Back to contents - Previous file - Next file

Abreu, D., 1988, 'On the Theory of Infinitely Repeated Games with Discounting', Econometrica, 56/2: 38396.

——P. Milgrom, and D. Pearce, 1991, 'Information and Timing in Repeated Partnerships', Econometrica, 59/6: 1713-33.

Acheson, J. M., 1972, 'Territories of the Lobstermen', Natural History, 81: 60-9.

——1987, 'The Lobster Fiefs Revisited: Economic and Ecological Effects of Territoriality in the Maine Lobster Fishery', in B. J. McCay and J. M. Acheson (eds.), The Question of the Commons—The Culture and Ecology of Communal Resources (Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press): 1-34.

——1988, The Lobster Gangs of Maine (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England).

——1989, 'Management of Common-Property Resources', in S. Plattner (ed.), Economic Anthropology (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press): 351-78.

Agarwal, A., and S. Narain, 1989, Towards Green Villages (Delhi: Centre for Science and the Environment).

Agarwal, B., 1991, 'Social Security and the Family: Coping with Seasonality and Calamity in Rural India', in E.J. Ahmad, J. Drèze, J. Hills, and A. Sen (eds.), Social Security in Developing Countries (Oxford: Clarendon Press): 171-244.

Agarwala, V. P., 1985, Forests in India (New Delhi: Oxford University Press and IBH Publishing Co.).

Agrawal, A., 1994,'Rules, Rule Making, and Rule Breaking: Examining the Fit between Rule Systems and Resource Use', in E. Ostrom, R. Gardner, and J. Walker, Rules, Games, and Common-Pool Resources (Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press): 267-82.

Akerlof, G., 1976, 'The Economics of Caste and of the Rat Race and Other Woeful Tales', Quarterly Journal of Economics, 90/4: 599-617.

Alcorn, J. B., 1984,'Development Policy, Forests, and Peasant Farms: Reflections on Huastec-Managed Forests' Contributions to Commercial Production and Resource Conservation', Economic Botany, 38/4: 389-406.

Alexander, P., 1980, 'Sea Tenure in Southern Sri Lanka', in A. Spoehr (ed.), Maritime Adaptations Essays on Contemporary Fishing Communities (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press): 91- 111.

——1982, Sri Lankan Fishermen—Rural Capitalism and Peasant Society (Canberra: Australian National University).

Allen, R., 1992, Enclosures and the Yeomen (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Amarasinghe, O., 1988, 'The Impact of Market Penetration, Technological Change and State Intervention on Production Relations in Maritime Fishermen Communities: A Case Study of Southern Sri Lanka', unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Faculté des Sciences Economiques et Sociales, University of Namur (Belgium).

——1989, 'Technical Change, Transformation of Risks and Patronage Relations in a Fishing Community of South Sri Lanka', Development and Change, 20/4: 701-33.

Anderson, T. L., and P. J. Hill, 1977, 'From Free Grass to Fences: Transforming the Commons of the American West', in G. Hardin and J. Baden (eds.), Managing the Commons (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman & Co.): 200-16.

Arnold, J. E. M., and J. G. Campbell, 1986, 'Collective Management of Hill Forests in Nepal: The Community Forestry Development Project', in National Research Council, Proceedings of the Conference on Common Property Resource Management (Washington, DC.: National Academy Press): 425-54.

Aronfreed, J., 1968, Conduct and Conscience: The Socialization Internalized Control over Behavior (New York: Academic Press).

Arora, D., 1994, 'From State Regulation to People's Participation—Case of Forest Management in India', Economic and Political Weekly, 29/12: 691-8.

Arrow, K., 1973, Information and Economic Behavior (Stockholm: Federation of Swedish Industries).

Asada, Y., Y. Hirasawa, and F. Nagasaki, 1983, 'Fishery Management in Japan', FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 238 (Rome: FAO).

