Dairy Farming Manual
What should you know about making butter?
|What is butter and what types are there? (5-11)
1 You should know:
- what is in butter e.g. butterfat and water
- the different types of butter e.g. salted and non-salted, sweet and cultured butter.
|How do you make butter? (12-59)
2 Prepare milk or cream by heat treatment and ripening (for cultured butter).
Churn on a small or a larger scale.
Wash and work the butter.
|What can you do with buttermilk?(60-63)
3 You can use it for:
- drinking or making milk products
- animal feed.
|What can be wrong with butter? (64-75)
4 If your butter has a bad smell, taste, texture or appearance, check your:
- raw materials
- method of making butter.
What is butter?
|5 Butter contains about:
- 80 % butterfat (minimum)
- 16 % water (maximum)
|6 You can make butter from:
- milk or
1 l of cream makes about 300-400 g butter.
|7 The steps in making butter are:
What types of butter are there
|9 You can make butter from:
- fresh cream
- cultured cream.
|10 You can make butter:
- without salt
- with salt.
|11 For cooking purposes you can make herb
butter by adding:
- parsley or
|12 How do you make cultured butter?
The following recipe is for cow or goat's milk.
You may need to change it for other types of milk.
Use a thermometer to measure the temperature accurately.
For each 1 1 of milk or cream:
add 50 cc of (3 desert spoons) of sour butter milk or mesophilic starter;
-stir this into the milk or cream
|16 Cover container and leave for 24 hours at 18 C.|
|17 You can use raw milk or cream which is sour
naturally if it still tastes and smells fresh.
Do not ripen it.
|18 You can also make non-cultured
or sweet butter from sweet cream.
If you collect cream for several days, check the acidity before pasteurizing.
The cream should have 0.10-0.15 % lactic acid.
If your cream is very acid, you can reduce the acidity by adding chemicals.
Ask your extension worker for advice.
|19 Heat the cream as before to 80-90
Cool the cream to the lowest possible temperature.
What do you need to make butter from sour cream or milk?
20 You need:
- milk or cream
- sour buttermilk or starter
- fine salt
- clean water.
- a churn
- a sieve or coarse cloth
- a skimmer
- a bowl
- a working table
- wooden spoons
- greaseproof paper for wrapping the butter.
|24 You can churn milk or cream:
- by shaking in a sealed bottle
- by rotating in a milk can
- by whipping in a bowl:
- by plunging in a container
|27 This is a small household glass churn:
- screw lid
- glass container
- rotating whippers.
|28 Rinse the churn with clean water
This prevents sticking.
|29 Half fill with sour milk or sour cream.|
|30 Churn with a regular movement until:
- the pieces of butter are as big as peas
- the buttermilk looks watery.
|31 If there are no pieces of butter after
- change the temperature by adding clean cool or warm water
- churn again.
|32 Churning may take from 15 to 60 minutes.|
|33 The time depends upon:
- the time of year
- the type of animal
- the type of feed
- the temperature
|35 Carefully remove the pieces of butter
from the lid and side with clean, cold water.
The water with butter will float
of the buttermilk.
|36 Pour off the buttermilk through a coarse sieve.|
37 Wash the butter to remove
the buttermilk - the more buttermilk you remove, the better
- use a skimmer to remove the pieces of butter floating on the water
|39 Or wash the butter in a sieve:
- sieve the butter and buttermilk
- put the buttermilk on one side
- turn the butter over while washing with clean cold water.
Do not let the butter become a large lump.
|40 If you wash your butter carefully you
- lower the water content
- keep it longer.
|41 Do not overwash.
Your butter will have:
Rinse the working table with clean water
|44 Work the butter with damp wooden spoons
or a damp roller until it has a smooth surface and you can see
no more drops of water.
As you work, remove any water.
- in a pot or
|46 Sprinkle a little salt on the surface
of butter in a pot:
- this prevents fungus.
|47 You can freeze butter but it becomes rancid
quickly after defrosting:
- divide the butter into many small parts
|48 Do not freeze salted butter:
- it easily becomes fatty or oily and smells fishy.
|49 If you keep butter for too long, it tastes rancid or develops fungus.|
|50 You can keep it longer by making ghee.|
|51 You can work this churn by
hand or use an electric motor.
It holds 30-50 l of milk or cream.
|52 Half fill the churn with milk or cream.
Churn for 5 minutes (the speed depends on the shape, size and construction of the drum).
Stop the churn and release the gases.
|53 Churn again for 35-45 minutes or until
the butter pieces are about 2 cm in diameter.
Pour off the buttermilk through the valve into plastic pails.
|54 Add the same amount of water
Churn at 10-15 rpm for 5 minutes.
Pour off the water.
|55 Churn at 10-15 rpm for about 10-20
Check the water content and if correct remove the butter from the churn.
|56 You can check the water content
of your butter by using a:
- special balance
- beaker for melting butter
|57 Weigh some butter accurately.
Evaporate the water by heating.
Weigh the butter again.
|58 If you know the weight of butter and the weight of water lost, you can find the % of water in the butter.|
|59 You can then:
- add water if you want a higher moisture content
- churn for longer without adding water if you want a lower moisture content.
|What can you do with buttermilk?
| 61 You can use it for animal feed:
- warm it for chickens
- as it is or with feed for calves.
|62 You can make Trahana:
- leave buttermilk to become sour and add a little salt
- add flour or semolina, make a stiff dough and shape into balls
- flatten these and dry on a clean cloth, turn over every hour
- rub these through a sieve
|What can be wrong with your butter?
Use a new starter and wash and sterilize all equipment.
|65 If your butter has a feed flavour check the quality of your feed especially silage, onions etc.|
|66 If your butter is green or malty use a new starter.|
|67 If your butter is oily or tallowy
check the quality of the milk and cream you are using to make your
- increase the heat treatment
- make less-cultured butter
- use less salt
- work the butter less.
68 If there are drops of water on your butter, knead it more.
Your butter should be dry before packing - bacteria multiply quickly in damp butter.
|69 If your butter is oily you see droplets
of oil when you cut it:
- you churning time is too long.
|70 If your butter is soft, check your mixing.|
|71 If your butter is crumbly or has a
high melting point, check:
- your feeding
- your heat treatment
- your churning.
|72 Make sure:
- you cool your cream enough after pasteurization
- you do not churn your butter at a high temperature.
73 If your butter has streaks, make sure:
- you do not mix butter from different days' production
- you knead the salt into your butter for long enough.
|74 If your butter is mouldy,
- you are wrapping it properly
- all equipment and materials are clean.
|75 If your butter has holes,
- you do not work it for too long or at too high a temperature
- there is no air in your butter.