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Annotated bibliography - Part one

Annotated bibliography - Part one



CARVALHO, Ruy Duarte de (1989). Ana a Manda: os Filhos da Rede. Identidade Colectiva, Criatividade Social e Produção da Diferença Cultural - um Caso Muxiluanda. Lisboa: Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, pp.354.

Ana a Manda: Sons of the Network. Collective Identity. Social Creativity and Cultural Difference - a Muxiluanda Case-Study

The livelihood situation of the fish-folk (called "muxiluanda") on the Island of Luanda is presented in great detail in this monograph, covering historical and present aspects of their labour-intensive economy and culture. The importance of women in the transformation and commercialization of fish is explained in the context of the overall intra- and inter-family household division of labour. Social values and norms, as well as various cultural and religious expressions are presented, with many references to the prevailing gender-relations. In particular, the therapeutic-religious importance of the kalundus (ancestral spirit) in relation to the fertility is stressed.

EASTERMANN; Carlos (1983). Etnografia de Angola (Sudoeste e Centro): Colectânea de Artigos Dispersos. Lisboa: Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, pp.483.

Ethnography of Angola (South-East and Centre): A Collection of Dispersed Articles

This reader contains some thirty articles with references to the cultural aspects of gender- and age-related division of labour and responsibilities in subsistence agriculture, home management and intra-family community relations among the peoples of Central and South-Eastern Angola. Traditional and changing religious and spiritual aspects of social institutions, social communication and, to a lesser extent, of micro-economics relations, are presented in great detail.

KRANTZ, Lasse (1984). A Pesca Artesanal em Angola: Estudo Socio-económico do Apoio Sueco a Pesca Artesanal em Angola. Estocolmo: Universidade de Estocolmo, Instituto de Antropologia Social, Secção de Estudos da Problemática do Desenvolvimento, pp.71. (mimeo.)

Artisanal Fishery in Angola: A Socio-Economic Analysis of the Swedish Assistance to Artisanal Fishery in Angola

This study elaborates on the economic, social and institutional factors conditioning the present and future practice of small-scale fishery in the areas of Barra do Dande, Ambriz, Soyo and Cabinda, that is, in the regions where the fishing technology was improved thanks to a Swedish technical assistance project. Though only men catch the fish and women are farmers, women's role in artisanal fishery production cycle is considered as particularly important. In Barra do Dande, for example, it has become a common practice that women buy a considerable quantity of fresh fish from their husbands and then dry it and sell it at better prices. Women keep their own money accounts separately from those of men, and make use of that money independently in running the family economy.

PACHECO, Fernando (1991). Agricultura e Sociedade Rural na Angola dos Anos 60: O Caso de Malanje - Subsídios pare a Compreensão dos Sistema Agrários em Presença. (s.l.), (s.n.), pp.66. (mimeo.)

Agriculture and Rural Society in Angola in the Sixties: The Case of Malanje - a Contribution to the Understanding of Contemporary Agrarian Systems

This study attempts to explain the linkages among the economic, social, environmental and legal conditions under which small holders' agriculture was coping during the last ten years of the Portuguese colonial rule. Gender related differentials are highlighted in the analysis of the access to the agricultural land, as well as of the labour division in farm and home tasks, in the production of specific farm cultures, and in the marketing of produce. The subtle forms of harsh and determined social and cultural resistance of men and women in confrontation with the imposed social and political system by the colonial authority are also described.

URLICH, Susan (1992). Mulheres no Desenvolvimento: Angola - Análise Genérica do País (Volume I). Luanda: Autoridade Sueca pare o Desenvolvimento Internacional - ASDI; Ler & Escrever, pp.124. (mimeo.)

Women in Development: Angola - a Generic Analysis of the Country

This is an interdisciplinary study of socio-economic development issues in Angola, specifically from the perspective of women's status and roles. In the chapter on agriculture, major women's farming tasks (manioc, corn, vegetables, etc.) are described in detail. It is also explained how women's nutritional status has been significantly worsened due to war situation and Angola's dependency on food imports. The war also affected the extension services and rural credit. Women today receive by far less technical assistance and have much less access to technological improvements than men. Women-heads of households in rural areas are the poorest of the poor. Numerous recommendations are offered for the improvement of women's status in agriculture, and in other sectors.


FONSECA, Antonio (1984). Sobre os Kikongos de Angola. São Paulo: Edições 70, pp.118.

About the Kikongos of Angola

This monograph presents a socio-anthropological interpretation of the traditional lifestyle of the Kikongo people in Cabinda and other Northern provinces of Angola. The accent is on the patterns of kinship and family formation and on cultural values and practices related to different phases and events in the life-cycles of men, women, boys and girls, including nutritional habits, principles of justice, educational aspirations, etc. Polygamy is very common. Women are the main responsible for subsistence agricultural production in the savanna areas and along the lagoons (and men in the forest regions). Certain types of fishing activities also belong to the exclusive tasks of women.

LIMA, Mesquitela (1989). Os Kiaka de Angola. (Volume II). Lisboa: Edições Távola Redonda, pp.221.

The Kiaka People of Angola

This monograph contains a detailed socio-anthropological analysis of the kinship system among the Kiakas (a Bantu sub-group), with references to family issues such as the access to, and use of, agricultural land, inheritance rules, segmentation of the lineage bonds, relations between husbands and wives, parents and children and among all other family members, etc. The present patrilineal system still contains various traces of the matrilineal system which was dominated in the earlier period.


ADRA (1993). Pobreza e Crise Social em Angola: Relatório Final. Workshop da Acção pare o Desenvolvimento Rural e Ambiente (ADRA), Banco Mundial e Secretaria do Estado do Planeamento. Luanda: ADRA. (mimeo.)

Poverty and Social Crisis in Angola: Final Report.

These deliberations at the ADRA workshop were focused on the following three areas: first, diagnosis of the situation of poverty, with the identification of target populations and causes of poverty; second, definition of individual and group survival strategies to combat poverty; and third, proposals for actions and related agents. Rural families, and especially rural women, are most affected by all aspects of poverty. The situation of women who became single heads of households due to the war is referred to frequently in many parts of the Report. Policy of promoting women's status is stressed as an important strategic aspect in local community development initiatives. Detailed indicators of poverty in Angola are presented in the paper "Diagnostico da Pobreza em Angola" by Carlos Machado, annexed to the Report.

ADRA (1990). Simpósio Nacional sobre a Criança. Luanda: Acção pare o desenvolvimento rural e ambiente (ADRA). (mimeo.)

National Symposium on Children

This conference was devoted to the pressing issues bothering the social and economic situation of children in Angola, such as children's rights, health and nutrition, water and sanitation, basic education, family situation, poverty and children in exceptionally difficult situations. In the policy recommendations on children and family it is stressed, inter alia, that women should have access to labour saving technologies, especially those needed in farming, so as to alleviate the need for a considerable amount of child work.


MORAIS, Júlio de; PACHECO, Fernando (1991). Diagnóstico das Associaçóes de Camponeses em Angola: Províncias de Huíla, Huambo e Malanje. Luanda: Association pour la cooperation, recherche et développement (ACORD); Acção pare o desenvolvimento rural e ambiente (ADRA), pp.78.

A Diagnosis of Peasants' Associations in Angola: Provinces of Huíla. Huambo e Malanje

It is argued in this study, realized in co-operation with the National Union of Peasants (União Nacional dos Camponenses - UNCA), that the role and conditions of smallholder agricultural producers are not sufficiently known in the context of Angola's agricultural and rural development. The study attempts to shed some light to that effect. It is stressed, inter alia, that women hold the key to family food production, but that they are far from technical assistance and local power structures. It is argued that women farmers should have a greater access to farmers' associations and their management structures. This should not be realized as yet another demagogic formality regarding women's emancipation, but rather directly, i.e., in the context of efforts to improve the family production. Projects should be designed and implemented so as to treat women equally as men in their productive capacities, responsibilities and benefits.

OMA (1983). A Mulher e a Família. Luanda: Organização das Mulheres Angolanas OMA, pp.27.

Women and Family

After an introduction with the description of the traditional subordinate roles of women against the new socialist values and institutions that should allow women's full emancipation, this political-technical booklet brings about an overview of the situation of young women, single women, and women housewives. It also reviews sexual education and family planning, the abortion issue, and the prostitution. Child spacing and contraceptive practices are proposed as key contributions to the good health of the mother and the child. Single mothers, it is argued, should be given greater assistance, while education and remunerated work are viewed as pivotal to women's emancipation.

OMA (1983). A Mulher Trabalhadora. Luanda: Organização das Mulheres Angolanas (OMA), pp.23.

Working Women

The major part of this booklet is devoted to the unfavourable situation of rural women, and to the need to provide assistance for their full integration into the socialist society, as well as to the mother's and child's protection and care as an indispensable precondition for women's ability to participate in the active labour force. Statistical data and other information are given about low educational and health-nutritional status of rural women, as well as data on the role of the family sector agricultural production. The division of labour between men and women is as follows: in the North, men cultivate coffee palms, and cotton, and women take care of the manioc, sweet potato and other subsistence products. In the South, men farm corn for own use and for the exchange for other products, while women are responsible for daily food production on small plots.


LIMA, Mesquitela (1991). Angola: uma Perspectiva Socio-Antropológica. África Hoje. n° 42, pp.33-35; n° 43; pp.79-85; n°. 44, pp.28-33.

