focussing is carried out as follows:

  1. the coarse adjustment is turned to raise the objective lens well above the stage.

  2. the lowest power objective lens is swung into position. Looking at the objective lens and the slide from the side, the objective lens is brought close to the slide (using the coarse adjustment), without causing the two to touch.

  3. looking down the eyepiece, the fine adjustment is turned slowly and carefully, bringing the objective lens upwards, until the object is in focus.

Using this method, the danger of hitting the glass slide with the objective lens, and so causing damage to both, is avoided.

For beginners, or for experienced personnel using a microscope that is new to them, this procedure should be followed each time the objective lens is changed.

But with experience with a particular microscope, it may be found that the objective can be switched around from low to medium power lenses, without each time checking the gap between the lens and the glass slide.

To use the high power oil immersion objective, a drop of immersion oil is placed on the part of the slide to be examined. Using the medium power objective, the part of the slide to be examined is put at exactly the centre of the field (the view as seen through the eyepiece).

The high power objective is turned carefully into position, so that the tip of the objective is within the drop of oil. Looking down the eyepiece, the objective is lowered slowly and carefully using the fine adjustment, until the object is in focus.

10.1.4 Preparation of material for microscopy In this section some techniques are described that should be of use to anyone who has, for example, to prepare Glossina male genitalia for microscopical examination, for species identification.

Details of how to make serial sections and stained permanent preparations are not included in this Manual.

10.1.4.1 Removing the hypopygium from the fly The male abdomen is cut across at segments 3 or 4, using a pair of scissors. Care should be taken that the part cut off, bearing the hypopygium, does not flick away and become lost as the scissors cut.

10.1.4.2 Maceration and dissection To clear away unwanted tissue from (to macerate) the specimen, it is placed in 10% caustic potash in a watch glass. The watch glass and contents are warmed, using an electric lamp brought up close to it: a desk lamp is suitable. Maceration then takes only 10–20 minutes. Alternatively the specimen for maceration can be placed in caustic potash in a test tube, which is put in a water bath heated by a gas burner or spirit lamp.

After maceration the specimen is transferred to water in a watch glass for examination.

The hypopygium (Figure 10.5 A, B) is opened and the superior claspers are pulled upwards. This reveals the penis. Just anterior to the penis are the two leaf-like inferior claspers. The parts required (often these are the superior and inferior claspers) are pulled off using fine forceps (Figure 10.5 B, C).

Alternatively, the following mixture can be used for maceration: distilled water 300 ml, chloral hydrate 400 g, glacial acetic acid 300 g. This has a gentler action than caustic potash. It can be used in the cold for 12 to 24 hours, or in the warm for 5 to 10 minutes.

10.1.4.3 Neutralisation The specimens are placed into glacial (100%) acetic acid for 5 minutes, to neutralise the caustic potash and to remove all the water.

10.1.4.4 Clearing The specimens are then placed in cedarwood oil or xylol, and examined through a binocular (dissecting) microscope. If any cloudiness appears, they should be returned to the glacial acetic acid for sane minutes.

Fig. 10.5

Fig. 10.5 Steps in the preparation of Glossina male genitalia for microscopic examination; A, the hypopygium in the closed or resting position; B, the hypopygium opened to show the superior claspers (s.c.) and inferior claspers (i.c.); C, the superior claspers and inferior claspers dissected away from the remainder of the genitalia; D, Canada balsam being added to the genitalia on a glass slide; E, a cover slip placed over the preparation; F, the complete preparation with label.

10.1.4.5 Mounting and labelling The specimens are placed on a clean glass slide (Figure 10.5 D).

A drop of canada balsam is placed on the specimens and allowed to spread (Figure 10.5 D).

A cover slip is placed carefully on this drop (Figure 10.5 E). Alternatively the canada balsam can be placed on the slide first, then the specimens arranged within this drop before covering with a cover slip.

The preparation (i.e. the glass slide and its specimens) is carefully labelled, using a gummed paper label. The label should show details of the fly, its origin, and the parts that are on the slide (Figure 10.5 F).

The preparation is put aside and allowed to lie flat in a safe place for several weeks, for the canada balsam to harden at the edge of the cover slip.

10.1.4.6 An alternative method of mounting Alternatively, the specimens can be mounted between two cover slips (instead of a slide and a cover slip). These are then glued over a hole cut into a small piece of card about the size of a glass slide, or smaller.

The card can be placed on the same pin as that holding the fly from which the specimen came. This keeps the fly and its genitalia together on the same pin.

10.2 METEOROLOGY

Meteorology is the study of weather. We have to understand how the following can affect the weather:

  1. temperature
  2. pressure of the atmosphere
  3. wind
  4. humidity, precipitation and evaporation
  5. time of year

10.2.1 Temperature The sun heats the surface of the earth during the day. This makes the air near to the earth warmer than the air higher up.

The differences in air temperature from place to to place are mainly due to the differences in ground temperature.

At night the ground loses heat by radiation. This causes the layer of air close to the ground to become cooler than the layers of air immediately above it. But this condition, called temperature inversion, normally lasts only from evening time to soon after sunrise the next day. It occurs only when the air is fairly still, and is more likely to occur when the sky is clear.

10.2.2 Pressure of the atmosphere At sea level atmospheric pressure is approximately 1 kg/sq cm. Atmospheric pressure is measured in millibars (mb).

1 millibar = 1 g/sq cm

At sea level the average atmospheric pressure is therefore approximately 1000 mb (760 mm mercury).

For each rise of 100 m above sea level, the average atmospheric pressure falls by 11 mb.

Cold air is denser than hot air. Therefore, in warm or hot air the atmospheric pressure is low, but in cold air it is high.

Hot air tends to rise, cool air tends to fall towards the ground.

10.2.3 Wind In general, winds travel from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. This usually means that winds come from cold areas to hot areas.

The line towards which tropical winds converge is called the inter-tropical convergence zone (I.T.C.Z.). It follows the apparent movement of the sun between the tropics and is mainly north of the equator in June, mainly south in December. Its position is very important in influencing the seasonal weather in the tropics.

More locally, winds can result from the different heating of different areas. This may be due to clouds, shielding parts of the land from the sun, or to the sea or lakes, which do not heat or cool as quickly as the land.

A thermal is an up-current of warm air: it may be caused by a local heating of an area of higher ground.

A down-current may often be found on the sheltered (lee) side of a mountain or hill. Down-currents also occur down slopes at night when the general wind is light.

Both strong up-currents and strong down-currents can occur in thunder clouds.

10.2.4 Humidity and precipitation Air is never quite dry; it always contains some water vapour. The humidity of the air refers to the amount of water vapour in it.

