by J.B. Abbington and N.J.L. Clinch
The previous chapters of this publication have reviewed the role of livestock in the context of the Nepalese hill farming situation. Particular reference has been made to their dependence and effect on what may be considered the ultimate renewable resource upon which all the hill and mountain agricultural systems are based, the natural forests and pastures.
It is apparent from the descriptions given, that the traditional hill farming practices which have been developed over long periods of time, are based upon the result of innovation and adaptation of tried and tested procedures by the farmers themselves. That there is wide variation in cropping patterns and practices observed, is a measure of the response not only to the diversity of ecological conditions that are found within the country, but also to the ingrained ethnic and socioeconomic conventions that are associated with particular communities. These last have to be addressed with at least equal attention to technical considerations, when identifying constraints to agricultural production, and developing and implementing an improved or new technology.
The foremost theme to emerge from the analysis of traditional agricultural systems in the hills of Nepal is that they are all based upon the interactions and interrelationships between arable cropping, livestock and the exploitation of the forests and pasturelands. It is also very clear that a balance has to be struck between these three major components in order for agricultural production to be sustained. The chief problem is that a situation of imbalance is now apparent, and the primary cause of this is overpopulation by both humans and large livestock within the hill regions. To attempt to solve the former problem would mean dealing with ethical considerations relating to the question as to why large families are deemed to be valuable. These are not within the scope of this document, but the consideration of the latter will be addressed.
All the authors have stressed the two common themes, that the farmers themselves perceive as major constraints to their livelihoods. These are a steady decline in soil fertility resulting in lower crop yields, and a degradation of the fodder resource so that they can no longer maintain their livestock in good condition throughout the year. At suboptimal levels of productivity, the stock fail to produce adequate quantities of manure with which the farmer can maintain and replenish soil fertility. It seems likely that a majority are already caught up in this downward spiral of diminishing returns, and unless the situation can be resolved, then the whole hill agro-ecological system will become unsupportable with consequences that will be apparent in areas far removed from the hills of Nepal.
This impending catastrophe for Nepalese hill farming is a recurring theme in the literature, but to determine to what extent this is inevitable, there is a need to define and quantify the problem. Consideration of the indicators of unsustainability as defined by Jodha (1991) and presented in Table 2, Chapter 3, reveals that a number of these criteria are already occurring, for example land and forest degradation, reduced water flow for irrigation, decreases in yield of crops, and livestock products, and migration from the hills to the Terai. Although undoubtedly cause for great concern, it is debatable whether a critical “point of no return” has yet been reached, and whether in fact all the criteria do represent unsustainability. Changes to management practices such as reduced fallowing, crop rotation, and diversified enterprises could be a response to more efficient land-use practices following adoption of total stall-feeding of livestock, rather than a sign of instability.
Given the ethical constraints to attempting to limit further increase of human population within a short timeframe, the key to the continued sustainability of agriculture lies in controlling the numbers and activities of the large ruminants. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to analyse the present situation more thoroughly.
The Samuhik Bhraman technique of Rapid Rural Appraisal has proved to be an extremely effective tool in problem analysis and prioritisation. It can be used with equal effect to identify a specific production constraint on an individual crop, livestock species or forest product, or to analyse an entire farming system. Its particular strength lies in the composition of the team involved, which will be multidisciplinary so far as is compatible with the survey objectives. Though initially developed for problem identification within the hill regions, the method has now been adopted by other national institutes throughout Nepal, and is proving equally effective in other areas. There is no reason why this technique should not be adopted more widely elsewhere.
The strategy identified for preventing further degradation within the hill agricultural systems is to reduce the numbers of large ruminants maintained under traditional transhumance or sedentary systems so relieving pressure on the land and the forests. The policy adopted to increase productivity has been to upgrade the local cattle and buffaloes through crossbreeding with exotic bloodlines, and to rear these crossbreds under a stall-feeding system. To some degree, this has been a successful policy, particularly in peri-urban areas where there is a readily available market for milk and meat. However, within the hill farming systems there has to be adequate incentive to induce the farmers to change their traditional practices. The approach to increasing animal production requires fundamental alterations to the farming system in order to be successful, which the farmer may or may not be willing to adopt.