Angola: A Socio-Anthropological Perspective

This is a geographical, socio-anthropological and political analysis of the present regional distribution of the population in Angola, by ethnic groups. An exhaustive listing of names of all ethnic groups in Portuguese, as well as in the native languages, is provided.

SILVA, Hélia Lains e (1993). Contribuição pare uma Bibliografia sobre Agricultura, Silvicuttura, Pecuária e Pescas da Angola. Comunicaçães - Series de Ciências Agrárias, n° 12, Lisboa: Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, pp.160.

Contribution to a Bibliography on Agriculture. Forestry. Animal Husbandry and Fisheries in Angola

This bibliography of international literature on the entire agricultural sector in Angola is structured around topics which, inter alia, bear direct relevance to social, economic, technological, institutional and other conditions of rural development. Such topics are: Social Change, Human Resources, Land Occupation, Population, Settlements, Farming Systems, and Quality of Life.

Cape Verde


ABREU, A. Trigo de (1985). Família e Trabalho numa Comunidade Camponesa de Cabo Verde. Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos, n° 3, pp.85-106.

Family and Labour in a Peasant Community in Cape Verde

This article discusses the labour-exchange systems in a community of 90 peasant families on the Island of Santiago. Peculiar climatic conditions are the major constraint to agriculture, imposing the need for reconciling time-consuming farming operations with a very rigid farming calendar. Labour requirements and labour supply mechanisms are analyzed, particularly from the perspective of the four major sources of labour supply: the household, the kinship system, and the established labour-reciprocity schemes called djuda and junta-mão. The common function of these forms of labour supply are presented, as well as their specific functions in relation to family and the access to land


DEPRAETERE, Marguerite (1983). Estudo Monográfico sobre o Papel da Mulher Rural na Organização dos Recursos e Consumos. Região do Serelho. Lisboa: Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Centro de Estudos de Economia Agrária, pp.23.

A Monographic Study on the Role of Rural Women in the Organization of Resources and Consumption. The Region of Serelho.

This is a base-line study of the productive and reproductive roles of women in over one hundred households in the area of Serelho in Cape Verde, specifically women whose husbands emigrated, separated women, widows, and single women with or without children. Besides the analysis of the labour requirements and the division of work within the households, the study also presents the dynamics of the established inter-household complementarities in labour exchange and other matters, as well as the patterns of maintaining community cohesion in economic, social and cultural terms.

LOPES, João (1993). Ilha de S. Nicolau - Cabo Verde: Formação da Sociedade e Mudança Social. Dissertação de Doutoramento. Departamento de Antropologia, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, pp.1049 + 415. (mimeo.)

The Island of S. Nicolau - Cape Verde: Formation of the Society and Social Change

The first volume of this interdisciplinary study of recent social developments on St. Nicholas (a medium-size, central island in the Cape Verdian archipelago) contains extensive references to the features of socio-demographic development, as well as to the linkages between the traditional smallholders' agriculture and the very harsh natural environment. As part of the socio-cultural interpretation of the extended family formation and structures, specific references are provided on the situation of rural women, stressing their profoundly subordinate status in the context of the dominant patriarchal system and paternalistic values. It is argued that, at present, this situation largely represents an extension of rural women's racial, class-wise and sexual discrimination from the colonial period. Praising women exclusively as spouses and mothers remains strong in all forms of popular cultural expression.

The second volume is mostly devoted to migratory patterns, especially international emigration. It is emphasized that the overpopulation of the island has been the key push-factor in emigration to USA, Brazil and Argentina, Europe (mostly to Portugal), and to African countries (mostly to Senegal, São Tomé e Principe, and Angola). The emigrants' families tend to maintain the traditional gender- and age-division of labour and social relations in the countries of destination, and women tend to be confined to domestic tasks. They only rarely get remunerated jobs (most usually work as low-paid servants). The other part of this volume covers issues related to the development of the island's agriculture, as well as to the modern socio-cultural paradigms, characterized by the profound gender-inequalities, particularly as regards the lower educational attainment of girls than boys.

RASETH, Antonio Jose Ferreira (1988). Contributo pare a Compreensão da Sociedade Cabo-verdiana. Seminario de Investigação: 4° ano da Licenciatura em Antropologia, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, pp.141. (mimeo.)

A Contribution to the Understanding of the Cape Verdian Society

This is a study of the Cape Verdian family structures and dynamics, with special emphasis on the context of socio-demographic change and national population policy. After a historical overview of political, social and economic circumstances in the country, major aspects of contemporary rural family life are analyzed such as, for example, the life-cycle of family members, gender and age-related relations, moral values and reproductive behavior, including the practice of family planning. It is illustrated how, though men are still formally accepted as dominant decision-makers, daily management of family resources has increasingly become women's task, especially as regards the allocation of money.

VARGAS, Flor Maria (1988). Situação Demográfica e Situação da Família em Cabo Verde. Integração das Variáveis Demográficas na Planificação. Simpósio Nacional. Praia: Ministério do Plano e da Cooperação, Unidade de População, pp.87-101.

Demographic and Family Situation in Cape Verde

Based on statistical evidence, it is demonstrated in this study that women's low educational attainment and unequal legal status, as well as their low economic power, are the key factors determining high fertility rates. One major problem women face is the lack of responsibility among husbands and fathers, who are often long-term migrants, so that women are left alone to manage the household resources. In the poorest rural areas, women have as many as eight or nine children.


CARDOSO, Margarida (1988). Papel da Mulher no Desenvolvimento Económico e Social do País. Integração das Variáveis Demográficas na Planificação. Simpósio Nacional. Praia; Ministério do Plano e da Cooperação, Unidade de População, pp.32-38.

Role of Women in Economic and Social Development of the Country

Lower rates of school enrollment, higher rates of school dropouts and lower level of overall educational attainment of women than of men are reviewed in this paper. Some major underlying causes are outlined, such as early pregnancy, traditional cultural attitudes, etc. One third of rural households in Cape Verde are headed by women. Yet, only 16 % of women are owners of the land. Women engaged in the commercialization of fish are, on average, 29 years old. Over 71% of women are not literate; and, each woman has 4.3 persons to care for in the household. Polygamy is widespread, although men are obliged by law to marry only once. The emigration of males has caused a significant increase in women's responsibilities, especially as regards the bringing up of children, and the burden of physical labour.

DUPRET, Alice (1988). Protecção da Mãe e da Criança: Planeamento Familiar em Cabo Verde. Integração das Variáveis Demográficas na Planificação. Simpósio Nacional. Praia: Ministério do Plano e da Cooperação, Unidade de População, pp.70-78.

Mother and Child Protection: Family Planning in Cape Verde

The paper describes the state of health of mothers in Cape Verde, and stresses the major issues related to the risks of their vulnerability, such as anemia, early pregnancy, STDs, etc., as well as to the risks faced by children, such as infections, and other causes of mortality. Health problems related to malnutrition are also highlighted. The experience with family planning services are described in detail, presenting both successes and failures in urban and rural areas. Policy recommendations advocate the integration of MCH/FP with the system of health services and with socio-economic development programmes.


MEINTEL, Deirdre (1984). Emigração em Cabo Verde: Solução ou Problema? Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos, n° 3, pp.121-161.

Cape Verdian Emigration: Solution or Problem?

In this study of the pre- and post-independence periods of emigration from Cape Verde to other African countries, to Portugal, USA and elsewhere, the major argument is that emigration has caused negative social and other consequences, which now impede the country's development. For example, new marriage and household patterns were introduced, especially marriages by proxy, arranged by correspondence. The preponderance of able-bodied males among the emigrants has resulted in a new type of household, matrifocal in composition, yet patriarchal in its structure of authority.

SAÚDE, Olga Guilhermina de Almeida (1994). A Mulher Cabo-verdiana e o Trabalho Doméstico: Saberes e Poderes. Seminário de Investigação: 4° Ano da Licenciatura em Antropologia, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, pp.83. (mimeo.)

The Cape Verdian Woman and Domestic Work: Know-How and Power

This is an analysis of the life histories of, and coping strategies adopted/practiced in household resource management among, the Cape Verdian women living in the shantytowns of Lisbon. Most of them had first emigrated with their husbands to São Tomé e Principe, and then, after living there alone (as their husbands left for Portugal), moved to Lisbon. Despite the dramatic change in the socio-cultural and other aspects of their lives, many Cape Verdian women have shown a great creativity in adjusting to a new situation. Nevertheless, the asymmetrical pattern of sexual division of tasks and powers at the expense of women remains strong, and reflects the relationships that prevail in their country of origin.


DUARTE, Cristina; NEVES, Iria (1988). Crescimento Demográfico e Desenvolvimento Rural. Integração das Variáveis Demográficas na Planificação. Simpósio Nacional. Praia: Ministério do Plano e da Cooperação, Unidade de População, pp.87-101.

Demographic Growth and Rural Development

The paper provides an analysis of potentials for food and agricultural production in the context of needs and productive capacities in Cape Verde. The continuously high demographic growth is explained by the need for labour force as a cheap and easily accessible means of production in family run agriculture and in the informal sector of the economy, as well as for the smooth functioning of the system of inter-family assistance in the provision of labour. Problems related to the fragmentation of land and ecological consequences of population pressure are also discussed.

GERWECK, Uta (1981). Mulheres da Ilha do Maio. Relatório Final dos Trabalhos com Mulheres e Raparigas da Ilha do Maio. (Cabo Verde): Projecto Integrado do Maio nos Sectores Educação e Assuntos Sociais, pp.30. (mimeo.)

Women on the Island of Maio. Final Report from Working with Women and Girls on the Island of Maio.

