Dairy Farming Manual
Husbandry Unit 11.1:
Note: Numbers in brackets refer to illustrations in the Extension Materials.
Losses from diseases can be due to any one or a combination of the following. (1-3)
- Drop in productivity (reduced
weight gains, milk yields and reproductive efficiency). Even after
recovery the animal may remain less than optimally productive.
Prevention and control are, therefore,
of extreme importance. The various measures can be considered under
What should you know about preventing and controlling disease?
you do to prevent disease? (4-7)
1 You should
pay attention to your animals':
your extension worker help you prevent and control disease? (8-16)
2 He can advise
you do with animals with chronic disease? (17-19)
3 You must:
Provide a comfortable environment for the animals and adopt adequate hygienic precautions and all possible precautions against accidents.
Adopt measures to prevent parasitic infestations.
(See H.10.6 Parasites)
Ensure feeding of colostrum to new born calves.
Provide optimal nutritional conditions.
Provide ample amounts of clean
water for drinking.
What can you do to prevent disease?
|4 You must
pay attention to the following things:
5 Make sure your animals' environment is:
- comfortable e.g. cool with plenty of dry bedding
- safe e.g. no electrical dangers or slippery floors
- clean e.g. manure kept away from shed and clean water for washing
- well-planned e.g. to prevent parasites. (See H. 10.6 Parasites)
7 Make sure:
- you feed colostrum to your calves
- you feed your animals the right amounts of the right feed
- you give them plenty of clean water for drinking.
Vaccinate animals against diseases prevalent in the area (a vaccination schedule to be prepared by the extension officer in consultation with animal health authorities of the area).
Parasite control (10)
Deworm/detick animals regularly
(a schedule for drenching/dipping/spraying animals to control internal
and external parasites to be prepared by the extension officer in consultation
with the animal health authorities of the area. In some areas, control
of vectors e.g. snails which are not parasites themselves, is important).
|8 Your extension worker can advise you on the following:|
9 Consult your extension worker or vet for the right vaccinations against diseases in your area.
10 Consult your extension worker or vet about:
- medicines and sprays for parasites on and in your animals
- ways of controlling flies, snails etc which carry parasites.
Movement of animals (11-12)
Do not bring into the farm, sick animals or animals from an area where infectious diseases are present.
Do not send healthy animals into an area with infectious diseases.
Do not send animals having infectious
diseases from your farm into an area with healthy animals.
|Movement of animals|
to your farm animals which are sick or have contact with
Detection and treatment of diseases (13-16)
Use appropriate tests to diagnose diseases early e.g. Strip cup; California Mastitis Test; Milk Ring Test; Tuberculin Test.
Observe for abnormalities and seek early advice/treatment (abnormalities in feed intake, behaviour, secretions, excretions, reproduction etc). Early detection and treatment of diseases would be helpful in ensuring early recovery of affected animal(s) and in the case of infectious diseases, in preventing other animals being affected.
Seek advice/diagnosis if an animal
13 Consult your extension worker or vet about tests to diagnose disease early.
|14 Tell your
extension worker or vet anything unusual about your animals:
- reproduction etc
|15 or if one of your animals dies suddenly.|
|16 If you
diagnose disease early, you can:
- treat your animals so they get better quickly
- separate sick animals to protect your healthy animals.
Culling and slaughter (17)
Cull the animals with chronic infections not responding to treatment e.g. Chronic Mastitis, Johne's Disease. In some situations, legislation may require the slaughter of affected/in contact animals, e.g. in eradication programmes and in programmes to prevent the spread of a new disease. These will have to be strictly adhered to in the interest of the individual farm enterprise and that of the industry as a whole.
Disposal of infected materials/carcasses (18-19)
Dispose of infected materials/carcasses,
adopting all hygienic precautions. Burning is a very good method
of disposal. If burial is practised, the topmost part of the body
should be more than 1.8 m below ground level and a layer of quick lime
on top will be useful.
17 You must cull animals with chronic disease so that healthy animals do not get sick.
of carcasses and infected materials
18 You must dispose of anything in contact with the disease by:
- burning or
If you bury, make sure the top of the carcass is at least 1.8 m below ground.
Add a layer of quick lime if possible.
Fence the area off.