At a particular temperature, there is a limit to the amount of water vapour that air can carry. When the air carries as much water vapour as it can it is said to be saturated with water vapour. Before this level is reached, air is said to be unsaturated.

Relative humidity (RH) of a volume of unsaturated air is:

weight of water vapour in that volume of air
weight of water vapour in the same volume of saturated air at the same temperature.

The relative humidity of saturated air is written as 100 % RH.

10.2.5 Time of year The rainfall associated with the ITCZ (see 10.2.3) lies in the southern tropics in January, and the northern tropics in July (see Figure 10.6). Generally, the months around January are rainy in the south, but rains occur around July to the north of the equator. Some areas on, or close to, the equator may have two rainy periods in the year, as this rain belt crosses them twice in the year.

Fig. 10.6

Fig. 10.6 Wind direction (arrows) and main areas of rainfall (shown as a belt of cloud) in January and July in parts of the African continent.

Winds in West Africa north of the equator, show a regular seasonal pattern. In the dry season months they are from the north-east (Harmattan), carrying dust particles and the smoke of bush fires; in the wet season they are from the south-west bringing storms, rain and clear air.

10.2.6 Meteorological instruments

10.2.6.1 Mercury-in-glass thermometer (Figure 10.7) A mercury-in-glass thermometer has a bulb or reservoir (A) in which most of the mercury is stored, and a long glass tube or stem (B) leading away from the reservoir. The tube has a narrow bore, and thick walls. When the reservoir is cooled, the mercury contracts and retreats down the tube. These movements can be read off, using a scale (C) marked on the tube or mounted next to it.

10.2.6.2 Maximum and minimum thermometer (Figure 10.8) This is a special kind of mercury-in-glass thermometer. It is used for recording maximum and minimum temperatures. In addition to mercury (A) inside the glass, there is some alcohol (B), which also expands when heated. There are also two sliding markers within the U-shaped tube. When the temperature is high, one of the markers (D) is pushed by the mercury up the right hand tube. When the temperature is low, the other marker (C) is pushed by the mercury up the left hand tube, but the first marker (D) remains in position recording the highest temperature reached. In the same way when the temperature rises again, marker (C) remains in position recording the lowest temperature reached. The lower ends of the markers (C) and (D) register the minimum and maximum temperatures respectively.

Fig. 10.7
Fig 10.7
Fig. 10.8
Fig 10.8
Fig. 10.9
Fig 10.9
Fig 10.10Fig. 10.10

Fig. 10.7 Mercury in glass thermometer; A, reservoir or bulb; B, glass tube; C, scale marked on stem.

Fig. 10.8 Maximum and minimum thermometer; A, mercury; B, alcohol; C, marker registering minimum temperature; D, marker registering maximum temperature.

Fig. 10.9 Soil thermometer; A, bulb placed beneath soil surface; B, stem marked with temperature scale and lying on the soil surface; C, soil.

Fig. 10.10 Diagram to show the action of an aneroid barometer; A, partly evacuated airtight container; B, pointer; C, scale.

Fig. 10.11
Fig 10.11
Fig. 10.12
Fig 10.12
Fig. 10.13
Fig 10.13

Fig. 10.11 Pith ball anemometer; A, wind inlet; B, pith ball; C, vertical tube widened at the top; D, scale.

Fig. 10.12 Wet-and dry-bulb thermometer (hygrometer); A, dry-bulb thermometer; B, wet-bulb thermometer; C, damp cloth sleeve; D, water reservoir.

Fig. 10.13 Rain gauge; A, collecting cylinder; B, funnel; C, measuring cylinder (this is often kept in a separate place).

The thermometer can be left unattended for a period, for example a day, a week or a month, and examined at the end of this period. The highest temperature and lowest temperature reached in that time are registered by the position of the lower ends of the two markers, and can be noted. The thermometer is reset by using a small magnet (supplied with the thermometer) to pull the markers back into position, touching the ends of the mercury column.

10.2.6.3 Soil thermometer (Figure 10.9) This is used for recording the temperature at a given depth in the soil. The tube of the thermometer is bent through a right angle, so that the bulb (A) can be placed at a certain depth in the soil. The scale (B) is marked on the part of the stem that lies on the soil surface (C).

Different soil thermometers are required to record the temperature at different depths of soil.

10.2.6.4 Barometer (Figure 10.10) This is an instrument that measures the atmospheric pressure. Basically it consists of an airtight box (A), attached to a pointer (B). The box has some of the air in it extracted, but is prevented from collapsing fully by a strong spring that supports the walls. As the atmospheric pressure rises, the box collapses slightly and moves the pointer in one direction on the scale (C); when the pressure drops, the box expands by the action of the spring and the pointer moves in the opposite direction. No maintenance is required.

10.2.6.5 Anemometer (Figure 10.11) This is an instrument to measure wind speed. A simple type is the pith ball anemometer. The instrument is held so that the wind blows against the entrance (A), forcing the pith ball (B) some way in the vertical tube (C). The height to which the ball is sent depends on the strength of the wind. The scale (D) written against the vertical tube shows the wind speed.

The tube may have to be tapped gently, if the pith ball sticks in it. Pocket-sized instruments are available.

10.2.6.6 Wet and dry bulb thermometer (for measuring humidity) (Figure 10.12) This also is a special kind of thermometer, adapted for use in measuring the relative humidity. It consists of two mercury-in-glass thermometers set side-by-side. The dry bulb thermometer (A) is an ordinary thermometer. The wet bulb thermometer (B) has its reservoir surrounded by a sleeve of wet cloth (C). The temperature recorded by the wet bulb thermometer will be lower than the actual temperature due to the cooling effect of evaporating water. This cooling effect is greater in dry air, less in humid air. By referring to a table provided with the instrument, the relative humidity of the air can be read off against the true temperature shown on the dry bulb and the reduction in temperature recorded on the wet bulb thermometer. The water in the vessel (D) that keeps the cloth sleeve damp has to be renewed regularly, and the cloth sleeve should be changed at regular intervals.

The whirling psychrometer is basically a similar instrument mounted on a strong frame pivoted on a handle. It is swung vigorously through the air before the readings are taken.

10.2.6.7 Rain gauge (Figure 10.13) This is an instrument to measure the amount of rain that has fallen in a period, usually a day. It is best to use a rain gauge of standard design.

The collecting cylinder (A) beneath the funnel (B) collects any rainwater that falls during the previous 24 hours. To measure the rainwater, the cylinder (A) is emptied into the graduated glass cylinder (C), and the level read off. After the amount of water collected has been written down in the records, the glass cylinder (C) is emptied and the apparatus set up again as shown in the diagram. The measurements should be taken at the same time each day. The rain gauge should be sited in an open area well away from buildings, trees and other obstructions.