Through the use of Samuhik Bhraman surveys, hill farming systems and cropping patterns have been analysed and “opportunities for change” identified. This consisted of utilising the normal winter fallow period at low to medium altitudes (700–1200m asl) for growing off-season vegetables where farms were close to markets, and production of vegetable seed where they were not. Because these enterprises had the potential to realise high cash income returns, they were readily adopted by the farmers, and provided sufficient incentive to remove cattle and buffaloes from the land and stall-feed them.
Because of the extra labour involved in collecting and carrying fodder, a demand for an animal of higher production potential has arisen, and so the crossbred cattle and buffaloes are now more readily acceptable to farmers than they might have been under previous circumstances. There does not seem to have been any adverse effect upon the amounts or quality of manure and compost being produced under this system, or upon the other service-oriented roles farmers have for their animals. The only complaint so far voiced is that at certain times, the sale or disposal of milk can become a problem.
By also deliberately encouraging farmers at higher altitudes to plant fodder trees and forage grass species in marginal land areas, a surplus of fodder is available, and a trade in fodder has begun. The next stage of the programme will be to persuade the farmers at higher altitudes to rear crossbred cattle and buffaloes for sale to those living at lower altitudes, who will then exploit the markets for milk and meat where they have access to them. In this way, a sustainable system is being established which has reversed the previous trends of deterioration in the area.
Upgrading sheep, goats, and poultry through crossbreeding has not been as successful, because the indigenous breeds have become particularly well adapted to the existing harsh management systems, under which crossbreeds are unable to realise their full potential. Farmers are unwilling to adjust these systems to take account of the less well-adapted crossbreed, because of the extra time and labour involved, and the less assured nature of the market for their products. On balance, these small ruminants on their own, do appear to at least maintain a balance in the equation of sustainability vs degradation. By utilising the relatively abundant forage of the alpine pastures and accounting for only a small proportion of fodder usage at lower altitudes, and by the provision of highly valued manure to arable and vegetable crop production, they achieve a level of sustainability unparalleled by their larger counterparts.
With increased attention being paid to stall-fed meat production with highly prolific Khari goats, the dominance of the sheep in migratory systems may increase and lead to a degree of specialisation that would warrant more detailed consideration of the productivity of the system.
Low output poultry production from indigenous birds under a scavenging system, seems ideally suited to the prevailing systems in the hills, requiring little labour or supervision and a minimal level of input. Attempts to improve the local Sakini chicken by crossing with various exotic breeds have met with only limited success, because although the productivity is potentially greater, under a scavenging system overall losses are higher from predation and disease. In practice, the farmer views the hybrids as being no better than the local bird, and so they are not widely adopted.
The compromise of keeping both the local and the more productive hybrid birds under a semi-intensive ‘backyard’ system, whereby they can be reared with a greater level of input and supervision seems to be the best compromise. However, a market for the increased production of eggs is required if this process is to offer the incentive to the farmer to make the initial investment required.
After initial reservations with respect to eating a totally unfamiliar food had been overcome, rabbit keeping for production of meat has now become a popular and successful undertaking for certain ethnic groups in the mid-hills of the Western Region. This is also a small backyard enterprise which requires few inputs and a low level of supervision, and has become particularly popular with women. Rabbit keeping for meat has not been successful in the Eastern Region of Nepal, primarily because pig rearing has always been traditional in that part of the country. This contrast of coventions emphasises the importance of taking social customs and constraints into consideration before introducing a totally new technology. In the case of the Eastern hill district, not only is the type of animal species important in determining whether or not it is acceptable to farmers, but also its colour. The success of increasing pig production in the districts around Pakhribas Agricultural Centre depended upon being able to breed a black pig.
