A glimpse of local technology knowledge for comprehensive watershed management in China (GCP/RAS/161/NET)

Table of Contents

Compiled by
Wu Deyi, Liu Xiaoying, San Sobei, Bi Zifieng, Leo Rongen, and Wen Yuhua,

edited by Prem N. Sharma

International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation (IRTCES), Beijing, China

Participatory Watershed Management Training in Asia (PWMTA) Netherlands/UNDP/FAO (UN),


The Participatory Watershed Management Training in Asia (PWMTA) Program (GCP/RAS/161/NET, FAO/Netherlands) is designed for human resource development in participatory watershed management. It will contribute to sustainable use and management of forest, soil, water and other natural resources by enhancing skills and national capabilities to plan, implement, evaluate and monitor participatory watershed rehabilitation programs. This will be achieved by regional training, workshops, seminars and national and regional watershed management networking. The PWMTA is closely linked to the FARM program.

Many of the Asian countries are seriously investing in WM today. However, few are providing training in holistic approach to participatory watershed management. PWMTA is assisting the member countries in filling this gap.

(ASIAN WATershed MAnagement NETwork)

This is a regional network for people's participation in watershed management founded in Nov. 1994 by the national coordinators of the UNDP/FAO RAS/93/063, WMTUH/FARM program. It is now sponsored by the PWMTA, GCP/RAS/161/NET program of the FAO/Netherlands along with the RAS/93/062, FARM program. Its member countries are the participating countries of the PWMTA program. The network is to facilitate: farmers' organizations for watershed management at small watershed, village, district and national level, exchange of experiences at farmers, extensionists, as well as technical, professional, educator and policy maker level, exchange of information among the member countries, and to strengthen a movement of GO/NGO/PO/FOs for sustainable natural resources management of the fragile watersheds in the Asian region. It also publishes a quarterly ASIAN WATMANET newsletter.

The designations employed and the presentation of the materials in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion on the part of the FAO (UN), UNDP or the Netherlands concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not imply any opinion what so ever in the part of the FAO (UN), UNDP or the Netherlands.

First Edition: June, 1998

PWMTA Field Doc. No. 12

Copyright ©1998
International Research & Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation (IRTCES),
Beijing, China
Food And Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the UN
All rights reserved


Participatory Watershed Management Training in Asia (PWMTA) Program
GCP/RAS/161/NET, FAO (UN), U.N. Bldg, P.O. Box 25, Kathmandu, Nepal

For copies write to:
Dr. Prem N. Sharma, FAO(UN), P.O. Box 25, Kathmandu, Nepal
Prof. (Mrs.) Wu Deyi, IRTCES, P.O.Box 366, Beijing 100044, China

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.

Table of Contents



People's participation strategies

An innovative approach to participatory watershed management
Several forms of cooperative efforts for small watershed management

Cooperative efforts headed by a household
Cooperative efforts between a scientific unit and a production unit
Cooperative efforts between a collective am households

Water harvesting

Check dams built by the sluicing siltation method

History and development of sluicing-siltation dams
Advantages of sluicing-siltation dams
Construction technique

Preparation works
Acquisition of water source and storing of water by building cofferdam
Selection of the pumps
Treatment of foundation and abutments

Layout of the borrow areas

Choice of the borrow areas
Arrangement of the mud ditches

Sluicing-siltation operation and division into mud ponds

Sluicing-siltation operation
Sluicing-siltation from one bank
Sluicing-siltation from two banks
Intermittent sluicing-siltation
Continuous sluicing-siltation
Division of construction surface into mud siltation ponds
One mud pond on the entire construction surface
Two or more mud ponds

Construction of levees


By roller-fill method
By compacting with spades
By filling loose soil
By sluicing siltation

Width of side levee

Soil loosening and mud mixing
Control of mud concentration
Draining embankment water

Dewatering embankment surfaces
Laying dry soils on the slurry surface
Using filters
Special internal drainage facilities

Gully control

Gully head protection by overhanging nozzle type drop structure construction
Diverting flood for warping farm land

Soil and water conservation

Intermittent slope level ditch

Advantages of the intermittent slope level ditch

Effectively controls soil and water loss
Improve forest and grass growth
Low labor and other costs

Southern China farming technology for soil and water conservation

Contour cultivation on terraces
Ditch and ridge tillage

Ditch tillage for preserving soil fertility
Contour ridge tillage

Pit planting
Semi-dry rice farming system
Multiple crop rotation
Minimum tillage and mulching system
Contour strip inter-cropping system
Grassland strip rotation system

Technique to pave gravel on the sloping lands for soil and water conservation
Method of planting trees on terrace risers
Amorpha fruticosa - a good tree species for soil and water conservation
A good species of herb for soil and water conservation
Method of building level strips of land by contour plowing
Covering crops with colored plastic film for increasing agriculture production
Good way to preserve agro-plastic film

Orchard management

Method of planting litchi

Digging the pit
Selecting the planting season
Selecting seedling varieties
Plant spacing
Pest control
Seedling care

Mango tree care

Fertilizer application
Tillage and weeding
Disease and insect control

Three key points to fruit tree grafting

Rational grafting period
Grafting, storage and grafting wax
Grafting and binding

Raising seedlings in paper bags
Pit preparation for fruit tree plantation by explosion0
Three methods to prevent premature dropping of blossom and grapes
Grape orchard management for high yield

Preventing grape vine from freezing in winter by plastic film cover
Method to stimulate advanced fruiting of the grape vine
Spray glucose liquid for good yield of grapes

Method to produce seedless grapes

Crop production management

Pre-broadcasting treatment for better groundnut harvest
Controlling number of tillers for increasing rice yield
Method of preventing cotton plant with non-blooming buds
Rice blast diagnosis
Inter-cropping corn and chili for increased production
Inter-cropping of cotton and melon (Cucumis melo)


Seeding stage
Middle stage
Cotton blooming and ball formation stage

Honey bee - a good guard against bird damage to grape
Inter-cropping for pest control in cotton
Sorghum-cotton inter-crop
Rape seed-cotton rotation

Vegetable farming management

Cultivation of Xianggu mushroom

Cultivation on wood
Cultivation in plastic bags

Vinegar to increase yield of vegetables
Honey bees in the green houses for pollination of vegetables
Capsicum (bell pepper) liquid - an effective aphidicide
Peanut shell beds for mushroom cultivation
Cotton hull used for cultivation of tremella
Method to cultivate tremella in jars

Poultry for income generation

Inducing hunger - a good method to stimulate hen to lay eggs
Keeping hen awake during hatching by a vinegar dose
Garlic - a good health protection additive for chicken
Nine indigenous methods to stimulate laying hen to produce more eggs
Stimulating hen to lay more eggs in winter season
Eight methods to prevent chicken pest
Two kinds of local chicken feed for increased egg production in Southern China

Insect lured into poultry house by electric lamp
Sawdust - a good additive feed

Fish raising for income generation

Method of cleaning and disinfecting a fish pond

Flushing water to clean pond
Planting of specially bred plants
Disinfecting the pond by quick lime

Raising young fish in paddy fields

Soil fertility improvement and mulching

Method of compost application at the time of fruit tree seedling plantation
Three "watch" for fertilizer application for raising seedling
Straw blanket - a successful way to increase rainfed crop yields
A good traditional way to spray fertilizer and pesticide
Wheat or corn straw bedding for soil fertility improvement in orchards

Crop processing and storage

Preserving potato for 11-12 months
Method to keep mushroom fresh

Feed and fodder

Processing of pulverized hay as green feed
Chicken manure - a good oxen fodder

Three methods for preparing chicken manure for fodder
Feeding method