10.2.7 Weather conditions and the application of insecticides (see also Volume III, Chapter 5) For applying aerosols, temperatures should be below 25°C.

For aerial applications of insecticides, a temperature inversion in the atmosphere is required, as otherwise droplets become scattered over a much wider area than the target area. Temperature inversions occur from the evening to soon after sunrise, particularly on cloudless days (see 10.2.1).

During the application of insecticides from aircraft, winds should not exceed 8 km/hour (5 mph). For the application of aerosols from the ground the wind should not be more than 12 km/hour (7.5 mph), and for spraying from the ground winds should not be more than 15 km/hour (10 mph).

An aerial spraying programme should, if possible, be arranged so that each run of the aircraft is at right angles to the prevailing wind. The operation should begin at the downwind end of the spray area, so that aircraft do not fly into spray from the previous run.

Insecticides should not be applied during rain. The effect of persistent insecticides is reduced by rain, even after spraying.

10.3 PREPARATION OF REPORTS

10.3.1 Types of reports

10.3.1.1 Monthly Reports These are written at the end of each month.

10.3.1.2 Quarterly Reports These cover each 3 month period. They are more comprehensive than the brief monthly reports: depending on departmental policy they may replace the monthly report for the month in which they are written.

Both these types of report give a summary of work done in the period covered, with administrative and technical details.

10.3.1.3 Technical or Scientific Reports These are visually written by the more senior technical staff. They frequently contain detailed descriptions of tsetse surveys, ecological investigations and tsetse control activities.

10.3.1.4 End of Reclamation Season Report At the end of each reclamation (or spraying) season (normally this is the dry season) a report is made stating techniques, area covered, costs and other statistics.

10.3.1.5 Annual Reports Such reports are written by departmental and section heads (as may be the policy of the tsetse control department). The departmental annual report will be submitted to the National Government.

10.3.1.6 Handing-over Reports They describe the duties of the writer in such a way that another official who is replacing him can quickly learn how to do his job.

10.3.2 Writing a technical report

10.3.2.1 Title page A report should have a title page (or cover). The title page should state:

  1. the type of report (technical, progress, etc.)

  2. the title of the report (what was done, where and when)

  3. the name of the person writing the report

  4. the writer's post (Tsetse Control Officer, Field Officer, etc.) and the address of his department

  5. place where the report was written

  6. the date when the report was written (or typed)

An example of a title page is given in Figure 10.14.

10.3.2.2 Table of Contents, and Text A long report should have a Table of Contents, placed immediately after the title page (or cover).

An example of a Table of Contents is given in Figure 10.15. In this example, single numbers are put against the main headings, and two-figure numbers put against sub-headings, but other systems can be used depending on departmental policy.

The part of the report which follows the title page and Table of Contents is called the text.

An example of the first text page of a report is given in Figure 10.16.

Different sections of the text are given numbers and headings, which will also appear in the Table of Contents.

10.3.2.3 Introduction to report The first major section of the report is the Introduction. The type of information presented in the Introduction is as follows:

  1. background information on the activities reported on

  2. the purpose of the activities reported upon

  3. who conducted the activities

  4. when the activities were carried out (dates)

  5. the order in which the work was carried out

Fig. 10.14

Fig. 10.14 An example of a report title page.

Fig. 10.15

Fig. 10.15 An example of a report Table of Contents.

Fig. 10.16

Fig. 10.16 An example of the first text page of a report.

10.3.2.4 Description of the area If the work refers to tsetse distribution survey or control, then the second major section of the report will be concerned with a description of the area where the work was carried out.

The following might be included:

  1. basic geographic features (rivers, roads, plains, hill, mountains, etc.), often with a sketch map at the back of the report

  2. information on climate and weather

  3. information on the vegetation zone and vegetation types (woodland, grassland, forest, etc.) which can also be put into a map

  4. information on human settlements, movements and activities (farming, fishing, livestock production, etc.) and on major human disease problems

  5. if livestock are present in the area details should be given of:

    -   stock types and densities

    -   stock movements if they occur, e.g. migrations

    -   their influence on tsetse populations

    -   animal disease, if these are known

  6. the distribution and density of wildlife (game animals) in the area, especially those species which are normally fed upon by tsetse

  7. if the area has been visited before or if the area is to be involved in a tsetse control campaign, it is essential to provide information on tsetse species and distribution, possible sources of tsetse re-invasion, and possible places for making tsetse barrier zones.

10.3.2.5 Material, methods and staff This section should report on:

  1. staff (numbers and types)

  2. vehicles

  3. equipment used for catching, studying or controlling tsetse (hand nets, traps, bait animals, insecticide types and formulations, spraying equipment, etc.)

  4. how the equipment was used, e.g. procedures for sampling and analysing tsetse collections, dilution of insecticides, insecticide application techniques

  5. safety precautions taken, if the work involved the spraying of insecticides

  6. type of records kept

10.3.2.6 Results All results must be reported accurately and truthfully, however unusual they may appear to be to the people who have obtained them.

Much of the detailed information should be put into maps, diagrams, graphs and tables, for inclusion at the end of the report (see also 10.4).

Some information will be entered on to specially prepared forms, which are issued by the officer's department. Some examples of these are:

  1. fly round record sheet
  2. daily trap catch record sheet
  3. monthly analysis of fly round records
  4. daily analysis of insecticide trial
  5. consumption of insecticide record sheet
  6. daily record of dead animals found in the control zone.

10.3.2.7 Discussion or conclusions Garments and discussions of the results and of the problems encountered can be put into this section. Suggestions for future work or follow-up action should be placed in a Recommendations section.

10.3.2.8 Acknowledgements Help given to the officer by individuals or departments should be recorded.

10.3.2.9 End of report If the report is a long and detailed one, then a list of the books, maps or other documents from which the writer has obtained information to help him write his report can be given under Bibliography.

Below the Bibliography the writer should put his name, the date when the report was completed and a distribution list.

10.3.2.10 Other useful hints

  1. Tables and illustrations (maps, graphs, diagrams, etc.) should always be numbered in correct order and placed at the back of the report.

  2. The scientific (or Latin) names of animals and plants should be underlined, e.g. Glossina morsitans, Phacochoerus aethiopicus and Isoberlinia doka.

  3. Abbreviations for units of measurement should agree with those given in standard reference books.

  4. If reports are typed, one and a half line spacing should be used and the margin at the left hand side of the paper should be at least 2.5 cm (1 inch) wide.

  5. Write or type on one side only of each sheet of paper.

10.4 MAPS, MAP MAKING AND ILLUSTRATIONS

Maps and diagrams are very important to tsetse survey and control personnel, and most large tsetse departments employ full-time at least one officer for their preparation.