This project was carried out over three years in the villages of the Cape Verdian island of Maio. Target beneficiaries were women-single heads of households, and young girls. Their education and sensibilization covered a wide variety of areas, ranging from sexual education to a more rational use of scarce natural resources. A very strong project component was the attempt at preserving their communities socio-cultural strength and authenticity in the process of modernization.

MDR (1981). Segundo Seminário Nacional Sobre Reforma Agrária. Documentos de Apoio. Praia: Ministério do Desenvolvimento Rural (MDR), pp.268.

Second National Seminar on the Agrarian Reform

This is a compendium of technical papers on various aspects of the agrarian reform in Cape Verde. It also contains a study by a French sociologist Richard Jacques entitled "Some Aspects of Emigration and Land Property on the Island of Santiago". The paper provides many details on the situation with land ownership as regards gender-asymmetrical patterns in emigration, labour requirements and availability, right of ownership, management responsibilities in the family households - all in the context of the agricultural production in the late seventies.

MPC (1988). Integração das Variáveis Demográficas na Planificação. Documentos do Simpósio Nacional. Praia: Ministério do Plano e da Cooperação, Unidade de População, pp.125.

Integration of Demographic Variables in Planning

This book of proceedings from the First National Seminar on the topic, contains over twenty technical papers and other conference documents on all major issues related to the integration of population issues in the planning of socio-economic development in Cape Verde, ranging from MCH/FP and education, to rural development and investment dilemmas. Gender-related issues are highlighted in papers dealing with social development issues, particularly with consequences of international emigration. Policy recommendations refer, inter alia, to the need to reduce significantly infant mortality, and to promote equality of women with men in education and employment. The need for introduction of social protection programmes aimed at reduction of fertility is also highlighted, as well as the importance of sensitizing the general public on population issues.

OMCV (1990). Promoção da Mulher, um Desafio a Vencer: Investir na Promoção da Mulher - Opção pare o Desenvolvimento. Praia: Organização das Mulheres do Cabo Verde (OMCV), pp.31.

Promoting Women. a Challenge to Win: To Invest in the Promotion of Women - an Option for the Development.

This technical booklet contains statistical data and other information on the role of women in agriculture, in migration and in the management of family households. It also refers to some important cultural-behavioural issues (e.g., the traditional mentality, prostitution) that shape the existing status of women in society. Women's full emancipation through better organization and political action is advocated.


MDRP (1989). Estatísticas Agrícolas. Praia: Ministério do Desenvolvimento Rural e Pescas (MDRP), Gabinete de Estudos e Planeamento.

Agricultural Statistics

This annual statistical report issued by the Ministry of Rural Development and Fishery of Cape Verde contains, inter alia, a chapter entitled "Agricultural production, Population, Activities" in which a considerable part of data are gender-differentiated. For example, it is specified whether men or women are heads of household, and who works as farmers in irrigated, rain-fed or mixed farming systems across the entire Cape Verdian archipelago, as well as their educational attainment, and age. In 1988, the median size of rural families was 5.4, and 34% of the heads of households were women.

Guinea Bissau


COSTA, Carlos; RESENDE, Mauro (1994). Guiné-Bissau: O Ambiente Agrícola, o Homem e o Uso da Terra. Lisboa: Clássica Editora. Lisboa. pp.290

Guinea Bissau: Agricultural Environment, Men and Land Use

In this monograph on the overall situation in agriculture and food production in Guinea-Bissau, the gender division of labour in farming and other activities is given prominent place. Women's hard work as planters and harvesters, normally with very primitive tools, are presented both in the text and on the accompanying photos. Policy suggestions on the improvement of conditions for a faster agricultural development refer mostly to the fragility of the eco-system, the need for human capital formation, and more advanced technology.

CTNP (1995). Relatório Nacional sobre a Situação Socioeconómica e Política da Mulher Guineense. Bissau: Comité Técnico Nacional Preparatório (CTNP) pare a Conferência Mundial sobre a Mulher, pp.30. (mimeo)

National Report on the Socio-Economic and Political Situation of Guinean Women

It is highlighted in this report that, inter alia, women (and men) in Guinea-Bissau prefer large family because of the need for farm labour and as security in the old age. The number of children "...depends on God, the religious leader, and the father". The ample statistical and qualitative information illustrate precarious living conditions of rural girls and women. The division of family labour often implies harder physical effort for women than for men. Various projects on rural credit and technology have been carried out, often with success, aimed at improving the social and economic status and productivity of women. Nevertheless, it is still common in all ethnic communities, that only men own the land. The farming tools are usually shared, while women can own only utensils needed for food transformation.

HANDEM, Lima; FERNANDES, Raúl Mendes (1988). o Papel da Mulher na Reprodução da Força de Trabalho. Boletim de Informação Socio-económica, n°. 4. Bissau: Centro de Estudos Socio-económicos do Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisa (INEP), pp.27-40.

Role of Women in the Reproduction of Labour Force

This article brings about explanations on the linkages between the biological and socioeconomic roles of women in general terms, but also concentrates on the specific issues related to urban and rural women in the developing world, especially in Africa. The section on rural women is based on field research on the psycho-sociological aspects of reproductive behaviour, which was carried out among the Muslim polygamous households in the area of Gabú, and in a number of other regions of Guinea-Bissau. The interpretation of the 1979 Population Census in Guinea Bissau is also offered, with a typology of family sizes and structures. The importance of productive roles of women is stressed throughout the article and supported with empirical evidence from Guinea-Bissau and other African countries. Description of gender relations in farming and other tasks is combined with the presentation of cultural and economic importance of age-relations.

MARTINS, Eduardo Costa Dias (1993). O Sistema Agrário Mandinga - Produção, Reprodução Social e Perversidades. Comunicaçães: Série de Ciências Agrárias, n° 13. Lisboa: Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, pp.335339.

The Agrarian System of Mandingas - Production, Social Reproduction and Distortions

This paper deals with the effects of monetization of the rural economy and emigration from Guinea-Bissau to Senegal and other countries on intra-family relations. It had not yet been asserted as common in the entire country, but there is strong evidence in the Eastern province that families tend to desegregate when the labour needs in agriculture can not be secured through family labour exchanges anymore. Traditionally, desegregation would occur only after the death of the father, and the fracture lines would be defined only by a combination of biological and cultural criteria. Nowadays, the fracture lines ever more depend on the economic situation of the individuals, and the traditional family values give way to the modern forms of economic reasoning. Also, the sex and age imbalances provoked by the emigration and reduced availability of shared labour have caused changes in power relations between the traditional groups of villagers - i.e., the women, the young and the Homens Grandes (Great Men), the latter one increasingly loosing his power of influence.

OLIVEIRA, Olavo Borges de; HAVIK, Philip J.; SCHIEFER, Ulrich (1996). Armazenamento Tradicional na Guiné-Bissau: Produtos, Sementes e Celeiros Utilizados pelas Etnias na Guiné Bissau. Muster: Aktuelle Beitraege zür Soziologie, Institut für Soziologie, Universitaet Münster, pp.350.

Traditional Storage in Guinea Bissau: Products Seeds and Cellars Used by the Ethnic Groups in Guinea Bissau

This monograph provides a detailed presentation of traditional ways and means of storing agricultural products (cereals, vegetables, fruits, etc.) as it was recorded in an in-depth field study among different ethnic groups in Guinea-Bissau. The gender division of tasks, and especially women's know-how and power of control, is described by individual products that are typical in the tradition of all ethnic groups. Furthermore, explanations are given on the materials and technologies used, as well as on related cultural values and ritual ceremonies that accompany the storing of each product. Intra- and inter-community relations as regards storage of food and other agro-products are also presented, always depicting specific gender-related distinctions.

SARDINHA, Raúl Manuel de Albuquerque (1987). Actividades Florestais e Desflorestação na Guiné-Bissau. Planificação, Utilização e Gestão de Recursos Naturais. Jornadas de Engenharia Dos Países de Língua Oficial Portuguesa. Rio de Janeiro.

Forestry Activities and Deforestation in Guinea-Bissau

This paper provides a socio-ecological interpretation of environmental problems related to smallholders farming and forestry activities. Complex linkages are identified between, inter-alia, growing family labour requirements (with both age- and sex-wise distinctions), growing needs for new land for cultivation, increasing deforestation, use of primitive technology, and the prevailing pro-natalist attitudes, all in the context of problems related to the incorporation of agriculture in the market economy (under unfavourable terms of trade). Description of the variety of farming systems practiced by different ethnic groups is presented. The importance of sons is stressed, as well as how women in some areas hold complete control over certain stages, or over the entire rice production.

SIDERSKY, Pablo (1987). As Relações de Trabalho numa Sociedade de Cultivadores de Arroz: o Caso dos Balantas da Região de Tombali. Soronda - Revista de Estudos Guineenses, n° 3, pp.21-38.

Work Relations in a Society of Rice Cultivators: the Case of Balantas in the Tombali Region

This article provides an analysis of the farming system among the Balanta people in two villages in the Tombali region (the extreme South-East of Mozambique) from the point of view of time requirements for different activities, and of division of labour by age and sex. It explains the prime importance of family labour and the system of using external labour. Detailed analysis of family labour inputs (specifically by men, women and children, by age groups, and throughout the farming calendar) in the production of rice is accompanied with the description of arrangements among family members and other workers in terms of their responsibilities and remuneration.

