Contents - Previous - Next

Annex A



In the case of forestry, tree felling, log hauling, forest clearance for agriculture, logging-road construction, saw milling, reforestation and other forestry activities that have an environmental effect and an environmental impact.


Optional site or area where the same forestry project could be carried out with equal, lesser or greater environmental impact; alternative may also refer to different harvesting or industrial methods or processes, including different timing, that may have different environmental impacts.

Assessment; Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

Activity or process of evaluation or analysis of actions and their environmental impacts. The evaluation of alternatives is central to formal EIA.


Officer responsible for carrying out EIA; may be a government official or an environmental specialist, retained by either the government or the proponent. Funding agencies may have their own assessors on staff in order to review projects,

Cumulative impact

Environmental impact of one project added to (and sometimes augmented by the impact of other projects.

Diversity, species

Number of plant or animal species per unit area; a high number of species or high diversity, is usually indicative of a relatively undisturbed environment, of a complex ecosystem and of an area that may be of scientific or economic value (genetic diversity, source of medicinal and other valuable plants, presence of species as yet unknown to science, etc.). However, some undisturbed ecosystems may have low diversity and viceversa.


An assemblage of plants and animals, in a specific physical setting that supports them and that functions as a unit because of internal linkages such as foodwebs. Humans, such as forest dwellers, can be part of distinct natural ecosystems.

Environment (Milieu)

Sum total of the biophysical elements (air, water, land, other organisms, man-made habitat) that support the life of organisms. In the case of man, the term environment is often used to include the cultural and socio-economic fabric that sustains his life and livelihood. Milieu is a synonym.

Environmental effect

Initiation or acceleration of environmental change caused by human action.

Environmental impact

The net change, whether beneficial or detrimental, in the environment brought about directly or indirectly by human action and its effects.

Environmental Impact Assessment EIA

See Assessment.

Environmental Impact Report (EIR)

Document that describes and analyses a given biophysical and socio-economic environment, and the impacts on this environment caused by various actions; often referred to as an Environmental Impact Statement, particularly in North America.

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

See Environmental Impact Report.

Environmental Indicator

See Impact Indicator.

Impact Area or Region

Total area or region where the direct and indirect environmental impacts of a particular project and its actions are felt.

Impact Indicator

An animate (plant or animal) or inanimate (eg., water quality) component of the environment that is especially sensitive to disturbance and, hence, likely to change; it is, therefore, monitored in order to detect disturbance of the environment (or recovery from that disturbance). Also referred to as an Environmental Indicator.


Reduction or alleviation of negative environmental impacts by moans of preventive, corrective or remedial measures. Mitigation through prevention may mean the omission of parts of a proposed project.

Model, simulation

Simplified representation of ecosystems, including man and his activities, or parts of ecosystems and their functioning by means of flow diagrams, mathematics or computer programmes. Computerized simulation models lend themselves to manipulation in order to reproduce the impacts of various assumed actions.


Surveillance of specific components of the environment (eg., water quality, population numbers of certain species, nutrient levels in soils, etc.) for the purpose of detecting deterioration (or recovery) of those components as a result of environmental impacts (or of mitigation, in the case of recovery).


Public or private organization or private individual responsible for the initiation and execution of a forestry project. In EIA, the proponent is normally the party whose primary purpose is to achieve public or private economic gains through a particular project.


Agency, board, commission or single official responsible for examining the contents and validity of Environmental Impact Reports, and for recommending further administrative action on the basis of these reports.

Contents - Previous - Next