It is equally important for the more senior technicians of tsetse departments to be able to construct simple but accurate maps and diagrams, and to know how to use maps for planning, recording of information and for finding one's position in the field (map reading).

10.4, 1 Types of maps Although there are many shapes sizes and types of maps, they are all simplified drawings of a certain part of the earth's surface as seen from above (a ‘bird's eye view’).

Printed maps which are widely available are of three basic types:

  1. Simple outline maps, providing the minimum of geographic information. These are often called base maps. These maps, at suitable scales, can be useful to the tsetse worker for adding technical information (distribution of tsetse, vegetation, etc.).

  2. Maps presenting very specific information but which exclude much basic geographic information. Common examples are climatic, geological, population, vegetation and economic maps. Some of these maps, especially those presenting climatic (rainfall, temperature, etc.) and vegetational information, are useful to the tsetse worker in understanding the distribution and ecology of tsetse species.

  3. Generalised maps showing such features as roads, rivers, lakes, settlements, mountains, etc. These are called topo-graphical maps, and they are generally the ones that are most useful to tsetse workers.

There are also some very specialized printed maps such as the regional maps of Africa showing the continental distribution of the different tsetse species, and the national tsetse distribution maps which are available for most countries.

10.4.2 Description of topographical maps Map sheets generally have the following:

-   Title (Figure 10.17 iv). This is often the name of a country, province or district.

-   Map catalogue reference number (Figure 10.17 v). This helps people to select the map they require from a map catalogue. It usually appears in the top righthand comer of the map.

-   Margins and frames (Figure 10.17 ii, iii).

-   North point diagram (Figure 10.17 vi). One arrow labelled Grid North runs parallel to the north/south grid lines on the map. Another arrow, labelled True North, is of little practical field use. A third arrow is labelled Magnetic North; it is the north to which a compass needle points although it changes very slightly from year to year.

Fig. 10.14

Fig. 10.17 The lay-out of a typical map sheet; (i) edges of map-sheet; (ii) margin; (iii) frame; (iv) title; (v) map reference number; (vi) north point diagram (M = magnetic north; G = grid north); (vii) key panel containing the legend for the symbols; (viii) scale-line; (ix) scale as a representative fraction; (x) details of where, when and by whom the map was made and printed: details may also be given of the edition and of revision.

-   Symbols. These make up the map itself and represent the different features that are found in the area covered by the map. Common examples are: single lines (rivers), double lines (roads), dotted lines (paths and tracks), dots (settlements), circles (towns).

-   Contour lines. These are special types of symbols; they are lines which join up all places represented on the map which are the same height above sea level. The heights represented by the contour lines are written in as numbers (of metres or feet).

-   Lines of latitude. These lines run in a west-east direction across a map, to show how far north or south of the equator the place is. Lines are marked in degrees (°) and minutes ('). The equator is latitude 0°.

-   Lines of longitude. These lines run in a north-south direction across a map, to show how far east or west the place is, in relation to the Greenwich Meridian, a line that passes through Greenwich, near London, England. These lines are also marked in degrees (°) and minutes ('). Greenwich Meridian is longitude 0°.

-   Scales and scale lines. The scale of a map is the relationship between the distance (in centimetres or inches) between two places shown on the map and the distance between them on the ground (usually in kilometres or miles). For example, if the distance between two places is 1 cm on the map and 1 km on the ground, the scale is 1 cm = 1 km. Since there are 100,000 cm in 1 km, this scale can also be described as a representative fraction (R.F.), as or (1:100,000). A scale line is a line on the map sheet showing the distance on the ground represented by a length on the map. In the above example, a scale line of 1 cm would represent 1 km on the ground. Scales of maps often used for tsetse work are shown in Table 10.1.

Table 10.1 Scales of some of the maps commonly used for tsetse work

R.F.1 inch equals1 cm equals
1/10,000*0.1578miles0.1 km
1/50,000*0.8miles0.5 km
1/100,000*1.6miles1.0 km
1/125,0002.0miles1.25 km
1/200,000*3.1565miles2.0 km
1/250,0004.0miles2.5 km
1/500,000*8.0miles5.0 km

* Metric series

10.4.3 Practical hints on the preparation of illustrations (maps and diagrams)

Illustrations are made to record information which would not be easily understood if it were written down. They are usually made by the person who collected the information, or if more than one person was involved, by the senior member of the team.

They should be as clear and as accurate as possible. Complicated illustrations should be avoided. It is often better to put part of the information into one illustration, and part into a second one.

10.4.3.1 Materials

  1. Paper For preliminary sketches ordinary paper from notebooks or typing paper will be satisfactory. But final illustrations should be made on good quality drawing paper, tracing paper, white card or graph paper. Maps or other large illustrations should be drawn on large sheets of card or on large rolls of tracing paper, tracing cloth or graph paper.

  2. Pencils Pencils are used for preliminary illustrations, but not for the final ones because pencil marks easily rub and become untidy. HB pencils (medium hardness) are used. They are sharpened with a sharp knife.

  3. Pens Ordinary writing pens are useful for preliminary sketches. For final illustrations indian ink pens giving lines of very uniform thickness are best (e.g. Rapidograph, Standardgraph, Isograph). 0,25, 0.5 and 0.8 mm are the most useful sizes for map-making, and are useful for other illustrations also, as well as for stencilling. The double bow pen produces two parallel lines and is therefore useful for drawing roads on maps.

  4. Ink Black indian ink should be used.

  5. Drawing instruments Field staff will certainly require the following: pens, ink, pencils, rubber (eraser), sharp knife or scalpel, ruler (preferably metal), steady table with flat, smooth top, and weights for flattening paper on to the table. Additional items which would be very useful (and essential at H.Q.) include: drawing board, T-square, set square, protractor, pair of compasses, set of French curves, assorted stencils, pen stand, blotting paper and pantograph (see 10.5).

10.4.3.2 Techniques for map making Having decided upon the type and amount of technical information to be included, the map maker should prepare a draft (preliminary) map sketch.

If possible, it is best to construct a new map on the basis of an existing printed map.

Maps relating to tsetse work can often be constructed in a fairly simple form (see Figure 10.18).

Symbols representing topographical features should be the standard ones used on printed maps; symbols to be used to represent tsetse species are given in Chapter 4.

Tsetse workers will often have to construct maps showing different types of vegetation. These can be represented by dots, small dashes, small circles or parallel lines (hatching) (see Figure 10.18}.

A 0.5 ran lettering stencil is useful both for lettering and for drawing tsetse symbols, which take the form of squares, diamonds, triangles and circles. For example, the capital A can be used to complete two sides of an upright triangle; the capital V can be used to complete two sides of an inverted triangle; the sides of a square can be drawn using the uprights of the capital M. The same letter used at an angle of 45° can be used to draw a diamond shape.