Ashish, S. M., 1979, 'Agricultural Economy Disaster', Economic and Political Weekly, 14/25: 1058-64.

Avineri, S., 1968, The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Axelrod, R., 1981, 'The Emergence of Cooperation among Egoists', American Political Science Review, 75/1: 306-18.

——1984, The Evolution of Cooperation (New York: Basic Books).

——1986, 'An Evolutionary Approach to Norms', American Political Science Review, 80/4: 1095-111. and W. D. Hamilton, 1981, 'The Evolution of Cooperation', Science, 211/4489: 1390-6.

Azhar, R. A., 1993, 'Commons, Regulation, and Rent-Seeking Behavior: The Dilemma of Pakistan's Guzara Forests', Economic Development and Cultural Change, 42/1: 115-28.

Badcock, C. R., 1986, The Problem of Altruism-Freudian-Darwinian Solutions (Oxford: Blackwell).

Badouin, R., 1971, Economie rurale (Paris: Armand Colin).

Bailey, C., A. Drviponggo, and F. Marahudin (eds.), 1987, Indonesian Marine Capture Fisheries (Manila and Jakarta: ICLARM).

Bandyopadhyay, J., and V. Shiva, 1987, 'Chipko: Rekindling India's Forest Culture', The Ecologist, 17/1: 26-34.

Banfield, E. C., 1958, The Moral Basis of a Backward Society (Chicago: The Free Press).

Barbier, E. B., 1989, 'The Contribution of Environmental and Resource Economics to an Economics of Sustainable Development', Development and Change, 20/3: 429-59.

Bardhan, P., 1993a, 'Symposium on Management of Local Commons', Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7/4: 87-92.

——1993b, 'Analytics of the Institutions of Informal Cooperation in Rural Development', World Development, 21/4: 633-9.

Barthez, A., 1982, Famille, travail et agriculture (Paris: Economica).

Bassett, T. J., 'Land Use Conflicts in Pastoral Development in Northern Côte d'lvoire', in T. J. Bassett and D. E. Crummey (eds.), Land in African Agrarian Systems (Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press): 131 -54.

Basu, K., 1986a, 'Markets, Power and Social Norms', Economic and Political Weekly, 21/43: 1893-6.

——1986b, 'One Kind of Power', Oxford Economic Papers, 38/2: 259-82.

——E. Jones, and E. Schlicht, 1987, 'The Growth and Decay of Custom: The Role of the New Institutional Economics in Economic History', Explorations in Economic History, 24/1: 1-21.

Baumol, W. J., and W. E. Oates, 1971, 'The Use of Standards and Prices for Protection of the Environment', Swedish Journal of Economics, 73: 42-54.

Bayart, J. F., 1989, L'Etat en Afrique: La politique du ventre (Paris: Fayard).

Beck, T., 1994, 'Common Property Resource Access by Poor and Class Conflict in West Bengal', Economic and Political Weekly, 29/4: 187-97.

Becker, G. S., 1976, The Economic Approach to Human Behavior (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press).

——1981, A Treatise on the Family (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Belliveau, M., 1994, 'Fishworker Organisations: Comments from the Maritime Fishermen's Union Experience', Tenth Anniversary Conference of the International Collective in Support of Fishworkers, Cebu (Philippines).

Bendor, J., D. Mookherjee, and D. Ray, 1994, 'Aspirations, Adaptive Learning and Cooperation in Repeated Games', Ruth Pollack Working Papers Series on Economics, No. 27, Dept. of Economics, Boston University.

Benoit, J. P., and V. Krishna, 1985, 'Finitely Repeated Games', Econometrica, 53/4: 905-22.

Berdan, F. F., 1989, 'Trade and Markets in Precapitalist States', in S. Plattner, Economic Anthropology (Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press): 78-1()7.

Berger, P., and T. Luckmann, 1971, The Social Construction of Reality (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books).

Bergeret, A., and J. Ribot, 1990, L'arbre nourricier en pays sahélien (Paris: Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme).