On the assumption that the intensification of large ruminant and, to a lesser degree, goat production is necessary to avert further environmental degradation, adequate provision must be made for the forage requirements of an increasing stall-fed livestock population.
At present, crop by-products and tree fodder constitute the majority of the diet of stall-fed animals in crop-intensive areas. As a consequence of intensification, increased pressure will be placed on these resources, and due consideration must be given to this situation, otherwise long-term environmental stability will be rapidly sacrificed by the human population who may perceive its achievement as determined to short-term food-grain provision.
The development of arable crop varieties that take account of the value of the by-product to the whole farming system has been one of the aims of plant-breeders throughout Asia. In this way, the rejection by farmers of high yielding dwarf varieties can be avoided, and the development of more appropriate dual-purpose varieties be achieved.
Given the widespread availability of cereal straws, and its inherent low nutrient value, it is not surprising that much research has been directed towards improvement of this resource as a ruminant feed. In spite of this research, the low adoption rates experienced following dissemination of technologies to improve crop by-product utilisation, are not encouraging given the impressive on-station and theoretical animal performance results. The evaluation of on-farm technologies is now essential to ensure that technology is appropriate and adoptable by hill farmers.
The utilisation of marginal land and terrace risers for fodder production in the form of grass/legume mixtures and farmer-selected multipurpose fodder-tree species is also of importance. This will alleviate pressure on forest resources, and reduce the labour requirement to gather fodder from forest areas. The planting of nitrogen-fixing tree species and forage legumes can help maintain soil fertility and overcome the effect of shading that will result from the planting of terrace risers, or the intercropping of fodder trees.
MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
The decline in crop yields has been ascribed to both a loss of soil and to a decline in soil fertility, and it has been noted that for most of the hill regions, the use of chemical fertilizers is not a viable option. Indeed, many would question the desirability of the use of artificial fertilizers at all. Soil conservation through terracing is a practice almost as old as the hills themselves and is the most effective way of preventing soil loss from erosion. Regrettably, many new areas of cultivation, particularly alongside road projects, which have attracted migrants into the area through easy access to land not formerly cultivated, are marked by swidden agricultural practices, which are not suited to the steep topography. Such practices are definitely not sustainable, and have to be discouraged.
The development of improved methods of composting has been intensively studied, and it has been shown that preparation of compost in a pit gives a superior product than the traditional heap preparation. However, the practice has rarely been adopted by farmers, primarily because of the extra labour involved in digging the pit, and the necessity to turn the compost within it. Therefore, attention has now turned to composting crop residues at the side of the field in simple enclosures of local materials, which offers a suitable compromise of being prepared above ground and on the site where it will be utilised, so avoiding the extra labour involved.
The wider adoption of green manuring practices offers an effective alternative to application of chemical fertilizer, particularly where the practice results in greater crop yields than can be obtained with the latter. These are traditional technologies which research investigation and chemical analysis have now confirmed. The approach of improving the technology that is already in use by the farmer, is one which is more likely to succeed than developing a new and hence potentially alien one. However, although the effectiveness of this traditional practice is supported by evidence of scientific analysis, the need is now one of persuading farmers to consciously propagate the plant species concerned rather than to simply continue to utilise them.
The extent to which farmers will adopt techniques aimed at achieveing sustainable animal production and forest conservation, is an obvious measure of their suitability to the integrated systems that prevail in the hills of Nepal. Intensification of livestock production with a view to alleviating pressure on high altitude terrain prone to degradation will only be accepted by farmers if the systems can incorporate the strategies without adverse effects upon the other components.
Much of the success achieved in convincing farmers to adopt new technology, particularly for livestock development and forest rehabilitation projects, has come through the formation of Users' Groups and Development Committees, and, so far as is possible, through encouraging private enterprise whether this be livestock rearing or tree planting. Indeed, this last is considered by some to be the ultimate answer to the sustainability of systems, with the owning of one's own property being the incentive for preventing further degradation of the ecosystem or restoring it to its former productivity. Whatever system is adopted, it is the involvement of farmers in the technology transfer process that is essential if it is to succeed. Where such groups and committees can be constituted, they form an invaluable means of delivering the extension message through training programmes and field days, and for obtaining feedback to identify constraints and new problems.