10.4.3.3 Techniques for graph and histogram making Graphs and histograms should be drawn on graph paper, Like maps they require a title, and symbols (usually one or more graph lines), and sometimes a key.

Constant values are entered along the horizontal axis (the horizontal bottom margin) and variable values are entered on the vertical axis (usually the left-hand vertical margin). Examples of constant values are time, length, volume and dosage. Examples of variable values are percentages (of males and females, of mortality, etc.), numbers of flies caught, etc. (see Figures 10.19, 10.20).

Fig. 10.18

Fig. 10.18 An example of a tsetse survey map.

Fig. 10.19
Fig. 10.19

Fig. 10.19 Examples of graphs; A, variation of temperature with time of day; B, daily changes in the numbers of flies caught in traps, after spraying.

Fig. 10.20

Fig. 10.20 Example of a histogram, stowing the number of males and females in a sample, falling into the six standard wing fray categories.

The way to make a histogram from a series of monthly fly catches is given below (see Figure 10.21).

Suppose that the monthly totals of flies caught are:

January30
February25
March40
April38
May53
June50
July45
August41
September40
October38
November37
December36

Find the largest of the montly totals. In the example this is 53 for May. Bound off this number upwards, making 60.

On the page of graph paper, rule two axes, the vertical one on the left of the page, the horizontal one at the foot of the page. Mark out the horizontal scale with 12 narks with equal intervals between them. These intervals represent the 12 months, and can be labelled accordingly.

The vertical scale is for representing the monthly totals. Mark off the vertical axis by equal intervals, each interval representing 10.

Write in the rounded up total (60) and the appropriate number against the other marks (10,20,…etc.) on the vertical scale.

Construct the histogram by:

  1. putting in points corresponding to the monthly totals

  2. ruling a horizontal line through each point, the width of each month interval; this is shown as done for the months January to August, in Figure 10.21.

  3. ruling vertical lines from the ends of the horizontal axis; this is shown as done for the months January to May, in Figure 10.21.

Fig. 10.21

Fig 10.21 Stages in the construction of a histogram (see text).

10.4.3.4 Techniques for making vegetation profile diagrams A vegetation profile diagram is a drawing of a piece of vegetation as it would be seen in cross-section. For example, if one cleared vegetation up to a given line, what would be seen on the other side of the line would be the vegetation profile. Instead, the surveyor moves in a straight line through a piece of vegetation, making notes on:

  1. the distances between trees, shrubs, rocks, river banks, etc.,

  2. heights of different types of vegetation

  3. stratification of vegetation (presence or absence of canopy, emergent trees, understorey trees/shrubs, grass cover, etc.)

  4. density of cover.

From the information collected a vegetation profile diagram can be drawn up. This can then assist in understanding the local distribution and resting behaviour of a particular tsetse species, or it may be used for planning discriminative and selective insecticide application procedures.

A vegetation profile diagram consist of symbols or sketches representing different types of vegetation, and will have with it a title, a key to the symbols, scale lines, explanatory notes and the name of the person who made the sketch.

Fig. 10.22

Fig. 10.22 Vegetation profile sketches; A, using simple symbols for different tree species; B, putting in the shapes of trees, but diagrammatically (stylised representation); C, using a more realistic or naturalistic style.

There are three basic types of vegetation profile diagrams:

  1. those in which vegetation is represented in a very symbolized way. Figure 10.22 A is of this type. It represents a G. pallidipes dispersal zone in open woodland (western Kenya).

  2. those in which vegetaion is represented in a stylized (semi-naturalistic) way. Figure 10.22 B is of this type. It represents a G. palpalis riverine forest habitat (western Upper Volta). On the right bank there is an obvious stratification of Khaya {upper stratum), of Berlinia and Carapa (middle stratum) and small trees and shrubs (lower or understorey stratum). Berlinia provides most shade close to the water's edge where the preferred resting sites of G. palpalisare located.

  3. those in which vegetation is represented in a more natural way. Figure 10.22 C is of this type. It represents a G. tachinoides habitat of the west bank of the River Mekrou (Niger).

10.4.3.5 Techniques for making landscape sketches For many aspects of tsetse work it is useful to have a visual record of the landscape features. The easiest way to record the features of a landscape is by taking a photograph. Another way is to make a sketch.

The advantage of landscape sketches are that they are cheap, immediately available, and can be made to pick out special features/that a photograph might not be able to show so well. However, persons making such sketches need to have a basic artistic skill.

Landscape sketches must have titles, details of who made them, and explanatory notes relating them to places on a map or an aerial photograph.

Fig. 10.23

Fig. 10.23 Examples of landscape sketches; A, showing an escarpment and its vegetation; B, showing an escarpment, some isolated hills and lowland thicket (see-text).

Figure 10.23 A shows hilly country drawn when the observer was on low ground. In the background is a grass-covered escarpment with two upland gully thickets (G. pallidipes habitats). The middle distance shows downland moist thicket on the right (G. pallidipes habitat), and Acacia woodland (G. pallidipes dispersal zone). In the foreground is open grassland.

Figure 10.23 B shows a view from the top of a hill. In the foreground is lowland moist thicket (G. pallidipes habitat) on the left, and open grassland on the right. The thicket passes between an escarpment on the left and hills on the right, into the distance. It extends into some gullies on the escarpment and at the base of the nearer hill.

10.5 AERIAL SURVEYS AM) PHOTOGRAPHY AS AIDS IN TSETSE SURVEY

Aerial photographs are a series of photographs taken vertically from an aircraft. When fitted together they give a ‘bird's eye’ picture of that part of the country which has been photographed.

A tsetse worker, wishing to make a detailed map of the vegetation of his area, cannot use small-scale maps without extra help and information. This extra information can come from aerial photographs.

Aerial photographs may be obtained from government survey departments either on loan or by buying them. Each photograph is numbered, and has written on it details of where and when it was taken.

To use these aerial photographs, they must be put into the correct order and joined together with sticky tape on to a sheet of hardboard or plywood. All photographs should be carefully looked after. If they are the property of the tsetse department they can be marked, preferably with the correct type of grease pencil, but this should be kept to a minimum. It is useful to cover the series of photographs with a large sheet of transparent plastic. this sheet can be marked with grease pencil or felt nib pen, without damaging the photographs underneath.

Once the survey photogaphs have been correctly set out and orientated to a base map, the required information (e.g. outlines of vegetation types) can be transferred freehand or traced on to this map.

In a large office, for example at headquarters, a pantograph nay be available (a pantograph is a hinged ‘arm’ of metal or wood, which is used to trace an outline on one paper, and transfer it on a different scale to another paper). Also, it is useful if a field officer can be trained in the use of a stereoscope that can scan aerial photographs and give more detailed information on vegetation types.