SCHIEFER, Ulrich; HAVIK, Philip J. (1991). Associações e Cooperativas na Guiné-Bissau: um Estudo Sócio-Económico e Cultural. Estudo pare o Programa das Nações Unidas pare o Desenvolvimento. Bissau: COPIN, pp.66. (mimeo.)

Associations and Co-operatives in Guinea Bissau

This is an in-depth review of rural associations and co-operatives in Guinea-Bissau. The types of associations presented relate to: empowerment of women, access to credit, inter-village exchanges, access to technical innovations, co-operation among agricultural producers. Women tend to belong to associations composed of members of the same ethnic group, as this enables them to have better access to external assistance in materials, credit and financing. Women's associations are generally very well integrated in traditional social structures through representatives who hold important places in these structures. These associations also have very close ties with the Union of Women of Guinea-Bissau. It is explained in the study how, thanks to their associations, many women have succeeded to improve and diversify food production as well non-agricultural activities and are gaining other benefits for themselves and their families. Policy suggestions are provided on how to further improve the functions of the associations.

SCHIEFER, Ulrich; HAVIK, Philip J. (1991). Recenseamento Industrial da Guiné-Bissau 1990. II Volume: Inquérito Sociológico. Bissau: COPIN, pp.68. (mimeo.)

Industrial Census of Guinea Bissau 1990. II Volume: Sociological Survey

This study, carried out for the Ministry of Industry of Guinea-Bissau, presents the sociological profiles of ethnic groups engaged in different artisanal industrial production. One such activity is the extraction of oil palm, which is the major women' activity of the Beafada and Manjaca peoples. The analysis of this activity includes the early introduction of girls to their mothers' skill, their apprenticeship (as early as in the age of 15) as an integral part of the "female domestic work", specific economic and calendar-wise aspects of the oil-production and exchange for other products (mainly for rice), exchanges of labour, commercialization, supply of production materials, management of stocks, equipment, transport, etc.


ACHINGER, Gertrud (1986). A Família Guineense: Estabilidade e Transformação. Soronda - Revista de Estudos Guineenses, n° 1, pp.68-90.

The Guinean Family: Stability and Transformation

The article presents a comparative analysis of the economic and socio-cultural characteristics of different types of families in Guinea-Bissau: the extended family of the smallholder agricultural producers and the urban family in the fifties, and in the late seventies. In addition, two different ethnic rural families in the mid eighties are analyzed. As regards rural families in the period 1950-1979, major changes noted are: a slow but evident process of nuclearization (family size was reduced from 8,2 to 6,2), and a decrease in the number of women in polygamous unions (the share of monogamous unions increased from 59% to 64%). However it is demonstrated in this study that the family in Guinea-Bissau has not undergone linear transformations towards the urban nuclear family as a final reference point, but rather that there is a wide variety of new rural family types, depending on socio-economic, environmental (including distance) and cultural-institutional circumstances.

FERNANDES, Raul Mendes (1988). Dinâmica Social dos Bijagós. Boletim de Informação Socio-económica, n°. 4. Bissau: Centro de Estudos Socio-económicos, Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisa (INEP), pp.7-12.

Social Dynamics of the Bijagó People

This study presents a critical review of the kusina, the fundamental social relation among the Bijagós, based on the antagonisms between men and women. It describes how these relations function in the areas of decision-making and responsibility to render various services, including labour and loans. Description is also given of how age and class intersect with gender in these complex relations. The conflicting situations are solved through an elaborate system of establishing the dominant power of the Otobango-ocanto and Otobango-anto, i.e., the alliance of the elderly who can control, respectively, mostly women, and mostly men.

HAVIK, Philip J. (1995). Relações de Género e Comércio. Estratégias Inovadoras de Mulheres na Guiné-Bissau. Soronda - Revista de Estudos Guineenses, n°.19, pp.25-36.

Gender Relations and Commerce: Innovative Strategies Among Women in Guinea Bissau

It is argued in this article that women in Guinea Bissau, as in Africa generally, are not any more the mere suppliers of non-remunerated services for social reproduction, but rather ever more the consumers "around fireplace". Specifically, women take advantage of the strict gender divisions in the allocation of expenses and revenues in family households to the benefit of their own personal and collective livelihood strategies. In order to participate in local commercial activities, it is crucial for women to break the barriers to their access to traditional institutions whose mode of functioning has been dominated by men and conditioned by age, lineage and ethnic relations. It is argued in the article that in the periods of transition and crisis women have demonstrated their autonomy in creating new alliances and patterns of social interaction in order to ensure new or reinforce the already created maneuvering space in the society. Empirical evidence is provided regarding such women's in the transformation and commercialization of cashew nuts and rice.

MOEIRA, Margarida Mira (1993). O Casamento na Etnia Papel da Guiné-Bissau Seminário de Investigação: 4° Ano da Licenciatura em Antropologia, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa , pp.88. (mimeo.)

Marriage among the Papel People in Guinea-Bissau

It is argued in this study that, despite the fact that the Papel people have been ever more integrated in the country's new socio-political order and market-oriented economy, the marriage rituals continue being practiced entirely in accordance with the traditional norms. The strictly codified female versus male social status and roles are reflected in the marriage rituals which, in turn, reinforce the traditional gender-relations characterized by men's economic and social dominance over women who are considered as minors. The preferred type of marriage is with the daughter of the father's sister. Polygamic family is frequent. Women sometimes earn some money on their own through commercialization of domestic products, but most often the largest part of money at their disposal depends on the remittances from their sons working in Bissau.

SCANTAMBURLO, Lulgi (1991). Etnologia dos Bijagós da Ilha de Bubaque. Lisboa: Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical; Bissau: Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisa.

Ethnology of the Bijagós on the Island of Bubaque

Role of women in collecting crabs and shells, transforming and commercializing fish and caring for daily diet is described in parallel with men' tasks. Similarly, sharp division between men's and women's daily use of objects, realization of duties, occupation of space and maintenance of traditional habits are presented in detail. On all islands, families believe to belong to one of the four initial ancestors. The kinship system is matrilineal, but residence is always established at the husband's house which enables reinforcement of the de facto men's economic and social power. Initiation rites and religious ceremonies depict deeply rooted traditional culture, including the glorification of fertility.


FRIJ, Lennart (1984). Saúde e Nutrição Infantis na Guiné-Bissau Bissau: Ministério da Saúde da Guiné-Bissau Estocolmo: Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries (SAREC), pp.72. (mimeo.)

Child Health and Nutrition in Guinea Bissau

This report contains the results of a research project on social and economic problems linked with the serious state of children' malnutrition in Guinea-Bissau, especially in the rural areas. One major conclusion is that an important decisive factor causing this situation is that the social system is controlled by men, while women are subordinate and actually suffer together with their children. Due to their overburden with productive and reproductive roles, low educational status, and absence of social and health infrastructure and services, women are not able to take an adequate care of children's health and nutrition. The report presents empirical evidence related to these linkages, as well as recommendations for policy-makers and future research.

INEP/UNICEF (1992). A Análise da Situação das Crianças e das Mulheres na Guiné-Bissau Bissau: Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisa (INEP); Escritório do UNICEF, pp.115.

Analysis of the Situation of Children and Women in Guinea Bissau

This is the First Part of a comprehensive report on the livelihood conditions of women and children in Guinea-Bissau. It offers a global vision of the environmental and population situation, and presents numerous indicators of social development, economic development issues, as well as an outline of political processes. In the chapter "Interface Mother-Child" it is reported that women are under high pressure to have many children. Many women themselves are in favour of large family: a survey revealed that 50% of rural women wish to have ten and more children. High infant mortality, need for labour on the farm and at home, and security in the old age are major underlying reasons for highly pro-natalist behaviour in rural areas. The presentation of the productive role of rural women focuses on various specific cultural, environmental, economic, and other situations. (As announced in this volume, the Second Part contains the results of the survey in 300 family households, carried out by the Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisa - INEP, in Bissau.)

MINSAP (1989). Acta dos Trabalhos da 1a Assembleia Nacional do MlNSAP/Curandeiros. Bula: Ministério da Saúde Pública (MINSAP), Direcção dos Cuidados Primários de Saúde.

Proceedings from the First National Assembly of the MlNSAP/Medicine Men

Confronted with an alarming health situation, which has been worsened by the high and growing incidence of HIV/AIDS infections, the Ministry of Public Health has organized this conference (assistance was provided by the WHO) in order to reconcile the capacities of modern medicine, which was introduced by the colonizers, with the know-how of traditional folk medicine provided by the curandeiros (medicine men) whose activities have been oppressed till recently. This entire volume represents, in fact, a detailed roster of names of the most famous curandeiros in all regions of Guinea-Bissau, with Latin and folk names of medicinal plants and ways of their use for specific diseases among which sexual impotence, sterility, retention of urinary tract, abortion and venereal diseases are prominently represented.

NDJAI, lancuba (1991). Pobreza e Sociedade na Guiné-Bissau Conferência Nacional sobre Ambiente e Pobreza: Praticas, Realidades e Alternativas. Bula: Centro Olof Palme, pp.12.

Poverty and Society in Guinea-Bissau

This conference paper contains an overview of linkages between rural poverty, population growth and environmental degradation, focusing on smallholder agricultural producers practices and their family households needs. Gender-related asymmetries at the expense of women are highlighted, in particular as regards the educational attainment. Women's responsibilities in managing scarce and fragile natural resource base are also stressed.


ABRANTES, Manuel C; TOPSOE-JENSEN, Bente (1987). Avaliação do Impacto de Algumas Actividades Realizadas pelas Mulheres. Bula: Programa de Desenvolvimento Rural Integrado da Zona I. Gabinete de Planeamento e Avaliação (mimeo.)