Bergsten, G. S., 1985, 'On the Role of Social Norms in a Market Economy', Public Choice, 45/1: 113-37.

Berkes, 1., 1986, 'Local-Level Management and the Commons Problem: A Comparative Study of Turkish Coastal Fisheries', Marine Policy, 10 (July): 215-29.

——1987, 'Common-Property Resource Management and Cree Indian Fisheries in Subarctic Canada', in B. J. McCay, and J. M. Acheson (eds.), The Question of the Commons: The Culture and Ecology of Communal Resources (Tucson, Ariz.: University of Arizona Press): 66-91.

——(ed.), 1989, Common Property Resources: Ecology and Community-Based Sustainable Development (London and New York: Belhaven Press).

Berkowitz, I ., 1970, 'The Self, Selfishness, and Altruism', in J. Macaulay and I.. Berkowitz (eds.), .4/truism and Helping Behavior (New York: Academic Press): 143-51.

Berry, S., 1984, The Food Crisis and Agrarian Change in Africa: A Review Essay', African Studies Review, 27/2: 59-112.

Beteille, A., 1965, Caste, Class, and Power: Changing Patterns of Stratification in a Tanjore Village (Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press).

Bhatia, B., 1992, 'Lush Fields and Parched Throats: The Political Economy of Groundwater in Gujarat', Economic and Political Weekly, 27/51 -2: A-142- 170.

Bianchi, M., 1990, 'How to Learn Sociality: True and False Solutions to Mandeville's Problem', University of Rome, mimeo.

Biebuyck, D. (ed.), 1963,.4Jrican.4grarian Systems (London: Oxford University Press).

Binmore, K., 1992, Funs and Games: A Text on Game Theory (Lexington, Mass.: 1). C. Heath and Co.).

——1994, Playing Fair: Game Theory and the Social Contracti, (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press).

Binswanger, H. P., 1991, 'Brazilian Policies that Encourage Deforestation in the Amazon', World Development, 19/7: 821-29.

Bish, R. L., 1977, 'Environmental Resource Management: Public or Private', in G. Hardin and J. Baden (eds.), Managing the Commons (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman & Co.): 217-28.

Blaikie, P. M., J. C. Harriss, and A. N. Pain, 1986, 'The Management and Use of Common Property Resources in Tamil Nadu, India', in National Research Council, Proceedings of the Conference on Common Property Resource Management (Washington, DC: National Academy Press): 481-504.

Bloch, P. C., 1993, 'An Egalitarian Project in a Stratified Society: Who Ends Up with the Land?', in T. J. Bassett and D. E. Crummey (eds.), Land in African Agrarian Systems (Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press): 222-43.

Bourdieu, P., 1963, 'La société traditionnelle: Attitude a l'égard du temps et conduite économique', Sociologie du travail, 5/1: 24-44.

——1977, Algérie 60: Structures économiques et structures temporelles (Paris: Les editions de Minuit).

——1980, Le sens pratique (Paris: Les editions de Minuit).

Boutillier, J. L., 1982, 'L'aménagement du fleuve Sénégal et ses implications foncieres', in E. Le Bris, E. Le Roy, and F. Leimdorfer (eds.), Enjeux fonciers en Afrique noire (Paris: ORSTOM et Karthala): 301-8.

Bowles, S., and H. Gintis, 1993, 'The Revenge of Homo Economicus: Contested Exchange and the Revival of Political Economy', Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7/1: 83 - 102.

Braverman, A.,J. L. Guasch, M. Huppi, and L. Pohlmeier, 1991, 'Promoting Rural Cooperatives in Developing Countries: The Case of Sub-Saharan Africa', World Bank Discussion Papers, No. 121 (Washington, DC: World Bank).

Breman, J., 1974, Patronage and Exploitation: Changing Agrarian Relations in South Gujarat (Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press).