When mapping vegetation in this manner, vegetation types to be seen on the aerial photographs must be identified by means of ground surveys. If the investigator is very familiar with the vegetation of the area he may be able to recognise immediately at least some of the various plant communities involved.

In the future, increasing use will be made of satellite photographs to relate fly distribution to vegetation.

INDEX

A

Aardvark 65, 67

Abdomen 4, 5, 6, 13, 14, 164, 165, 167, 173 et seg.

Abortion 29, 134

Acacia 243, 247

Accessory glands 21, 22, 23

Activity 114

Acute disease 83

Aedeagus 13

Aerial photography 242, 243

Aerial spraying 217

Aerosol 117

Age (of Glossina) 87, 137 et seg.

Age estimation 241, 95, 134 et seg.

Alcohol 132

Amino acid 19

Anemometer 219, 220

Angola 39, 43, 50, 58, 186

Animal burrows (see burrows) 101

Animal, models (as traps) 95 et seg.

Antelope 66, 68, 71, 72

Antenna 5, 8, 157

Antennal fringe 160 et seg.

Anti coagulant 15, 17

Anus 13, 17, 20

Aorta 19

Arista 5, 8

Artificial refuges 96, 99

Assimilation 19, 27, 30 Availability (of tsetse flies) 121

B

Baboon 67

Bait animals 100, 112, 114, 121

Balance 12

Barometer 220

Base map 231, 248

Behaviour 20, 107

Belt (of tsetse) 38

Benin (Rep: of) 50, 186

Bias (of sample) 119, 120

Bibliography (in reports) 220

Bicycle chanter 118

Biology 3

Birds 68

Biting flies 2

Blood (of tsetse) 19

Blood meal 4, 13, 15, 17, 19, 26, 30, 63 et seg. 76, 102, 141 et seg.

Blood system (of tsetse) 19

Body (of trypanosome) 69, 70, 71

Botswana 39, 50, 58, 60, 183

Bouin's fluid 131, 132

Bovidae (bovids) 66, 67

Bovines 71, 72

Brain 21

Breathing (of Glossina) 29

Breeding sites 91

Brucei group 76

Bruoci subgroup 76

Bruoci type (of life cycle) 78, 79

Buffalo (= bush cow) 63 et seg., 71

Burrows 91, 101

Burundi 39, 50, 186

Bush cow (see Buffalo) 63 et seg., 71

Bush pig 64, 65, 73

Bushbuck 63 et seg.

C

Cage 124 et seg.

Camel 71, 73, 74

Cameroon 43, 51, 186

Canada balsam 137, 211

Canopy 243

Capillaries 15

Carbohydrate 19

Carbon dioxide 20, 97

Caustic potash 132

Cell 12, 154

Central Africa 80

Central African Republic 43, 51, 186

Chad 31, 43, 51, 186

Challier trap 96, 97

Chloroform 128

Chorion 24, 27

Choriothete 25

Chronic disease 83

Claw 11, 12

Collection (of flies) 93

Collection (of pupae) 97

Colour 4, 164

Compass 232

Compound eyes 4, 5

Concentration area 121

Congo (Rep: of) 51, 186

Congolense group 76

Congolense type (of life cycle) 78, 79

Contour line 234

CORMORANT 68

Coxa 11, 12

Crocodile 69

Crop (of Glossina) 16, 17

Cuticle 4, 9

Cyclical transmission 79

Cyclical development (of tryps) 77 et seg.

D

DOT 118

Diagram making 235

Diffusion 20

Digestion 17, 19, 27, 30

Digestive system 15 et seg.

Dilution 229

Discriminative spraying 243

Disease 63 et seg.

Dispersal (of tsetse)

Dissection 133, 150, 206

Dissecting instruments 206, 207

Distribution 38 et seg., 58 et seg.

Dog 72, 74

Domestic animals 63 et seg.

Domestic pig 65, 73, 83

Donkey 71, 74, 83

Dourine 74

Down current 215

Draught oxen 1

Drawing materials 235

Drug 1, 2

Ducts 21

Duiker 64, 66, 68

Dung 97

Duttonella 76

E

East Africa 80

Ecology 3

Ecological opportunity 88

Economic development 1

Egg 23, 24, 26, 134

Egg tooth 27

Eland 66

Electric trap 98

Elephant 65, 67

Emergence 7, 30

Emigration 108

Endemic disease 1

Endocrine system 21

Energy 19, 20

Enzyme 19

Epidemic disease 1, 2, 80, 82

Equatorial Guinea 52, 182

Equines 71, 72, 74

Eradication (of fly) 2

Escarpment 245, 246

Ether 128

Ethiopia 39, 43, 46, 52, 58, 60, 175

Ethyl acetate 124, 128

Evergreen forest 60

Excretion 19, 20

Eye 4, 5, 202

Eye piece 204, 205

F

Faeces 17, 20

Fat 19

Fat body 20

Feeding 1, 9, 15

Femur 11, 12

Fertilizer 21, 24

Fixed-wing aircraft 222

Flagellum 69, 71

Flotation (method of collecting pupae) 92

Fluorescent powder and paint 101

Fly belt 38, 60, 74, 89, 118

Fly round 110 et seg., 120, 121

Focus (for disease) 80

Focussing 207

Following swarm 102

Forceps (dissecting) 207

Food 19, 20, 60

Food canal 9

Food storage 20

Frost 58

Fusca group 46, 49, 51, 88, 98, 156, 157

G

Gabon 43, 52, 186

Gallery forest 43, 46, 60

Gambia 52, 186

Gambian sleeping sickness 1, 80, 82

Game animals 39, 60, 61, 82, 89

Ganlion (of tsetse) 21

Geigy cages 124

Genitalia 13

Germs 33

Ghana 52, 186

Giant forest hog 65

Giraffe 64, 68, 71

Glossina

austeni 35, 36, 42, 43, 53 et seg., 58, 60,64 et seg., 164 et seg., 193, 197

brevipalpis 35, 37, 46, 48, 52 et seg., 65 et seg., 88, 97, 98, 157, 162 et seg., 199

caliginea 35, 36, 43, 51, 52, 54

fusca 36, 46, 51 et seg., 64 et seg., 88, 121

fusca fusca 35

fusca congolensis 35

fuscipes 33, 36, 43, 44, 46, 50 et seg., 64, 66 et seg., 80, 88, 97, 103, 120, 121, 157 et seg., 194, 197

fuscipes fuscipes 35

fuscipes martini 35

fuscipes quanzensis 35

fuscipleuris 36, 46, 51, 56, 57, 65, 67, 176 et seg.