Evaluation of the Impact of Some Activities Realized by Women

This study presents (in a very succinct form) the results of an assessment of the effects of projects with women as main beneficiaries in over 25 villages in various areas of the Northern parts of Guinea-Bissau. These projects were realized in the following areas: training and use of community leaders, integration of women in rural associations, provision of agricultural credit, establishment of child day-care centres, and use of improved stoves. Most of the projects faced shortcomings in their realization, and recommendations are given about concrete steps to improve the situation.

ACHINGER, Gertrud (1992). Efeitos do Programa de Ajustamento Estrutural sobre as Condições Económicas e Sociais das Mulheres da Zona Rural. Soronda Revista de Estudos Guineenses, n°14, pp.65-82.

Effects of the Structural Adjustment Programme on Economic and Social Conditions of Women in Rural Area

This article offers empirical evidence which supports the thesis that the structural adjustment programme in Guinea-Bissau (introduced in 1986 by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank) has had mainly negative effects on rural women. The following are some major features of this situation: as subsistence agriculture deteriorates, men normally hand over to women most of the farming responsibilities; the government has favoured ever greater exclusion of males from agriculture, but men and boys who are not active in agriculture represent an additional heavy cost for the household; it has become virtually impossible for most of rural women to break away from poverty; international projects tend to disfavour solidarity among sexes; etc.

BULL, Marianne (1987). Situação das Mulheres Manjacas e Mandingas: Relatório de um Pequeno Estudo de Campo Realizado do em Duas Tabancas da Guiné-Bissau. Instituto de Antropologia Social. Secção de Estudos do Desenvolvimento, Universidade de Estocolmo, pp.60. (mimeo.)

Situation of the Manjaca and Mandinga Women: Report from a Small Field Study Realized in Two Tabancas in Guinea Bissau.

This is a comparative analysis of women's lives in two agriculturally and socially different regions in which development projects have been realized (both regions are included in a programme for integrated development, financed by the Swedish International Development Agency, and are carried out by the University of Stockholm). It was recorded that development projects often mean a growing labour burden on women and children. On the other side, there have been no projects that would alleviate traditional burden of collecting wood, water, pilling the rice, etc. The status and roles of women are presented in the context of specific farming systems. The study also presents women's status in relation to land-tenure in the context of socio-cultural and economic conditions governing the family life-cycle. The text is accompanied with graphic presentations of various quantitative and qualitative data gathered in the field.

GALLI, Rosemary E.; FUNK, Ursula (1994). O Ajustamento Estrutural e Género na Guiné-Bissau. Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos, n° 16-17, pp.235-254

Structural Adjustment and Gender in Guinea Bissau

The emigration from rural areas to the cities, and other facets of the survival strategies adopted by rural women at the end of the eighties - i.e., years marked by programmes for macro-economic stabilization and structural adjustment - is in the focus of this article. Despite a considerable number of projects directed to improve women's status and productivity, policy-makers continue to consider only men as heads of households which means leaving a majority of women without technology, credit and extension services they actually need as major food producers. Various social and economic pressures have contributed to an increase in hours of women's work. Subnutrition and other aspects of poverty make them vulnerable to many illnesses including the sexually transmitted diseases (nearly 50% of all women in Guinea Bissau). Infant mortality rates are still as high as 175 per thousand, and children's subnutrition is on increase.

INEP (1992). Inquérito Ligeiro Junto ás Famílias. Resultados. Secretaria de Estado do Plano. Bissau: Instituto Nacional de Estatística e Pesquisa - INEP. pp.156. (mimeo.)

Priority Survey of Families. Results

This field study was carried out as an integral part of the World Bank's Social Dimension of the Adjustment Programme. It was based on the sample of 1630 family households. The goal was to define policy priorities for the protection of the socioeconomic groups which are most affected by the macro-economic adjustment programme. The results obtained refer to the socio-demographic context (e.g., significant female surplus in rural areas), provision of education and health services, employment, housing, labour migration (especially its seasonality, related to cash crops), agricultural production trends and structures (subsistence versus commercial), and family purchasing power and expenditures (food is often obtained as barter exchange within and between households).

MONTEIRO, Isaac; PADOVANI, Fernando (1992). Ajustamento Estrutural na Guiné-Bissau: Contexto e Consequências pare o CECI - Bissau. Bissau: Gabinete Estudos e Consultoria, Instituto Nacional de Estatística e Pesquisa (INEP), pp.54. (mimeo.)

Structural Adjustment in Guinea Bissau: Context and Consequences for CECI Bissau

This study was commissioned by the Canadian Centre for Studies and International Cooperation (CECI) in Bissau. An overview of the concept and the realization of the structural adjustment policy is provided. Effects on agricultural production and food security are described, such as conflicts among big and small agricultural producers, changing consumption patterns (marked by deteriorating nutrition), etc. The increase in the commercial production of cashew nuts has provoked the decline in the subsistence food production (mainly rice), and has made local population, especially women and children, increasingly dependent on rendering their labour to the plantations in order to receive food as payment. Negative effects on the provision of education and health services are also reviewed.

TANNER, Christopher (1990). O Impacto do Ajustamento Estrutural e as Políticas Altemativas pare a Promoção do Bem Estar das Crianças na Guiné-Bissau Bissau: UNICEF, pp.82. (mimeo.)

Impact of Structural Adjustment and Alternative Policies for the Promotion of the Welfare of Children in Guinea Bissau

It is argued in this report that very high infant mortality rates and high incidence of malnutrition are largely attributable to the long-term effects of the exogenous factors of development, such as the macro-economic adjustment programmes and projects introduced by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. This situation of high rates of pregnancies and short child-spacing intervals, high prices of food and low overall living standards, as well as the absence of programmes which would offset negative social consequences of the structural adjustment, are highlighted in this report.

UDMU (1988). A Mulher na Luta pare o Desenvolvimento. Bissau: União Democrática das Mulheres da Guiné Bissau (UDMU, pp.42.

Women in the Struggle for Development

The main part of this technical booklet is devoted to the importance of women in agricultural development, and it presents the facts regarding their lower social and economic status. It is argued that education and appropriate technologies are needed to relieve women from physical burden and low economic status, as well as to assure their equal rights with men in decision-making at all levels. It is also argued against early marriages and pregnancies, as well as for the need for the introduction of family planning as an integral part of health services available to all. Female genital circumcision is vigorously condemned.


KASPER, Josef E. (1994). Levantamento Cartográfíco da Guiné-Bissau. Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos, n° 16-17, pp.335-292

The Cartographic Survey of the Guinea Bissau

This review of maps and charts, which are mostly from the late colonial and early independence periods, refers to, inter alia, various socio-anthropologic and socio-demographic themes ranging from population distribution, densities and migration patterns of various ethnic groups, to the areas of Guinea-Bissau marked by the ritual infanticide.

RIBEIRO, Carlos Rui (1986). Os Censos e as Sociedades Camponesas na Guiné-Bissau:. Soronda - Revista de Estudos Guineenses, n°1, pp.109-124.

Censuses and Peasant Societies in Guinea Bissau

This is a methodological study devoted to the necessity for reformulating national population census according to the true needs of Guinea-Bissau as an independent country. In particular, it is argued that an entirely new methodology should be pursued regarding peasant population, rather then applying the same one for both urban and rural. An overview is provided of the population censuses held in the colonial period, and of many shortcomings of the same methodology used for the first post-colonial census (1979) are singled out. Examples given refer to socio-cultural and legal problems related to the detection of the real age of the peasant population, especially of women, as well as of women's (especially widows') true civil status.

SILVA, Hélia Lains e (1990). Contribuição pare uma Bibliografia sobre Agricultura, Silvicultura, Pecuária e Pesca da Guiné-Bissau Comunicaçães - Series de Ciências Agrárias, n° 4. Lisboa: Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, pp.61.

Contribution to a Bibliography on Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Fishery in Guinea-Bissau

This bibliography of international literature on the agricultural sector in Guinea-Bissau is structured, around topics which, inter alia, bear direct relevance to the socio-economic and other aspects of rural development, such as Social Change, Human Resources, Land Occupation, Population, Settlements, Farming Systems, and Quality of Life.



ARAÚJO, Manuel G. M. de (1988). O Sistema das Aldeias Comunais em Moçambique Transformações na Organização do Espaço Residencial e Produtivo. Dissertação de Doutoramento em Geografia Humana. Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa, pp.479. (mimeo.)

The System of Communal Villages in Mozambique - Transformations in the Organization of Residential and Productive Space

This doctoral thesis offers an in-depth analysis of geographical (i.e., spatial, temporal, and socio-ecological) aspects of the organization and problems of life in communal villages, and social and economic issues in the family and co-operative sector of agriculture production. The demo-geographic component of the analysis bears extensive references to the rural population structures, family size, spatial mobility (war-induced, organized and spontaneous), and to the process of the settlement of communal villages. It is highlighted how crucial is women's contribution in both family and co-operative agriculture and social reproduction in conditions of physical and economic uncertainty and overall scarcity of services. Suggestions are put forward regarding more efficient functioning of the family sector agriculture.

CASAL, Adolfo Yánez (1988). A Crise da Produção Familiar e as Aldeias Comunais em Moçambique. Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos, n° 9, pp 157-191.