Brian Arthur, W., 1988, 'Self-Reinforcing Mechanisms in Economics', in P. W. Anderson, K. J. Arrow, and D. Pines (eds.), The Economy as an Evolving Complex System (Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.): 931.

Brightman, R. A., 1987, 'Conservation and Resource Depletion: The Case of the Boreal Forest Algonquians', in B. J. McCay and J. M. Acheson (eds.), The Question of the Commons: The Culture and Ecology of Communal Resources (Tucson, Ariz.: University of Arizona Press): 121-41.

Broad, R., 1994, 'The Poor and the Environment: Friends or Foes?', World Development, 22/6: 811-22.

Bromley, D. W., 1986, 'Closing Comments at the Conference on Common Property Resource Management', in National Research Council, Proceedings of the Conference on Common Property Resource Management (Washington, DC: National Academy Press): 593-8.

——1989a, Economic Interests and Institutions: The Conceptual Foundation of Public Policy (Oxford: Blackwell).

——1989b, 'Property Relations and Economic Development: The Other Land Reform', World Development, 17: 867-77.

——and D. P. Chapagain, 1984, 'The Village Against the Center: Resource Depletion in South Asia', American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 66/5: 868-73.

——and M. M. Cernea, 1989, 'The Management of Common Property Natural Resources: Some Conceptual and Operational Fallacies', World Rank Discussion Papers, No. 57 (Washington, DC: World Bank).

Brookfield, H., 1991, 'Environmental Sustainability with Development: What Prospects for a Research Agenda?' in O. Stokke (ed.), Sustainable Development (London: Frank Cass): 42-66.

Brown, M., 1988, Adam Smith's Economics: Its Place in the Development of Economic Thought (London: Croom Helm).

Bruce, J. W., 1986, 'Land Tenure Issues in Project Design and Strategies for Agricultural Development in Sub Saharan Africa', Land Tenure Center, LTC Paper 128, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

——and 1.. Fortmann, 1989, 'Agroforestry: Tenure and Incentives', Land Tenure Center, Research Paper No. 135, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Bruns, B., 1993,'Promoting Participation in Irrigation: Reflections on Experience in Southeast Asia', World Development, 21/11: 1837-49.

Buchanan, J. M., 1975, The Limits of Liberty: Between Anarchy and Leviathan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

Burgess, M., 1992, 'Dangers of Environmental Extremism: Analysis of Debate over India's Social Forestry Programme', Economic and Political Weekly, 27/40: 2196-2200.

Burke, E., 1790, Reflections on the Revolution in France (Chicago: Regnery, 1955).

Caldwell, J. C., and P. Caldwell, 1987, 'The Cultural Context of High Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa', Population and Development Review, 13/3: 409-37.

Carrier, J. G., 1987, 'Marine Tenure and Conservation in Papua New Guinea', in B. J. McCay and J. M. Acheson (eds.), The Question of the Commons: The Culture and Ecology of Communal Resources (Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press): 142-67.

Cashdan, E., 1985, 'Coping with Risk: Reciprocity Among the Basarwa of Northern Botswana', Man, 20/3: 454-74.

Cernea, M. M., 1989, 'User Groups as Producers in Participatory Afforestation Strategies', World Bank Discussion Papers, No. 70 (Washington, DC: World Bank).

——1991, Putting People First: Sociological Variables in Rural Development (2nd edn., London: Oxford University Press).

Chakravarty, S., 1991, 'Sustainable Development', in O. Stokke (ed.), Sustainable Development (London: Frank Cass): 67-77.

Chand, R., 1994, 'Role of Water Rights in Farmer-Managed Hill Irrigation Systems', Economic and Political Weekly, 29/13: A-26-30.

Cheung, S. N. S., 1970, 'The Structure of a Contract and the Theory of a Non-Exclusive Resource', Journal of Law and Economics, 13/1: 49-70.

