Integrated management of coastal zones


John R.Clark
Senior Research Associate
National Park Service Program
Rosenstiel School of Marine Sciences
University of Miami
Miami, Florida, USA

Reprinted 1994

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory,city or area or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-103275-0

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, 1992


This document follows the FAO publication “Development of Coastal Areas and Enclosed Seas”, which forms part of the report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) on “Protection of the oceans and all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and the development of their living resources”.

The original version was prepared by FAO in close collaboration with the UNCED Secretariat and all members of the Working Party on Oceans, and with the assistance of the author of this report. It responded to Decision 1/20 of the First Preparatory Commitee of UNCED, most specifically items (m) and (q) of paragraph 1 of the Decision related to the following:

It should be noted that the discussions of individual habitat types in Section 3 are partially excerpts from the book “Coastal Resources Management Guidelines”, by S.C. Snedaker and C.B. Getter which was prepared by the National Park Service for the US Agency for International Development.

This paper was prepared as a reference source and is not intended as a reader or a narrative text. The material is not necessarily sequential and repetition of certain key matters is intentional, in the interest of making the information most readily usable.


FAO Fisheries Department
FAO Regional Fisheries Officers
Directors of Fisheries
Regional and International Fisheries Organizations

Integrated management of coastal zones.
FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 327. Rome, FAO. 1992. 167p.
This report identifies governmental actions that can lead to effective management of coastal resources and strenghtening the national capacity for effective coastal resources management through Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). This is a system for controlling development and other human activities that effect the condition of economic resources and the quality of environment in coastal zones.
The overall objective of ICZM is to provide for sustainable use of coastal natural resources and for maintenance of biodiversity. Environmentally planned development is reputed to add to economic and social prosperity of a coastal community in the long term. The orientation of the report is toward developing countries, particularly those of the coastal tropics. Fisheries productivity,increased tourism revenus,sustained mangrove forestry, and security from natrual hazard devastation are among the practical benefits of ICZM.
ICZM incorporates modern principles of planning and resources management, intensive information bases an interdisciplinary processes. A major objective is to facilitate the interactions of different coastal economic sectors (e.g.,shipping, agriculturte,fisheries) toward potimal socio-econopmic outcomes,including resolution of conflicts between sectors.
ICZM may be initiated in response to a planning mandate but more often because of a crisis - a use conflict, a severe decline in a resource, or a devasting experience with natural hazards.


The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance and encouragement of the staff of the FAO Fishery Resources and Environment Division, particularly Drs Serge Garcia, John Caddy, and Purwito Martosubroto. Other FAO staff reviewers to whom I am gratefulinclude Messrs H. Cirelli, M. Mekour, P. Vantomme and A.D. Insull. The generosity of Drs Peter Burbridge and Chua Thia-Eng in critically reading the manuscript is greatly appreciated. Dr Jens Sorensen provided key materials and ideas. Mr Robert C. Milne of the US National Park Service supported much of the earlier work which brought the subject to the present status. Final manuscript preparation was skilfully handled by Messrs Shelly Copper and Edgar Piehl.

Hyperlinks to non-FAO Internet sites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided. The sole purpose of links to non-FAO sites is to indicate further information available on related topics.




2.1 Driving Forces
2.2 The Need for Integrated Management
2.3 Benefits of ICZM
2.4 Land-Sea Interactions
2.5 Goals and Objectives of the ICZM Programme
2.6 Scope of the ICZM Programme
2.7 Extent of Jurisdiction
2.8 Distinguishing ICZM
2.9 Boundaries of the Coastal Zone
2.10 Sustainability
2.11 Creating Protected Areas


3.1 Critical Habitat Resources

3.1.1 Mangrove Wetlands and other Intertidal Systems
3.1.2 Seagrass Systems
3.1.3 Coral Reef Systems
3.1.4 Sandy Beach Systems
3.1.5 Other Habitats
3.1.6 Lagoon and Estuary Systems
3.1.7 Critical Habitat Management Issues

3.2 Ecological Issues and Resources

3.2.1 Non-Sustainable Development
3.2.2 Pollution
3.2.3 Threats to Biological Diversity
3.2.4 Natural Effects
3.2.5 Fisheries
3.2.6 Ecosystem Level Conservation