Collectivized Villages and Crisis in Family Production in Mozambique

The economic fragility of family production depends on the precarious natural base, on rudimentary tools of production, and on deficient productive capacity at crucial seasonal points in the farming cycle. The implantation of collectivized villages provoked a profound disequilibrium among different components of the agrarian system, causing risks of agricultural production failures, and social and economic destabilization among villagers. With the annual population growth of at least 2.5% there is all probability that these imbalances will intensify, threatening the entire system of social reproduction among peasants. The reduction of the natural resource equilibrium is also imminent due to population pressure over large spaces. The dispersed settlements, together with other factors (such as war, emigration of men to South Africa, etc.) has induced the process of nuclearization of family households and loss of solidarity. In the studied area, around one quarter of households were composed only of old, ill, widowed, divorced and separated women.

CROSS, Michael (1994). O Capitalismo Colonial e a Força de Trabalho: A Economia Politica nas Plantações de Chá do Norte de Moçambique 1930-1975. Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos, n° 16 - 17, pp.131-154.

Colonial Capitalism and Labour Force: Political Economy on Tea Plantations in Northern Mozambique

It was only in 1962 that forced labour was formally abolished in Mozambique by the Portuguese colonial authorities, but in the Northern areas it existed de facto until the end of the colonial era. This article sheds the light on the dreadful conditions under which men, women, and children had to work on plantations of tea and in the production of cotton, and also describes the survival strategies local families had to adopt in their farming and at home. Women had a prominent task in the domestic economy: they were in full control of the family budget and of a significant part of their husbands salaries. Families devised a number of local-community mutual self-help schemes to be able to produce at least some food for themselves in spite of the drudgery of forced labour on colonial plantations. It is also elaborated how insufficient food, absence of sanitation and medical care affected peasant population, particularly children and women.

SANTOS, Jose Hipólito dos (1874). Cooperativização e Desenvolvimento Rural em Moçambique. Lisboa: Ed. SKIES - Sociedade de Estudos e Intervenção em Engenharia Social, pp.95.

The Co-operativism and Rural Development in Mozambique

This study of the role of co-operativism in the Mozambican rural development, inspired by the experience from a FAO/IFAD project, presents a wide range of positive effects gained by the strengthening of the family sector agricultural production through training, people's participation, introduction of agro-industrial and non-agricultural activities in rural areas, etc. It is described how gender-related inequities at the expense of women regarding the access to land, agro-inputs, division of labour, etc. are still largely present, and it is argued that women, especially the young ones, through their active membership in co-operatives are able to better satisfy their needs. Men's resistance to women's active participation in cooperatives is also described, as well as the fact that women show a greater interest in learning. One major problem that was not solved by the FAO/IFAD project is child-care during women's activities in co-operatives.


AMARAL, Manuel Gama (1990). O Povo Yao: Subsídios pare o Estudo de um Povo do Noroeste de Moçambique. Lisboa: Instituto de Investigação Científica e Tropical, pp.493.

The Yao People: Contributions to the Study of a People in the Northeast Mozambique

This anthropological study of the Yao people, whose major characteristic is the matrilineal kinship system, largely concentrates on all agricultural activities (i.e., farming, fishery, animal husbandry, and forestry), especially in the context of food production and nutritional standards (including food taboos for girls and pregnant women). Gender-division in farming and other agricultural activities are described in great detail, emphasizing the persistence of labour-intensive, primitive technology. The traditional large-family formation norms and related pro-natalist values and sexual practices still prevail. Age at marriage for girls is 15-16 years and for boys 181 9 years.

ENOQUE, Angelina D. (1994). Mulheres Manyika Contam...: Sexualidade e Familia Micro-estudo Exploratório. Cadernos de Pesquisa, n° 4. Maputo: Instituto Nacional do Desenvolvimento da Educação (INDE), pp.63.

Women of Manyika Talk...: Sexuality and Family - Exploratory Micro-Study

This base-line study, carried out with financial assistance provided by UNFPA and technical assistance by UNESCO, represents an attempt to assess some decisive issues in women's life-cycle, such as early and/or non-wanted pregnancy, clandestine and unsafe abortion, early marriage, and physical overburden - all in the context of deteriorating environment and rapid population growth in urban and rural parts of the Manyika region (Western Mozambique). The socio-cultural, economic, legal (including inheritance rules, and the access to agricultural land) and technological aspects of the status of women in the family are analyzed. Methodological problems related to such research are highlighted, and the questionnaire is annexed. One major conclusion is that the patrilineal society still controls the entire women's life-cycle, i.e., from the childhood, marriage, and reproductive behaviour, to the widowhood and old age.

MACHEL, Graça (1990). Situação da Mulher em Moçambique. In: Dinâmica Demográfica e Processos Económicos, Sociais e Culturais. Série População e Desenvolvimento. Documento n° 2, Projecto MOZ/86/PO5-OIT/FNUAP. Maputo: Comissão Nacional do Plano; Direcção Nacional de Estatística, pp.114-127.

Women's Situation in Mozambique

This paper contains a review of the diversity and complexity of cultural situations across Mozambique. It is argued that such diversity should be understood in all efforts to promote integration of women in development. Specific attention is given to religious factors, linkages between community norms, family relations, and women's rights (or, in fact, women's duties), as well as to the role of education, and the productive roles of women. In particular, the low status of women in subsistence agricultural production is stressed, pointing to the fact that they are not covered by official statistics, and have not been given adequate assistance from the state, banks, and others.

MARTINEZ, Francisco Lerma (1989). O Povo Macua e a Sua Cultural Lisboa: Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, pp.320.

The Macua People and its Culture

This monograph presents the results of a socio-anthropological field research project on the characteristics of the Macua people in Northern Mozambique. The second and largest section is devoted to the Macuas' entire vital cycle, from birth, initiation of the young (with a special chapter on girls), to marriage, illnesses, cure and death. The description of each of these events refers explicitly to the status and role of female members of the family and community. Agricultural and other economic activities of the Macuas are discussed in a separate section of the monograph. The annex contains questionnaires applied in this research.

MEDEIROS, Eduardo (1985). Moçambique. Evolução de Algumas Instituições Socio-familiares. Colecção Documentos de Trabalho, n° 4. Centro de Estudos sobre Africa e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão (ISEG), Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, pp.30.

Mozambique: Evolution of Some Socio-Familiar Institutions

Continuity, adaptation and transformation of family institutions and norms in different socio-cultural settings in Mozambique are outlined in this study. It is explained why a faster women's social emancipation has not been possible despite the introduction of new state laws (e.g. The Family Law), and the pro-equity ideology and country's political organization. It is argued that the practice of polygamy, as well as the persistence of traditional institutions such as lobolo, petti, tchamanahula, chimalo, xuma, etc., must be taken into a due consideration if any comprehensive effort is to be planned to improve the situation of women in agriculture. These women represent 90% of the labour force in the family sector of food and agriculture production in Mozambique.

OLIVEIRA, Angela Maria Teixeira Rebelo de (1985). Análise das Relações Sociais de Produção na Sociedade Maconde (Período 1850-1984). Dissertação de Licenciatura em Antropologia. Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, pp.100. (mimeo.)

Analysis of Social Production Relations in the Society of the Maconde People (in the Period 1850-1984!

This study offers, inter alia, a typology of gender-relations that are present in the hierarchy of the evolving groups of producers and consumers among the Macondes. The socio-cultural norms and attitudes as part of the cycle of agricultural production are also presented. Linkages are elaborated, on one side, between men, marketable goods, control of matrimonial alliances and intra-family power, and, on the other hand, the role of older women, food products, and procreation decision-making. Changes occurring in family production patterns in the post-colonial period are analyzed as well.


AFONSO, Ana Elisa de Santana (1994). Contribuição pare uma Reflexão Sobre a Valorização da Mulher e da Rapariga em Moçambique. In: Eu Mulher em Moçambique. Maputo: Comissão Nacional pare a UNESCO em Mocambique (CNUM), pp.173-187.

A Contribution to the Concept of the Valorization of Women and Girls in Mozambique

The article brings about statistical evidence of the lower educational attainment of girls than of boys, and describes the endogenous and exogenous factors contributing to the unfavourable situation in the schooling of girls, particularly in the rural areas. The argument is that the prevailing socio-cultural environment, in fact, does not allow the emergence of educated women. The author sarcastically affirms that in Mozambique "... an educated women can signify an agent who is active in the destruction of the society...".

ARAÚJO, Manuel (1983). A Criança e a Mãe: Análise da Situação. Maputo: Departamento de Geografia da Universidade Eduardo Mondlaine; Secretaria de Estado da Cooperação Internacional. (mimeo.)

Child and Mother: An Analysis of the Situation

This first comprehensive analysis (financed by UNICEF) of the state of the well-being of women an children was carried out eight years after Mozambique gained its independence. The linkages between health, nutritional status and socio-demographic indicators are explained from the point of view of different (under)development issues. The particularly grave situation faced by young pregnant women is stressed in the context of the non-existent or poor MCH/FP services.

PALME, Mikael (1992). O Significado da Escola - Repetência e Desistência na Escola Primária Moçambicana. Cadernos de Pesquisa, n° 2. Maputo: Instituto Nacional do Desenvolvimento e da Educação (INDE), pp.145.

The Significance of the School-Repetitions and Drop-outs in Primary Schools in Mozambique

This study shows how profound are gender-related asymmetries as regards problems with school enrollment, especially the drop-outs in rural areas of Mozambique. Ample statistical evidence is provided about the greater refusal to enroll and higher incidence of leaving the school by girls and young women than by boys and young men. The major reasons for not enrolling the children in rural areas, or taking them out of school, are family labour requirements, mobility patterns, poverty, early marriage and pregnancy, as well as the war situation. Recommendations specifically address, inter alia, ways of improving the rates of school enrollment and educational attainment of girls in rural areas.