Christy, F., 1983, 'Territorial Use Rights in Maritime Fisheries: Definitions and Conditions', FAO Technical Fisheries Paper, No. 227 (Rome: FAO).

Ciriacy-Wantrup, S. V., and R. C. Bishop, 1975, 'Common Property as a Concept in Natural Resources Policy', Natural Resources Journal, 15: 713-27.

Cline-Cole, R. A., H. A. C. Main, and J. E. Nichol, 1990, 'On Fuelwood Consumption, Population Dynamics and Deforestation in Africa', World Development, 18/4: 513-27.

Coase, R. H., 1960, 'The Problem of Social Cost', Journal of Law and Economics, 3: 1-44.

Cohen, J., and M. Weitzman, 1975, 'A Marxian View of Enclosures', Journal of Development Economics, 1/4: 287-336.

Colchester, M., 1994, 'Sustaining the Forests: The Community-based Approach in South and South-East Asia', Development and Change, 25/1: 69-100.

Colclough, C., 1991,'Structuralism Versus Neo-Liberalism: An Introduction', in C. Colclough and J. Manor (eds.), States or Markets? Neo-Liberalism and the Development Policy Debate (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Cole, H. S. A., et al., 1973, Thinking about the Future: ,4 Critique of the Limits to Growth (Chatto & Windus, for Sussex University Press).

Coleman, J. S., 1987, 'Norms as a Social Capital', in G. Radnitzky and P. Bernholz (eds.), Economic Imperialism. The Economic Method Applied Outside the Field of Economics (New York: Paragon House Publishers): 133-53.

Collard, D., 1978, Altruism and Economy: A Study in Non-Selfish Economics (Oxford: Martin Robertson).

Cooper, R. W., D. V. Dejong, R. Forsythe, and T. W. Ross, 199.'), 'Selection Criteria in Coordination Games: Some Experimental Results', American Economic Review, 80/1: 218-33.

Coquery-Vidrovitch, C., 1982, 'Le regime foncier rural en Afrique noire', in E. Le Bris, E. Le Roy, and F. Leimdorfer (eds.), Enjeux fonciers en Afrique noire (Paris: Orstom et Karthala): 65-84.

——1985, Afrique noire: Permanences et ruptures (Paris: Payot).

Cordell, J. C., 1972, The Developmental Ecology of an Estuarine Canoe Fishing System in Northeast Brazil, Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University (mimeo).

——and M. A. McKean, 1986, 'Sea Tenure in Bahia,', in National Research Council, Proceedings of the Conference on Common Property Resource Management (Washington, DC: National Academy Press): 85-112.

Cormier, G., 1994, 'Backgrounder to the Canadian Fishery', Tenth Anniversary Conference of the International Collective in Support of Fishworkers, Cebu (Philippines).

Cormier-Salem, M. C., 1986, 'La gestion de l'espace aquatique en Casamance', in L'Estuaire de la Casamance: Environnement, Pêche, Socio-Economie, Acta of the Seminar held at Ziguinchor, 19-24 June 1986 (Dakar: Centre de Recherches Océanographiques de Dakar-Thiaroye).

Comes, R., and T. Sandler, 1983, 'On Commons and Tragedies', American Economic Review, 83/4: 787-92.

C. F. Mason, and T. Sandler, 1986, 'The Commons and the Optimal Number of Firms', Quarterly Journal of Economics, 101/3: 641-6.

Coward, E. W., 1979, 'Principles of Social Organization in an Indigenous Irrigation System', Human Organization, 38/1: 28-36.

——1980, Irrigation and Agricultural Development in Asia: Perspectives from Social Sciences (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).

Crousse, B., 1986, 'Logique traditionnelle et logique d'Etat', in B. Crousse, E. Le Bris, and E. Le Roy (eds.), Espaces dispute's en Afrique noire (Paris: Karthala): 199-215.

Crutchfield, J. A., 1961, 'An Economic Evaluation of Alternative Methods of Fishery Regulation', Journal of Law and Economics, 4: 131 -43.