haningtoni 35, 36, 46, 51, 52, 54, 56

longipalpis 35, 36, 41, 50 et seg., 64, 66, 87, 89 120 et seg., 196

longipenis 35, 37, 43, 47, 52, 53, 56, 60, 65, 67, 68, 88, 157 et seg., 198

medicorum 35, 37, 46, 51 et seg., 98

morsitans 24, 26, 27, 33, 36, 39, 40, 50 et seg., 63 et seg., 80, 87 et seg., 97 et seg., 103, 107, 119, 120, 135, 157 et seg., 191, 196, 197

morsitans centralis 35, 39

morsitans morsitans 35, 39

morsitans submorsitans 35, 39, 68

nashi 34, 35, 37, 46, 51, 52

nigrofusca 36, 51 et seg.

nigrofusca hopkinsi 35

nigrofusca nigrofusca 35

pallicera 36, 43, 50 et seg.

pallicera newsteadi 35

pallicera pallicera 35

pallidipes 35, 36, 39, 41 50 et seg., 64, 66, 80, 87, 89, 97, 99, 120, 157 et seg., 190, 196

palpalis 33, 36, 43, 44, 46, 50 et seg., 64, 66 et seg., 87, 88, 97, 105, 120, 121, 137, 157 et seg., 198

palpalis gamdiensis 35

palpalis palpalis 35

schwetzi 35, 36, 46, 51, 52, 56, 162

severini 35, 37, 56

swynnertoni 35, 36, 40, 53, 55, 64, 65, 66, 68, 80, 89, 107, 135, 162 et seg., 192, 197

tabaniformis 35, 36, 46, 51 et seg., 65, 66, 68, 159 et seg.

tachinoides 35, 36, 43, 45, 50 et seg., 60, 64, 66 et seg., 87, 88, 97, 114, 120, 157 et seg., 195

vanhoofi 35, 37, 56

Glucose 147

Goat 83, 124

Gorged 105, 106

Graphs 237, 239

Grid north 232, 233

Growth 20, 27

Guinea 43, 53, 186

Guinea pig 124

Guinea Bissau 53, 186

H

Haemolymph 19, 21

Halteres 12

Handlens 34, 101, 157, 202, 203

Harristrap 95, 96

Hartebeest 68

Hatchet cell 12, 153, 154

Haustelloum 9, 10

Head 4, 158

Head-up position 107

Heart 19

Hectors 13, 14, 101

Hind gut 17, 20

Hippopotamus 65, 67

Histogram 117, 240 et seg.

Hormone 21

Horse 71, 74, 82, 83

Host animals 26, 63 et seg., 76, 124, 144 et seg.

Humidity 60, 123, 124, 215

Hunger staging 103 et seg., 115, 122

Hungry flies 93, 98, 107, 121

Hygrometer 219

Hypopharynx 9, 10, 11, 15, 148 et seg.

Hypopygium 13, 14, 101, 150, 210, 211

I

Identification 32

Illustrations (drawing of) 235 et seg.

Immersion Oil 210

Impala 68

Indian ocean 39, 58

Infection rate 86 et seg., 137, 149 et seg.

Inferior claspers 13, 14, 168, 171, 211, 212

Ink 236

Insecticide 123, 124, 221

Insemination rate 132, 133

Instar 26

Intermadiate 106

Isoberlinia 231

Ivory Coast 53, 186

J

Jack trap 96, 97

K

Kalahari sands 60

Kenya 39, 43, 46, 53, 58, 60, 179

Key (for identification of Glossina species) 156 et seg.

Killing bottle 128

Kinetoplast 59

Knapsack sprayer 118

Kudu 63, 64, 66

L

Labelling (of insect specimens) 130 (of insecticides) 92, 129 et seg.

Labellar teeth 9, 15

Labium 9, 10, 11

Labrum 9, 10, 11

Lake Tanganyika 46

Lakeshore 46

Lake Victoria 39

Landscape sketches 245 et seg.

Langridge trap 96, 97

Larva 13, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 28, 134

Larviposition 25, 27, 29

Latitude 234

Leg 9, 11, 12

Lens 5, 101, 157, 202, 203

Liberia 53, 186

Longitude 234

M

Machado's fluid 132

Maceration 132

Malawi 39, 53, 183

Mali 43, 54, 186

Malpighian tubules 17, 19, 20

Mammal 73, 74

Man 63, 64, 67, 69, 73, 80, 83

Man-fly contact 80, 82

Mangrove swamp 39, 43

Maps and map making 231 et seg.

Maps (base) 231

Maps (topographical) 232

Map-making 231

Marking flies 107 et seg.

Mating 13, 24, 26

Maxillary palps 9, 10

Mechanical transmission 73, 74, 89 et seg.

Median lobes 165, 166

Mesonotal suture 154, 155

Meteorology 213 et seg.

Meteorological instruments 217

Microscope 202 et seg.

Microscope (dissecting) 204

Microscope (compound) 208

Microscopy 34, 69, 131 et seg., 150 et seg., 202 et seg.

Midgut 17, 19, 72, 73, 153

Milk gland 23, 24, 27

Miombo 61

Molootrap 96, 97

Monitor lizard (Varanus) 69

Morphology (of trypanosome) 69

Morris trap 96

Morsitans group 35, 39, 50 et seg., 89, 157

Mounting (for microscopy) 212, 213

Mouth 27

Mouthparts 9, 10

Movement (of tryps) 71

Movement (of tsetse) 4

Mozambique 39, 43, 46, 54, 58, 183

Mule 71

Muscles 41, 20, 21, 30

Muturu 2, 86

N

Nagana 82, 86

Names (of species) 33, 35

Namibia 183

Nannomonas 76

N'Dama 2

Nets 93, 94, 99, 102, 114

Nervous system 20, 21, 79

Neutralisation 211

Niger 186

Nigeria 39, 43, 54, 186

Non-teneral flies 30, 102, 115

North point 233

Nucleus 69

O

Objective lens 208, 209

Ocelus 5

Oesophagus 15, 16

Olfactory pits 7

Ommatidia 5

Opaque 105

Opportunistic feeding (see ecological opportunity)

Ostrich 68

Ovarian analysis 139 et seg.

Ovariole 23

Ovary 23

Oviduct 23, 24

Ovulation 24

Ox 63, 64, 65

Ox (as food for tsetse) 63, 64, 65

Oxygen 19, 20

P

Paint 102

Palpalis group 43, 50 et seg., 69, 80

Pantograph 248

Paper (for illustrations) 236

Paradichlorobenzene 131

Parasites (of tsetse) 91

Pathogenic (trypanosomes) 69

Pen (for illustrations) 236

Pencil (for illustrations) 236

Penis (see aedeagus) 13, 14, 23, 26

Peritrophic membrane 17

Pharynx 15, 16

Photograph 245, 247

Physiology 15

Picket 117 et seg.