ZUCULA, Carmen Medeiros (1994). Aspectos Sócio-Culturais Relacionados com a Frequência Escolar das Raparigas em Moçambique. In: Eu Mulher em Moçambique. Maputo: Comissão Nacional pare a UNESCO em Moçambique (CNUM), pp.189-217.

Socio-Cultural Aspects Related to School Attendance by Girls in Mozambique

A major part of this article is devoted to the schooling problems faced by girls in the rural setting. Empirical evidence from the case-studies demonstrates that the schooling of boys and girls is still largely conditioned by their unequal gender roles at home and on the farm. Inadequacies of the school system for the rural population are also analyzed, as well as the gap between education and employment opportunities. Socio-cultural traditions such as the observance of religious calendars, patterns of power relations and decision-making in the family, as well as the monetary and other costs incurred for schooling, are also important for understanding low educational attainment of girls.


CARDOSO, Fernando Jorge (1993). Gestão e Desenvolvimento Rural: Moçambique. no Contexto da África Sub-Sahariana. Lisboa. Fim de Século Ediçoes, Lda., pp.359.

Management and Rural Development: Mozambique in the Context of Sub-Saharan Africa

This monograph provides an in-depth economic and political analysis of major strategic issues in rural development faced by governments in Africa, focusing especially on the situation in Mozambique. A prominent place in the study is given to the role of family sector agricultural production for food subsistence and market, with explicit references to the distinctions in the status and roles between men and women. It is explained how forced labour (till the end of the colonial period), migration, market, technology, and government administration, have had specific effects on social differentiation, including the maintenance of the low status of women.

CASIMIRO, Isabel: ANDRADE, Ximena (1994). Construindo uma Teoria de Género em Moçambique. Estudos Moçambicanos, n° 1 1/12, pp 93-1 10.

Constructing a Theory of Gender in Mozambique

This is an overview of the evolution of scientific thought on women and gender from the perspective of the recent political and developmental experience gained in Mozambique. It is argued that the initial feminist studies and activities were inspired by the fact that the first Population Census asserted that women represent 85% of the agricultural producers, both in family subsistence production and for export. After a period of concentration on the analysis of the productive role of women and of the traditional obstacles women have to face, the concept of "gender-relations" was introduced which finally enabled the breakaway, first, from the reductionistic, economistic approach, and, second, from the cultural relativism. It is also outlined in this article that the following four areas of work are been realized at the Department for the Study of Women and Gender (DEMO) at the University Eduardo Modlaine, Maputo: Women and Law, Women and Labour force, Women and Environment, and Women and Reproductive Behaviour.

CNP/DNE (1990). Dinâmica Demográfica e Processos Económicos, Sociais e Culturais. Série População e Desenvolvimento. Documento n° 2, Projecto MOZ/86/PO5-OlT/FNUAP. MaPUTO: Comissão Nacional do Plano (CNP); Direcção Nacional de Estatística (DNE), pp.130.

Demographic Dynamics and Economic. Social and Cultural Processes

This is a compendium of technical papers submitted at the National Seminar on the topic, held in Maputo in July, 1990. The key aspects of complex linkages between population and development are approached. Issues related to rural women and population are covered in the papers grouped in one separate chapter, while various aspects of gender-relations and of rural population generally are referred to in other chapters, such as those on population dynamics and socio-economic development; mortality; spatial distribution, urbanization and migration; development planning, poverty and population policy. The last chapter is devoted specifically to women and population.

LOPES, Leonel Leite; GASPAR, Manuel da Costa (1994). Reflexões sobre a Dinâmica Populacional de Moçambique. a Mulher e a Criança, Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente. Estudos Moçambicanos, n° . 11-12, pp.65-76.

Thoughts about Population Dynamics in Mozambique: Women and Child. Development and Environment

This article contains a review of main features of the demographic change, the reproductive/productive roles of women, and the environmental situation - especially as a result of the war in Mozambique. The lack of access to land, absence of infrastructure, socio-economic and physical insecurity, and unsafe water and lack of sanitation, are but the most evident unfavourable conditions with which women and their families have to cope in their daily struggle for survival. The main argument is that high fertility among the poor strata of the population has resulted in the reproduction of inter-generational poverty. In this context, the environmental policy should not be contemplated separately from the population issues, and in particular from the role of women in the family and society.

SERRA, A.M. de Almeida (1993). Moçambique: da Independência a Actualidade Evolução Económica e Social, 1975-1990. Colecção "Estudos de Desenvolvimento", n° 1. Centro de Estudos sobre Africa e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão (ISEG), Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, pp.187

Mozambique: from Independence to the Present - The Economic and Social Evolution 1975-1990.

This study of the development dilemmas, successes and failures during the first 15 years of independence of Mozambique mostly addresses the system of collectivized villages and co-operatives, and the effects this system has had on social transformation. Many explicit references refer to the continuation of the inferior status of women in the family and local community. The bureaucratized state and its ideology, and the planned economic and social system could not replace the deeply rooted gender-asymmetrical cultural-social system and power-relations governing individual and group exchanges. The author also argues that the system of collectivized villages has, in fact, contributed to the growing burden of non-remunerated, or very badly paid, women's work.


ANDRADE, Ximena; et al. (1994). A Mulher e o Meio Ambiente, Estudos Moçambicanos, no. 11-12, pp.111-143.

Women and Environment

This article reviews the environmental context of domestic, agricultural, and other productive activities of women in Mozambique. A list of indicators of women's participation in sustainable development is proposed at the following six levels: woman and family; territorial location; subsistence and artisanal agricultural production; educational levels and gender; health and nutritional status; and, the role of the informal sector and production in small enterprises. The use and management of natural resources and the livelihood situation of families, as well as of different categories of women in rural and urban areas are presented by means of a variety of statistical records.


MAMAN, Maria Amida (1994). Informação Bibliográfica. Estudos Moçambicanos, n° 1112, pp.211-224.

Bibliographical Information

This bibliography of titles available at the Documentation Centre of the Department for the Study of Women and Gender (DEMO) of the Centre for African Studies at the

University Eduardo Modlaine, Maputo, contains references grouped around keywords such as the following: bibliographies; women and work; women and gender; women in difficult situation; women, health and reproductive rights; legal situation of women; women and emancipation; and, general issues. Rural women's issues are mostly, though not exclusively, represented in references cited in the section on women and work.

MPF (1995). Moçambique. Panorama Demográfico e Sócio-Económico. Série: Inquérito Demográfico Nacional, Documento N° 5. Maputo: Ministério do Plano e Finanças (MPF), Direcção de Gabinete Central do Recenseamento Estatística, pp.150.

Mozambique: Demographic and Socio-Economic Overview

This document contains the results of the analyses of data from the 1991 National Demographic Survey. Apart from a separate chapter on women, data on gender-related specificities and on rural versus urban differences are presented in cross-tabulations and related analyses in other sections, such as those on family size and structure (in 1991, 24% of rural families were women-headed), educational attainment, civil status, economic activities, etc. Methodological notes accompany every analysis. In the chapter on demographic dynamics and prospects for population growth, one major finding is that fertility rates decreased abruptly for women in the age group 20-35, since 1980. It is assumed that these women are mostly those who were separated from their husbands because of the war. The total fertility rate, however, is still very high: 6.2 in 1991.

SILVA, Hélia Lains e (1990). Contribuição pare uma Bibliografia Agro-Silvo-Pastoril de Moçambique. Comunicaçães - Series de Ciências Agrárias, n° 3. Lisboa: Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, pp.135.

Contribution to a Agro-Silvo-Pastoral Bibliography of Mozambique

This bibliography of international literature on the agricultural sector in Mozambique is structured, inter alia, around a number of topics which bear direct relevance to the socioeconomic and other aspects of rural development, such as the following: Social Change, Human Resources, Land Occupation, Population, Settlements, Farming Systems, and Quality of Life.

São Tomé and Príncipe

THIRION, Samuel (1990). As Pequenas Explorações Agrícolas Alimentares em São Tomé e Príncipe. Análise do Sector e Propostas. Tomo 1: Texto Principal. Paris: Institut de Recherches et d Application de Méthodes de Développement (IRAM), pp.67. (mimeo.)

The Smallholder Production in São Tomé and Principe. Sector Analysis and Proposals.

This field research was conducted for the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and it was financed by IFAD as part of a project on the revitalization and strengthening of family food production in São Tomé e Príncipe (in efforts to offset the negative effects of the dominant export oriented large-scale production on national food security). The results reveal the gender specific micro-economic and cultural aspects of intra-family/household relations in small scale farming, forestry and fisheries, as well as in family consumption patterns, and the division of responsibilities in transformation and marketing of produce. Gender roles are also described in the spheres of decision-making and household resources management. Social, physical and cultural factors governing different agricultural production systems are described as well.


ANDRADE, Elisa (1987). As Mulheres: Pilares das Sociedades Africanas. Terra Solidária, n° 5. pp.1-4.

Women: Pillars of African Societies

This is the first article ever published in Portugal on the need to understand the productive role of African women. Empirical evidence, drawn from the PALOPs, is presented about the negative impacts of the colonial administration and economy on reinforcing the old, and establishing new forms of women's inferior social and economic position in the society, as well as on the forms of contemporary discrimination of women. One major argument is that it is crucial to fully understand the status and roles of women as economic and social actors at all levels - and not only the ethnic and socio-anthropological context of their livelihoods at the micro-level, and in isolation from social processes at macro level - as this should represent an important part of all efforts aimed at achieving socio-political emancipation and economic development of these countries.