Cruz, W. D., 1986, 'Overfishing and Conflict in a Traditional Fishery: San Miguel Bay, Philippines', in National Research Council, Proceedings of the Conference on Common Property Resource Management (Washington, DC: National Academy Press): 115-33.

Cura, N., 1994, 'Fisheries and Fishworkers' Organisations: The Philippine Experience', Tenth Anniversary Conference of the International Collective in Support of Fishworkers, Cebu (Philippines).

Curtin, P. D., 1984, Cross-Cultura/ Trade in World History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

D'Abreo, D., 1985, People and Forests (New Delhi: Indian Social Institute).

Darley, J. M., and B. Latane, 1970, 'Norms and Normative Behavior: Field Studies of Social Interdependence', in J. Macaulay and L. Berkowitz (eds.), Altruism and Helping Behavior: Social Psychological Studies of Some Antecedents and Consequences (New York: Academic Press): 83-101.

Das Gupta, M., 1987, 'Informal Security Mechanisms and Population Retention in Rural India', Economic Development and Cultural Change, 36/1: 101-20.

Dasgupta, P., 1988, 'Trust as a Commodity', in D. Gambetta (ed.), Trust-Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations (Oxford: Blackwell): 49-72.

——1993, An Inquiry Into Well-Being and Destitution (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

——and G. Heal, 1974, 'The Optimal Depletion of Exhaustible Resources', Review of Economic Studies, Symposium on the Economics of Exhaustible Resources, 41: 3-28.

——1979, Economic Theory and Exhaustible Resources (Cambridge: Nisbet & Co. Ltd and Cambridge University Press).

——and K.-G. Mäler, 1990, 'The Environment and Emerging Development Issues', STICERD, London School of Economics, Working Paper No. 28.

——1993, 'Poverty and the Environmental Resource Base', mimeo, University of Cambridge, forthcoming in J. Behrman and T. N. Srinivasan (eds.), Handbook of Development Economics, Vol. 3 (Amsterdam: North-Holland).

D'Aspremont, C., and L. A. Gerard Varet, 1976, 'Un modèle de négotiation internationale pour certains problèmes de pollution', Revue d'Economie Politique, 86/4: 597-620.

——1979, 'Incentives and Incomplete Information', Journal of Public Economics, 11/1: 25-45.

David, P. A., 1988, 'The Future of Path-Dependent Equilibrium Economics: From the Economics of Technology to the Economics of Almost Everything?', Center for Economic Policy Research, Stanford University, California.

——1992a, 'Path Dependence and the Predictability in Dynamic Systems with Local Network Externalities: A Paradigm for Historical Economics', forthcoming in C. Freeman and D. Foray (eds.), Technology and the Wealth of Nations (London: Pinter Publishers).

——1992b, 'Why Are Institutions the "Carriers of History"", Site Working Paper, Stanford University, California.

Davies, A. G., and P. Richards, 1991, 'Rain Forest in Mende Life: Resources and Subsistence Strategies in Rural Communities Around the Gola North Forest Reserve (Sierra Leone)', Report to ESCOR, UK Overseas Development Administration, (London:

Davis, A., 1984, 'Property Rights and Access Management in the Small-Boat Fishery: A Case Study from Southwest Nova Scotia', in C. Lamson and A. J. Hanson (eds.), Atlantic Fisheries and Coastal Communities: Fisheries Decision-Making Case Studies (Halifax: Dalhousie Ocean Studies Programme): 133-64.

Davis, S., 1983, 'Traditional Management of the Littoral Zone among the Yolngu of North Australia', Seminar on Scientific Aspects of Traditional Management of Coastal Systems, Unesco, Jakarta.

Dawes, R., J. McTavish, and H. Shaklee, 1977, 'Behavior, Communication, and Assumptions About Other People's Behavior in a Commons Dilemma Situation', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35/1: 1-11.