In the end, it will be for the farmers themselves to appreciate the consequences of environmental degradation if they are to be expected to adopt technologies that may necessitate adjustment of the existing system.
The importance of focussing attention and mobilising efforts to cope with the unsustainability problems in the hills of Nepal cannot be questioned. The precarious nature of mountain agricultural systems, and the development of sustainable management techniques calls for concerted efforts on the part of development workers, and technical and social scientists, and most importantly, necessitates the involvement of the farmers themselves in all phases of the process.
Over the next twenty years, population is expected to increase to nearly 27,000,000. Figure 1 shows that the majority of the people at present live in the Terai and the mid-hill areas, and that these will continue to be the main regions of population growth. Chapter 1, Figure 2 (Pg 4) shows that population increases from the west to the east of the country.
Present day smallholder agriculture in the hills of Nepal has changed little from that developed over the centuries. It is essentially subsistence oriented, and its evolution and sustainability have been based upon human experience gained over many generations of combatting the harsh prevailing agro-climatic conditions. It involves highly complex interactions and interdependence between crops, livestock and forest resources. Over the years, the need to develop a sustainable system of growing food crops to support human existence, on the steep slopes of mountainsides has first led to the physical conservation of soil through construction of extensive networks of terraces, and second to the maintenance of soil fertility through use of organic matter both in the form of animal dung/compost mixtures, and green manuring crops. The forest is the foundation upon which the whole sustainability of hill agriculture is based. It provides raw materials in the form of forage and fodder for animal feed, leaf litter for both animal bedding and composting with dung to provide manure, and fuelwood and timber resources for heating, cooking, and construction.
Depending upon altitude, and the availability of water for irrigation so crops and cropping patterns vary, and the land is used to a greater or lesser intensity. Subedi et al (1989) have described cropping patterns in relation to traditional methods used for maintaining soil fertility in the hills of Western Nepal. The primary distinction of land use is between khet, and bari, with the former being irrigated and the latter rainfed. Up to 900m asl, it is possible to produce three crops per year on khetland, and this system is usually based upon two crops of rice and one of winter wheat. From 900–1800m asl two crops per year are grown, one being of rice and the second again a winter crop of wheat or vegetables. Above 1800 metres, it is usual to find only one crop grown and generally this is a rainfed crop. However, these crop sequences are not rigidly followed, and land is often left fallow during winter. On bariland, cropping patterns involve a maize and finger millet relay system as the basis, and the degree to which these two are intercropped again depends upon altitude. Bariland is normally left fallow during the dry winter months. These systems are described in more detail in subsequent chapters.
Within the overall hillfarm enterprise, the role of livestock is not only to provide milk and meat for human sustenance, but a major contribution is the maintenance of soil fertility, through production of organic manure from dung and dung/compost mixtures. In addition, oxen supply the draught power for land preparation. In common with smallholder farming elsewhere, little is wasted, and the role of crop residues is crucial to the wellbeing of livestock productivity during the winter months. During wintertime, the large ruminants are permitted either to roam freely over the land, or are deliberately tethered on terraces for set periods of time, being fed with crop residues such as rice straw, and with fodder cut and transported from the forest. The manure is thus deposited directly back onto the land. This arrangement also applies to small ruminants, and the supply of urine and manure from sheep and goat flocks is particularly valued, and is a major economic factor for continuing the traditional transhumance system for these animals.
Until relatively recently, this represented an effective closed system between the extraction of soil nutrients by arable crops, and the maintenance of soil fertility with animal manure, and was sustainable in the longer term. Where local soil fertility problems arose, there was still sufficient land available for new development, and overutilised terraces could be abandoned for a period of time to revert to natural vegetation and regain their former fertility status.