BARATA, Óscar Soares de (1994). As Bases Demográficas da Lusofonia. In: O Mundo Lusófono. Lisboa: Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa, pp.9 - 33.

Demographic Foundations of "Lusophonia"

This is a comparative analysis of main socio-demographic features in "Lusophone countries", namely Portugal, Brazil, and the PALOPs, in the period between 1950 and 1990. It is shown how these countries are in different stages of the demographic transition. The fertility and mortality rates in PALOPs are also compared with those in other African countries. The median age in PALOPs ranges between 15.8 in São Tomé and Principe, and 19 in Angola, and there is all reason to believe that the population growth will continue very high for guise some time to come. Rural exodus to cities, poverty and marginalization have become common features in these countries.

CIDAC (1996). Projectos de Desenvolvimento. Lisboa: Centro de Informação e Documentação Amilcar Cabral - CIDAC. (mimeo.)

Development Projects in Africa

CIDAC, a Portuguese NGO devoted to socio-economic development in the developing countries, has been carrying out various field projects in the PALOPs (financially supported by the European Commission and/or by the Portuguese Government). Rural women have been the immediate beneficiaries in two major ongoing ClDAC's projects in Guinea Bissau. The main objective of the project in Zona Verde de S. João de Bolama is to ensure greater food security at community level through the establishment of the "banks of cereals", run by women. The project in the area of Tombali aims at diminishing the rural exodus by strengthening the local associations of producers, especially the young and women farmers. In a major ClDAC's project in Cape Verde (Concelho de Tarrafal, Ilha de Santiago) conditions are being created for an increase in income-generating activities for women-heads of households. Examples of other CIDAC projects with rural women as beneficiaries are: assistance in commercialization of products (opening of small shops) in Bolama, Guinea Bissau; day-care centres for children in Sta. Cruz, Cape Verde; rehabilitation of small-scale agricultural production in Zona Verde da Beira, and training for entrepreneurship and resource management in Mozambique.

CORREIA, Augusto Manuel Nogueira Gomes (1994). A Agricultura Itinerante versus Agricultura Sedentária: As Respostas que Tardam. In: European Science in the Development of Tropical Regions. Lisboa: Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, pp.141-145.

Shifting Agriculture versus Sedentary Agriculture. Lagging Responses

Largely based on the experience from the PALOPs, this paper discusses the adverse environmental and other effects of shifting agriculture in the light of the demographic explosion, commercialization, changes in consumption patterns, external pressures, etc. The main argument is that sedentary agricultural production should be ever more encouraged. The need to provide assistance to women food producers is highlighted as decisive in strengthening the food production sector. Discussion also relates to the issues of land ownership, integration of animal husbandry with farming, linkages between traditional and political power, need for training and technology, and for concerted international assistance.

DIAS, Jill R. (1990). Bibliografia das Publicações Recentes sobre a Africa de Língua Oficial Portuguesa. Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos, n° 12-13, pp.501-524.

Bibliography of Recent Publications on Africa with Portuguese as the Official Language

This is a bibliography of monographs, articles, papers and other documents from the international scientific literature on Africa, specifically the PALOPs. References are presented by countries and by disciplines/themes such as Anthropology, Sociology and History, Economy and Development, and Politics. Although a great number of references cover the pre-independence period, a significant number of references explicitly or implicitly cover the contemporary issues of gender-relations, rural women and development, population dynamics and agricultural development.

FARIA, Maria Teresa Cruz Guerra (1994). Gestão dos Recursos Naturais pare um Desenvolvimento Sustentável. Mudança dos Consumos Alimentares em Africa. Africana, n° 14, pp.137-154.

Management of Natural Resources for a Sustainable Development. Changes in Food Consumption in Africa

The paper provides a discussion on the management of natural resources with reference to the role of women in Africa, based specifically on the experience from Mozambique and other PALOPs. It is stressed that colonization induced the change from the matrilineal structures into the patrilineal ones in many societies. The description is provided of how these changes have influenced the use of natural resources, and altered food consumption patterns, as well as how the need was created to increase food production in order to offset the dependency on imports. In conclusion, it is proposed that Portugal should provide assistance to African women to become economically empowered as an important means of motivating them towards lowering fertility.

FERRÂO, J. E. Mendes, ed. (1992). Agricultura e Desertificação. Lisboa: Associação Internacional das Jornadas de Engenharia dos Paises de Língua Oficial Portuguesa, pp 201.

Agriculture and Desertification

This reader contains fifteen articles on desertification in tropical regions, ranging from natural erosion to deforestation, as well as on measures to combat desertification as part of sustainable agricultural development. The negative impact of pro-natalist attitudes, population pressure and use of inadequate farming technologies in the ecologically fragile systems are stressed in most articles. Possible positive effects of a more rational use of the abundant labour force and introduction of more adequate techniques are also discussed. Policy-oriented proposals and recommendations refer, inter alia, to the need for equality in the access to land and in the property rights for all members of rural society, as well as the need for human resource development in the use of ecologically sound agro-techniques. The need for significant improvements in nutritional habits and standards for all is also highlighted.

HEIMER, Franz-Wilhelm (1994). Bibliografia sobre Crise, Ajustamento Estrutural e Democratização em Africa, com Atenção Especial a Africa de Língua Oficial Portuguesa. Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos, n° 16/17, pp 315334.

Bibliography on Crisis. Structural Adjustment and Democratization in Africa. with Special Attention to the Parts of Africa with Portuguese as the Official Language.

This bibliography of international scientific literature offers a basis for an interdisciplinary study of issues related to the structural adjustment programmes stimulated by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, as well as to the democratization of political life in Africa. These are the two major processes that have recently occurred in many African countries, especially in the PALOPs. This bibliography demonstrates that a vast and profound debate has taken place on these issues.

RIBEIRO, Sérgio (1988). Recursos Humanos e Estratégia de Desenvolvimento. Lisboa: 34 / Colecção Unversitaria - Editorial Caminho, pp.347.

Human Resources and Development Strategy

This book is a contribution to the theoretical thought on the relationships between labour and development. Largely based on the pre- and post-colonial experience from Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, the conceptual framework for understanding and solving the problem of labour surpluses due to high population growth and poverty corresponds to the Marxist-socialist interpretation of the political economy of underdevelopment. The argument is that the demographic component of development policy must focus on the following three issues: natural renewal of generations (i.e., fertility, mortality, structures...); social mobility; and migration. The need for age and sex-specific approaches is stressed, especially in sections on dilemmas regarding classification of active population and of economic activities. In conclusion, the "planning of human resources" is proposed in order to satisfy human needs, including the need for a full social recognition of work.

RODRIGUES, Rui Eduardo Silva (1987). Contributo pare o Estudo da Família e do Parentesco na Sociedade Humana. Análise Comparativa de Sistemas Africanos de Angola e Moçambique. Tese do Doutoramento. Departamento de Antropologia, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, pp.521.

A Contribution to the Study of Family and Kinship in Human Society: Comparative Analysis of African Systems in Angola and Mozambique

This monograph contains a socio-anthropological interpretation of the dynamics of family systems and of the structural consequences related to the adoption of specific strategies in developing kinship relations among, on one side, the Makonde people in Northeast and Central and the Tsonga people in South-Eastern Mozambique, and, on the other, the Kyaka people in Central-West Angola. It is explained how values and behaviour related to gender, class and age, determine the established male-dominated hierarchies as the basic principle in all family relations. Makonde, characterized by matrilineal kinship, and often living in polygamous family households, tend to have equally distributed farming tasks between men and women. The Tsonga maintain all farming tasks exclusively confined to women, and animal husbandry to men. Men own the animals which enable them to dominate the economics of the matrimony and family formation. The Kyakas of Angola, organized as a feudal society, known in the past as hunters and warriors, nowadays are cultivators and traders of corn and manioc (mostly women's tasks) in the slash-and-burn farming system. Their kinship system is patrilineal, and the preferred choice of the bride is among the matrilineal cousins.

SAINT-MAURICE, Ana; PIRES, Rui (1989). Descolonização e Migrações - Os Imigrantes dos PALOP em Portugal. Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos, n° 10-11, pp.203-226.

Decolonization and Migration - Immigrants from PALOPs in Portugal

This is a study on "push" and "pull" factors in migration streams from the PALOPs to Portugal in the post-colonial period, as well as on the social and economic integration of migrants in Portugal. The profiles of migrants are presented. For example, from Mozambique, the majority are students, both single and married. From Cape Verde, a larger portion are married men with low levels of qualifications. Statistical data on marital status and on the motherhood of female immigrants from the PALOPs are also provided.

SOARES, Horácio (1994). Desenvolvimento Sustentável nos Países de Fracos Recursos. Aspectos Sociais e Económicos da Intervenção. In: European Science in the Development of Tropical Regions. Lisboa: Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, pp.57- 63.

Sustainable Development in Countries with Poor Resources. Social and Economic Aspects of Intervention

This paper discusses the environmental and development problems and prospects in the countries in the Sahel, among which are Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau. It is stressed that population pressure, together with technological, institutional and other issues, are the major cause of desertification. Proposals are put forward regarding future inter-governmental activities at the sub-regional level. It is elaborated how vital is the role of women in environmental management, as well as in animal husbandry and marketing of agricultural produce, and yet how women face serious obstacles to the realization of their economic and social roles.

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