——and R. H. Thaler, 1988, 'Anomalies Cooperation', Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2/3: 187-97.

Deacon, R. T., 1992, 'Controlling Tropical Deforestation: An Analysis of Alternative Policies', Policy Research Working Papers, WPS 1029 (Washington, DC: World Bank).

De Los Reyes, R. P., 1980, 'Managing Communal Gravity Systems: Farmers' Approaches and Implications for Program Planning' (Quezon: Institute of Philippine Culture).

Demsetz, H., 1967, 'Toward a Theory of Property Rights', American Economic Review, 57/2: 347-59.

Desai, V., 1988, Rural Development (New Delhi: Himalaya Publishing House).

Diemer, G., and F.. Van Der Laan, 1987, L 'irrigation au Sahel: La crise des perimètres irrigués et la vole haalpulaar (Paris & Wageningen: Karthala and CTA).

Douglas, M., 1986, How Institutions Think (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press).

Durkheim, E., 1893, The Division of Labour in Society (ea. L. Closer, London: Macmillan, 1984).

Easter, K. W., and K. Palanisami, 1986, 'Tank Irrigation in India: An Example of Common Property Resource Management', in National Research Council, Proceedings of the Conference on Common Property Resource Management (Washington, DC: National Academy Press): 215-30.

Economist, 1992, 'Let Them Eat Pollution', 8 Feb.

Eiser, J. R., 1978, 'Cooperation and Conflict between Individuals', in H. Tajfel, and C. Fraser (eds.), Introducing Social Psychology (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books).

Ellickson, R. C., 1991, Order Without Law: How Neighbors Settle Disputes (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Elster, J., 1989a, The Cement of Society. A Study of Social Order (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

——1989b, 'Social Norms and Economic Theory', Journal of Economic Perspectives, 3/4: 99-117.

Etzioni, A., 1988, The Moral Dimension: Toward a New Economics (New York: Free Press).

Fafchamps, M., 1992, 'Solidarity Networks in Preindustrial Societies: Rational Peasants with a Moral Economy', Economic Development and Cultural Change, 41/1, 147-74.

FAO, 1993, Marine Fisheries and the Law of the Sea: A Decade of Change, revised version of the special chapter of The State of Food and Agriculture 1992 (Rome: FAO Fisheries Department).

Farrell, J., 1987, 'Information and the Coase Theorem', Journal of Economic Perspectives, 1/2: 113-29.

Fay, C., 1990a, 'Sacrifices, prix du sang, "eau du maitre": fondation des territoires de pêche dans le delta central du Niger (Mali)', in F. Verdeaux (ed.), La pêche-Enjeux de développement et objet de recherche (Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM): 159-76 [originally published in Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, 25/1-2, 1989].

——1990b, 'Système halieutiques et espaces de pouvoirs: transformation des droits et des pratiques de pêche dans le delta central du Niger (Mali), 1920-1980', in F. Verdeaux (ed.), La pêche: Enjeux de développement et objet de recherche (Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM): 213-36 [originally published in Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, 25/1-2, 1989].

Fernandes, W., and S. Kulkarni (eds.), 1983, Towards a New Forest Policy: People's Rights and Environmental Needs (New Delhi: Indian Social Institute).

——Menon, G., and P. Viegas, 1988, Forests, Environment and Tribal Economy (New Delhi: Indian Social Institute).

Fernandez, J. W., 1987, 'The Call to the Commons: Decline and Recommitment in Asturias, Spain', in B. J. McCay and J. M. Acheson (eds.), The Question of the Commons: The Culture and Ecology of Communal Resources (Tucson, Ariz.: University of Arizona Press): 266-89.

Fernandez, R., and D. Rodrik, 1991, 'Resistance to Reform: Status Quo Bias in the Presence of Individual Specific Uncertainty', American Economic Review, 81/5: 1146-55.