Picric acid 132

Pig (see domestic pig, Suidae) 65

Pig family 64, 65, 72, 75, 82

Pinning (of insect specimens) 128

Oikymorphic trypanosomes 71

Polypneustic lobes 27, 29

Pooter 127

Population (of tsetse) 108

Porcupine 64, 65, 68

Post spray run 97

Precipitation 215

Pregnancy 25, 99

Pregnancy rate 132 et seg.

Preservative 131

Pressure (of atmosphere) 214

Proboscis 9, 15, 72, 73, 77, 98, 149 et seg.

Protein 19

Protozoa 69

Proventriculus 15, 16, 17, 149

Psychrometer (whirling) 223

Ptilinal suture 7

Ptilinum 7, 8, 28, 30, 103

Pulvillus 11, 12

Pump 118

Pupa 28, 29, 58, 77, 91 et seg., 123, 130

Pupal period 92

Puparium 29, 30, 91, 130

R

Rabbit 124

Radiation 213

Rain 215, 126, 222

Rain forest 39, 43, 46, 88

Rain gauge 219, 221

Rearing (of tsetse) 132

Reclamation 110, 223

Rectum 17

Red river hog 63, 64, 65

Reflecting paint 102

Refuges (see artificial refuges) 98

Repair 20

Replete 106

Reports (writing) 222 et seg.

Reproduction 21, 31

Reproductive system 21, 22

Reptiles 64, 65, 69

Reservoir (of infection) 84 et seg.

Resistance 2, 89

Respiration 19

Resting flies 93, 101 et seg., 145

Resting sites 102

Rhinoceros 64, 67

Rhodesian sleeping sickness 80, 82, 85

Rinderpest 60

Rot holes 101

Ruminants 71, 72

Rwanda 39, 54, 186

S

Saliva 9, 15, 76

Salivary gland 15, 73, 149 et seg.

Sampling 119 et seg.

Scale 234, 235

Scissors (dissecting) 207

Screen 99, 112

Scutellar bristles 154, 155, 162

Segments 13

Selective spraying 243

Senegal 43, 54, 186

Sense organs 20

Sensillum 7

Setting (up of insect specimens) 128

Settlements 110

Sex determination 13, 14, 101 et seg.

Sex differences 22, 32

Sex ratio 121

Shade 245

Sheep 83

Side effects (of insecticides) 3

Sierra Leone 55, 186

Sieve 91

Simple eye 7

Size of tsetse 101, 154

Sleeping sickness 1

Smell (sense of) 7

Somalia 39, 43, 46, 55, 60, 175

South Africa 43, 46, 55, 183

Species 32, 33

Species group 34

Sperm 21, 24, 26, 133, 134

Sperm pump 21, 23

Spermatheca 23, 24, 26, 133

Spermathecal ducts 24, 26, 133

Spiracle 12, 13, 19, 20, 27

Squamae 161, 173

Stain 71

Stereoscope 248

Sticky trap 99

Stomoxys 89

Storage (of pupae) 92

Storage (of adult flies) 130, 131

Strain (of tryps) 76

Stress 86

Structure 3

Subspecies 32

Suda-39, 43, 46, 55, 58, 175

Suidae (pig family) 65

Superior claspers 13, 14, 26, 165 et seg., 212

Surra 74, 89

Survey 238

Swaziland 55, 183

Swynnertoni trap 45, 96

Symbols (for species) 36

Symptoms 99

Systematic 32 et seg.

T

Tabanidae (tabanids) 72, 74, 89

Tagging (see marking) 107 et seg,

Tanzania 39, 43, 46, 55, 179

Tarsus 11, 12, 164

Temperature 23, 30, 39, 58, 61, 80, 88, 114, 123, 124, 214

Temperature inversion 214, 222

Teneral fly 13, 30, 31, 103, 115

Tergite 13

Testis 21, 22

Thecal bulb 9, 159 et seg.

Thermal (wind) 215

Thermometer 217

Thermometer (maximum and minimum) 217

Thermometer (soil) 218

Thermometer (wet and dry bulb) 218

Thicket 60

Thorax 4, 9, 21, 160, 161

Tibia 11, 12

Togo 56, 186

Topographical maps 232 et seg.

Tracheae 19

Traffic 117, 118, 119

Training 1, 3

Transmission (of disease) 4, 85

Transcuscent 105

Traps 93 et seg.

Trees and tree trunks 39, 60, 101

Troch anter 11, 12

True north 232, 233

Trypanosoma 1, 2, 69 et seg., 98, 149 et seg.

brucei 71, 73, 76, 77, 79, 82, 83, 87, 89

congolense 72, 76, 79, 82, 83, 87, 89, 90

equiperdum 74

evansi 74

gambiense 71, 73, 76, 79, 80, 82, 83

rhodesiense 71, 73, 76, 79, 80, 83, 85

simiae 73, 76, 79, 82, 83

suis 75, 79, 82, 83

theileri 72

uniforms 72, 76, 77, 82, 83

vivax 72, 76, 77, 82, 83, 87, 89, 90

Trypanosomal fever 79

Trypanosome (see Trypanosoma)

Trypanosomiasis, human 1, 2, 3, 79, 81 animal

Trypanotolerant cattle 2, 86

Trypanozoon 76

Tsetse (see Glossina)

Type specimen 33

U

Uganda 39, 56, 80, 179

Ultra violet lamp 102

Undulating membrane 69

Upper Volta 39, 56, 186

Uterine gland (see milk gland)

Uterus 23, 24, 26, 134

V

Varanus (see monitor lizard) 69

Vector 72, 74

Vegetation 59, 60, 110, 112, 228, 248

Vegetation profile diagram 243 et seg.

Vehicle 98, 117

Vehicle chamber (at picket) 117, 118

Vehicle (as trap) 98

Vein (see wing vein) 11, 155, 163

Vivax group 76

Vivax type (of life cycle) 77, 78

Vulva 13, 14, 24, 25, 29

W

Warthog 63, 64, 65, 73

Waterbuck 68

Watershed 39, 58

West Africa 39, 43, 58, 60, 61, 80

Wildebeest 63, 68

Wildlife 228

Wind 214 et seg.

Wing 4, 9, 12, 30, 154

Wing cray 12, 98, 135 et seg.

Wing vein 11, 155, 163

Winter 39, 58

Z

Zaire 39, 43, 46, 56, 186

Zambia 39, 57, 58, 60, 183

Zambezi 80

Zebra 63, 68, 71

Zebu 82

Zimbabwe 39, 43, 57, 58, 60, 183

NOTES


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