It has recently become apparent that the traditional agricultural systems, are no longer sustainable, with both human and livestock population densities exerting a pressure upon the land that is unsupportable. Enke (1971, cited by Balogun et al, 1988) noted that “The complex interaction of wood for fuel, cattle for manure and draught, and manured terraces for rice, etc., is becoming increasingly vulnerable to overcrowding of the Hill areas”. Balogun et al (1988) reported that by 1985, only five of the fifty-five hill and mountain districts in Nepal were self-sufficient in food grains. Hill farmers' efforts to increase agricultural production to meet their requirements for basic survival, have exacerbated an already critical situation, and are leading to further intensification of the downward spiral of decline in soil fertility and environmental degradation, as more marginal areas are brought into cultivation, and forests are overexploited to support livestock and humans alike.
Balogun, P.A.K., Gurung, G.B., and Sthapit, B.R. (1988). An approach to sustainable agricultural research in the hills of Nepal - The experience of Lumle Agricultural Centre. LAC Technical Paper 88/21. Lumle Agricultural Centre, Kaski, Nepal.
Enke, S. (1971). Projected costs and benefits of population control, in Population and Development, Kirtipur, Kathmandu: CEDA Study Series, Seminar Paper No. 2, pp. 17–20 (cited by Balogun et al, 1988).
Master Plan for the Forestry Sector, Nepal (1988). His Majesty's Government of Nepal/Asian Development Bank/FINNIDA.
Subedi, K.D., Gurung, G.B., Paudel, D.R.S., Gurung, K.J., Gurung, D.B., and Gurung, J.B. (1989). Traditional methods of maintaining soil fertility in the mid and high hills (1200–2100m asl) of the Western Development Region of Nepal. Problems and Potentials. LAC Working Paper 3/89. Lumle Agricultural Centre, Kaski, Nepal.
FAO TECHNICAL PAPERS
FAO ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND HEALTH PAPERS
|1||Animal breeding: selected articles from the World Animal Review, 1977 (C E F S)|
|2||Eradication of hog cholera and African swine fever, 1976 (E F S)|
|3||Insecticides and application equipment for tsetse control, 1977 (E F)|
|4||New feed resources, 1977 (E/F/S)|
|5||Bibliography of the criollo cattle of the Americas, 1977 (E/S)|
|6||Mediterranean cattle and sheep in crossbreeding, 1977 (E F)|
|7||The environmental impact of tsetse control operations, 1977 (E F)|
|7 Rev.||1. The environmental impact of tsetse control operations, 1980 (E F)|
|8||Declining breeds of Mediterranean sheep, 1978 (E F)|
|9||Slaughterhouse and slaughterslab design and construction, 1978 (E F S)|
|10||Treating straw for animal feeding, 1978 (C E F S)|
|11||Packaging, storage and distribution of processed milk, 1978 (E)|
|12||Ruminant nutrition: selected articles from the World Animal Review, 1978 (C E F S)|
|13||Buffalo reproduction and artificial insemination, 1979 (E*)|
|14||The African trypanosomiases, 1979 (E F)|
|15||Establishment of dairy training centres, 1979 (E)|
|16||Open yard housing for young cattle, 1981 (Ar E F S)|
|17||Prolific tropical sheep, 1980 (E F S)|
|18||Feed from animal wastes: state of knowledge, 1980 (C E)|
|19||East Coast fever and related tick-borne diseases, 1980 (E)|
|20/1||Trypanotolerant livestock in West and Central Africa - Vol. 1. General study, 1980 (E F)|
|20/2||Trypanotolerant livestock in West and Central Africa - Vol. 2. Country studies, 1980 (E F)|
|20/3||Le bétail trypanotolérant en Afrique occidentale et centrale - Vol. 3. Bilan d'une décennie, 1988 (F)|
|21||Guideline for dairy accounting, 1980 (E)|
|22||Recursos genéticos animales en América Latina, 1981 (S)|