4.1 Urban Settlement
4.2 Industrial Development
4.3 Waste Disposal
4.4 Shore Protection Works
4.5 Ports and Marine Transportation
4.6 Land Transportation Infrastructure
4.7 Water Control and Supply Projects
4.8 Sea Fisheries
4.9 Aquaculture
4.10 Coastal Forest Industries
4.11 Coastal Agriculture
4.12 Extractive Industries
4.13 Tourism, Recreation and Carrying Capacity
4.14 National Security
4.15 Lagoons and Estuaries


5.1 Principle 1: The coastal area is a unique resource system which requires special management and planning approaches
5.2 Principle 2: Water is the major integrating force in coastal resource systems
5.3 Principle 3: It is essential that land and sea uses be planned and managed in comination
5.4 Principle 4: The edge of the sea is the focal point of coastal management programmes
5.5 Principle 5: Coastal management boundaries should be issue-based and adaptive
5.6 Principle 6: A major emphasis of coastal resourse management is to conserve common property resources
5.7 Principle 7 : Prevention of damage from natural hazards and conservation of natural resources should be combined in ICZM programmes
5.8 Principle 8: All levels of government within a country must be involved in coastal management and planning
5.9 Principle 9: The nature-synchronous approach to development is especially appropriate for the coast
5.10 Principle 10: Special forms of economic and social benefit evaluation and public participation are used in coastal management programmes
5.11 Principle 11: Conservation for sustainable use is a major goal of coastal resources management
5.12 Principle 12: Multi-use management is appropriate for most coastal resorce systems
5.13 Principle 13: Multiple-sector involvement is essential to sustainable use of coastal resources
5.14 Principle 14: Traditional resource management should be respected
5.15 Principle 15: The environmental impact assessment approach is essential to effective coastal management


6.1 The Challenge
6.2 The Role of Strategic Planning
6.3 Strategic Planning as the Second Programme Stage
6.4 Policy Formulation
6.5 Preparing the Policy Statement
6.6 The Strategic Planning Process
6.7 Institutions and Jurisdiction
6.8 Boundaries
6.9 Plannig the Form of the Programme
6.10 Use of the Strategic Plan
6.11 Gaining Support for ICZM
6.12 The No-Programme Option
6.13 Priority Subjects for Strategic Planning

6.13.1 Issues Analysis
6.13.2 Project Review
6.13.3 Economic Impacts
6.13.4 Alternative Livelihoods
6.13.5 Critical Areas, Species and Protected Areas
6.13.6 Hazard Prevention
6.13.7 Pollution
6.13.8 Traditional Fishing Rights and Conservation
6.13.9 Public Consultation
6.13.1 Coordination

6.14 Information Needs and Services
6.15 The Incremental Approach
6.16 International Aspects


7.1 Programme Scope
7.2 The Programme Scpoe
7.3 Opportunities and Obstacles
7.4 Institutional Mechanisms and Inter-Agency Coordination
7.5 Training and Public Education
7.6 Creating the Master Plan
7.7 Continuing Information and Planning Needs
7.8 Management Mode
7.9 Management Boundaries
7.10 Regional Units
7.11 Protected Areas
7.12 The Special Case of Fisheries and Aquaculture
7.13 Traditional Management and ICZM
7.14 Research Needs
7.15 Mobilization of Financial Resources


8.1 Pollution Control
8.2 Critical Areas
8.3 Biodiversity
8.4 Protected Areas
8.5 Natural Hazards
8.6 Restoration
8.7 Project Review
8.8 Environmental Assessment
8.9 Socio-Economic Assessment
8.10 Conflict Resolution


9.1 Research and Information

9.1.1 Data Base
9.1.2 Boundaries
9.1.3 Resource Surveys
9.1.4 Environmentally Sensitive Areas
9.1.5 Carrying Capacity
9.1.6 Upland Effects
9.1.7 Multiple-Use Management
9.1.8 Restoration/Rehabilitation of Resources
9.1.9 Environmental Assessment

9.2 Training
9.3 Raising Public Awareness



Roster of Integrated Coastal Area Management Programmes, Pilot Programmes and Feasibility Studies