Field, A. J., 1981, 'The Problem with Neoclassical Institutional Economics: A Critique with Special Reference to the North/Thomas Model of Pre-1500 Europe', Explorations in Economic History, 18/2: 174-98.

——1984, 'Microeconomics, Norms, and Rationality', Economic Development and Cultural Change, 32/4: 683-711.

Fisher, A. C., 1981, Resource and Environmental Economics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Forman, S., 1980, 'Cognition and the Catch: The Location of Fishing Spots in a Brazilian Coastal Village', in A. Spoehr (ed.), Maritime Adaptations: Essays on Contemporary Fishing Communities (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press).

Forrester, J. W., 1971, World Dynamics (Cambridge, Mass.: Wright-Allen Press Inc).

Fortmann, L., 1988, 'Great Planting Disasters: Pitfalls in Technical Assistance in Forestry', Agriculture and Human Values, Winter-Spring.

Frank, R. H., 1988, Passions Within Reason: The Strategic Role of the Emotions (New York: W. W. Norton & Co.).

Friedman, J. W., 1990, Came Theory with Applications to Economics, 2nd edn. (New York: Oxford University Press).

Freudenberger, M. S., and P. Mathieu, 1993, 'The Question of the Commons in the Sahel', Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison (mimeo).

Fudenberg, D., and E. Maskin, 1986, 'The Folk Theorem in Repeated Games with Discounting and Imperfect Information', Econometrica, 54/3: 533-54.

——and D. M. Kreps, 1992, Lectures on Learning and Equilibrium in Strategic Form Games, CORE Lecture Series (Louvain-la-Neuve: Université Catholique de Louvain). and J. Tirole, 1993, Came Theory (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press).

Gadgil, M., and R. Guha, 1994, 'Ecological Conflicts and the Environmental Movement in India', Development and Change, 25/1: 101-36.

Gambetta, D., 1988, 'Can We Trust Trust?' in D. Gambetta (ed.), Trust-Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations (Oxford: Blackwell): 213-37.

Gannon, S., et a/., 1993, 'Tenure and Natural Resource Management in the Gambia: A Case Study of the Upper Baddibu District', Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Garcia-Barrios, R., and L. Garcia-Barrios, 1990, 'Environmental and Technological Degradation in Peasant Agriculture: A Consequence of Development in Mexico', World Development, 18/11: 1569-85.

Gauthier, D., 1986, Morals by Agreement (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Gentil, D., 1986, Les mouvements coopératifs en Afrique de l'Ouest (Paris: Editions l'Harmattan).

Ghimire, K. B., 1994, 'Parks and People: Livelihood Issues in National Parks Management in Thailand and Madagascar', Development and Change, 25/1: 195-229.

Gibbons, R., 1992, Came Theory for Applied Economists (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).

Gilles, J. L., and K. Jamtgaard, 1981, 'Overgrazing Pastoral Areas: The Commons Reconsidered', Sociologica Ruralis, 21/2: 129-41.

Godelier, M., 1974, 'Anthropologic et economic. Une anthropologic économique est-elle possible?' in M. Godelier (ed.), Un domaine conteste: l'anthropologie économique (Paris: Mouton): 285-345.

Government of India, 1960-1, Report of the Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes Commission (New Delhi).

——1976, Report of the National Commission on Agriculture (New Delhi).

——1981a, Report on Development of the Tribal Areas (National Committee on Development of Backward Areas: New Delhi).

——1981b, Indian Forest Bill, 1980 (New Delhi).

——1982, Report of Committee on Forest and Tribals in India (Ministry of Home Affairs: New Delhi).

——1983, Recommendations Regarding the Revision of the National Forest Policy (Dept. of Environment: New Delhi).

Granovetter, M., 1985, 'Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness', American Journal of Sociology, 91/3: 481-510.

Gregersen, H., Draper, S., and D. Elz (eds.), 1989, People and Trees: The Role of Social Forestry in Sustainable Development (Washington, DC: World Bank).