|23||Disease control in semen and embryos, 1981 (C E F S)|
|24||Animal genetic resources - conservation and management, 1981 (C E)|
|25||Reproductive efficiency in cattle, 1982 (C E F S)|
|26||Camels and camel milk, 1982 (E)|
|27||Deer farming, 1982 (E)|
|28||Feed from animal wastes: feeding manual, 1982 (C E)|
|29||Echinococcosis/hydatidosis surveillance, prevention and control: FAO/UNEP/WHO guidelines, 1982 (E)|
|30||Sheep and goat breeds of India, 1982 (E)|
|31||Hormones in animal production, 1982 (E)|
|32||Crop residues and agro-industrial by-products in animal feeding, 1982 (E/F)|
|33||Haemorrhagic septicaemia, 1982 (E F)|
|34||Breeding plans for ruminant livestock in the tropics, 1982 (E F S)|
|35||Off-tastes in raw and reconstituted milk, 1983 (Ar E F S)|
|36||Ticks and tick-borne diseases: selected articles from the World Animal Review, 1983 (E F S)|
|37||African animal trypanosomiasis: selected articles from the World Animal Review, 1983 (E F)|
|38||Diagnosis and vaccination for the control of brucellosis in the Near East, 1982 (Ar E)|
|39||Solar energy in small-scale milk collection and processing, 1983 (E F)|
|40||Intensive sheep production in the Near East, 1983 (Ar E)|
|41||Integrating crops and livestock in West Africa, 1983 (E F)|
|42||Animal energy in agriculture in Africa and Asia, 1984 (E/F S)|
|43||Olive by-products for animal feed, 1985 (Ar E F S)|
|44/1||Animal genetic resources conservation by management, data banks and training, 1984 (E)|
|44/2||Animal genetic resources: cryogenic storage of germplasm and molecular engineering, 1984 (E)|
|45||Maintenance systems for the dairy plant, 1984 (E)|
|46||Livestock breeds of China, 1984 (E F S)|
|47||Réfrigération du lait à la ferme et organisation des transports, 1985 (F)|
|48||La fromagerie et les variétés de fromages du bassin méditerranéen, 1985 (F)|
|49||Manual for the slaughter of small ruminants in developing countries, 1985 (E)|
|50||Better utilization of crop residues and by-products in animal feeding: research guidelines - 1. State of knowledge, 1985 (E)|
|50/2||Better utilization of crop residues and by-products in animal feeding: research guidelines - 2. A practical manual for research workers, 1986 (E)|
|51||Dried salted meats: charque and carne-de-sol, 1985 (E)|
|52||Small-scale sausage production, 1985 (E)|
|53||Slaughterhouse cleaning and sanitation, 1985 (E)|
|54||Small ruminants in the Near East - Vol. I. Selected papers presented for the Expert Consultation on Small Ruminant Research and Development in the Near East (Tunis, 1985), 1987 (E)|
|55||Small ruminants in the Near East - Vol. II. Selected articles from World Animal Review 1972–1986, 1987 (Ar E)|
|56||Sheep and goats in Pakistan, 1985 (E)|
|57||The Awassi sheep with special reference to the improved dairy type, 1985 (E)|
|58||Small ruminant production in the developing countries, 1986 (E)|
|59/1||Animal genetic resources data banks - 1. Computer systems study for regional data banks, 1986 (E)|
|59/2||Animal genetic resources data banks - 2. Descriptor lists for cattle, buffalo, pigs, sheep and goats, 1986 (E F S)|
|59/3||Animal genetic resources data banks - 3. Descriptor lists for poultry, 1986 (E F S)|
|60||Sheep and goats in Turkey, 1986 (E)|
|61||The Przewalski horse and restoration to its natural habitat in Mongolia, 1986 (E)|
|62||Milk and dairy products: production and processing costs, 1988 (E F S)|
|63||Proceedings of the FAO expert consultation on the substitution of imported concentrate feeds in animal production systems in developing countries, 1987 (C E)|
|64||Poultry management and diseases in the Near East, 1987 (Ar)|
|65||Animal genetic resources of the USSR, 1989 (E)|
|66||Animal genetic resources - strategies for improved use and conservation, 1987 (E)|
|67/1||Trypanotolerant cattle and livestock development in West and Central Africa - Vol. I, 1987 (E)|
|67/2||Trypanotolerant cattle and livestock development in West and Central Africa - Vol. II, 1987 (E)|
|68||Crossbreeding Bos indicus and Bos taurus for milk production in the tropics, 1987 (E)|
|69||Village milk processing, 1988 (E F S)|
|70||Sheep and goat meat production in the humid tropics of West Africa, 1989 (E/F)|
|71||The development of village-based sheep production in West Africa, 1988 (Ar E F S)|
(Published as Training manual for extension workers, M/S5840E)
|72||Sugarcane as feed, 1988 (E/S)|
|73||Standard design for small-scale modular slaughterhouses, 1988 (E)|
|74||Small ruminants in the Near East - Vol. III. North Africa, 1989 (E)|
|75||The eradication of ticks, 1989 (E/S)|
|76||Ex situ cryoconservation of genomes and genes of endangered cattle breeds by means of modern biotechnological methods, 1989 (E)|
|77||Training manual for embryo transfer in cattle, 1991 (E)|
|78||Milking, milk production hygiene and under health, 1989 (E)|
|79||Manual of simple methods of meat preservation, 1990 (E)|
|80||Animal genetic resources - a global programme for sustainable development, 1990 (E)|
|81||Veterinary diagnostic bacteriology - a manual of laboratory procedures of selected diseases of livestock, 1990 (E F)|
|82||Reproduction in camels - a review, 1990 (E)|
|83||Training manual on artificial insemination in sheep and goats, 1991 (E)|
|84||Training manual for embryo transfer in water buffaloes, 1991 (E)|
|85||The technology of traditional milk products in developing countries, 1990 (E)|
|86||Feeding dairy cows in the tropics, 1991 (E)|
|87||Manual for the production of anthrax and blackleg vaccines, 1991 (E F)|
|88||Small ruminant production and the small ruminant genetic resource in tropical Africa, 1991 (E)|
|89||Manual for the production of Marek's disease, Gumboro disease and inactivated Newcastle disease vaccines, 1991 (E F)|
|90||Application of biotechnology to nutrition of animals in developing countries, 1991 (E F)|
|91||Guidelines for slaughtering, meat cutting and further processing, 1991 (E)|
|92||Manual on meat cold store operation and management, 1991 (E S)|
|93||Utilization of renewable energy sources and energy-saving technologies by small-scale milk plants and collection centres, 1992 (E)|
|94||Proceedings of the FAO expert consultation on the genetic aspects of trypanotolerance, 1992 (E)|
|95||Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in animal feeding, 1992 (E)|
|96||Distribution and impact of helminth diseases of livestock in developing countries, 1992 (E)|
|97||Construction and operation of medium-sized abattoirs in developing countries, 1992 (E)|
|98||Small-scale poultry processing, 1992 (E)|
|99||In situ conservation of livestock and poultry, 1992 (E)|
|100||Programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development, 1992 (E)|
|101||Genetic improvement of hair sheep in the tropics, 1992 (E)|
|102||Legume trees and other fodder trees as protein sources for livestock, 1992 (E)|
|103||Improving sheep reproduction in the Near East, 1992 (Ar)|
|104||The management of global animal genetic resources, 1992 (E)|
|105||Soustainable livestock production in the mountain agro-ecosystem of Nepal, 1992 (E)|
Availability: January 1993
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C - Chinese
E - English
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** In preparation
The FAO Technical Papers are available through the authorized FAO Sales Agents or directly from Distribution and Sales Section, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.