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REPORT OF THE REYKJAVIK CONFERENCE ON RESPONSIBLE FISHERIES IN THE MARINE ECOSYSTEM


PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT

This is the administrative report approved by the Reykjavik Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem, Iceland, 1-4 October 2001, jointly organized by the Government of Iceland and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations with the cosponsorship of the Government of Norway. Summaries of the technical discussions and abstracts of the documents will be published in a separate volume.

Distribution:

All FAO Members
Participants at the Conference
FAO Fisheries Department
FAO Regional Fishery Officers

ABSTRACT

FAO.
Report of the Reykjavik Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem. Reykjavik, Iceland, 1-4 October 2001.
FAO Fisheries Report
No. 658. Rome/Roma, FAO. 2002. 128p.

The Reykjavik Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem was held in Reykjavik, Iceland, from 1 to 4 October 2001. The Conference adopted the Reykjavik Declaration on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem, which is given in Appendix I to this report.

OPENING OF THE CONFERENCE AND ELECTION OF THE CHAIRPERSON

1. The Reykjavik Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem was held in Reykjavik, Iceland from 1 to 4 October 2001 at the kind invitation of the Government of Iceland. It was jointly organized by FAO and Iceland with the co-sponsorship of the Government of Norway. The Opening Plenary was attended by the President of Iceland, His Excellency Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson.

2. The Conference elected as Chairperson His Excellency Árni M. Mathiesen, Minister for Fisheries of Iceland, who welcomed the delegates to Iceland. His acceptance speech is attached as Appendix G to this report.

3. The Conference was attended by representatives of 59 Members of FAO and by observers from two non-Member Nations of FAO and the Holy See. Representatives from three specialized agencies of the United Nations attended as well as observers from 16 intergovernmental organizations and 10 international non-governmental organizations. One hundred and sixty seven participants also attended the Conference as observers in their personal capacity. The list of delegates and observers is given in Appendix B to this report.

4. The floor was first given to Dr Jacques Diouf, Director-General of FAO who, in his statement, thanked the Government of the Republic of Iceland for jointly organizing the Conference with FAO and for their financial assistance. He also thanked the Government of Norway for their assistance and financial support in co-sponsoring the Conference. He stressed the importance of fisheries for food security and to improve fisheries management in many parts of the world. He expressed the hope for the development of a global consensus for fisheries which would tell the world that fishing nations have decided, jointly, to face successfully the challenge of fisheries management taking into account the whole ecosystem. The full text of the statement by Dr Diouf is contained in Appendix D to this report.

5. His Excellency Otto Gregussen, Minister for Fisheries, Norway, then addressed the Conference, and expressed his Government's satisfaction at co-sponsoring the Conference. He underlined the dependence of his country on the sustainable harvesting of living marine resources. He hoped that the Conference would arrive at a common understanding about the benefits and opportunities of an ecosystem-based management of the living marine resources. The full text of the address is contained in Appendix E to this report.

6. Finally, His Excellency Halldór Ásgrímsson, Minister for Foreign Affairs and External Trade, Iceland, gave his address. He emphasized the importance of the Conference and the need to take responsible action in this field, supported by technical and scientific cooperation on common issues, policy decisions regarding trade rules and subsidies, and financial assistance to fisheries in developing countries. He wished the delegates every success in the difficult task ahead and expressed the hope that a Declaration would be reached to be forwarded as a first step to the FAO Conference at its Thirty-first Session to be held in November 2001 and then the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in September 2002. The Minister's address is contained in Appendix F to this report.

PROCEDURAL ITEMS

Adoption of the Agenda and Arrangements for the Conference

7. The Conference adopted the Agenda shown in Appendix A. The documents submitted to the Conference are listed in Appendix C.

Election of Vice-Chairpersons of the Conference

8. The Conference elected the following Vice-Chairpersons:


Algeria

His Excellency Amar Ghoul


Angola

Ms Helia Sandra Morgado Da Silva


Canada

Mr David C. Bevan


Mexico

Ms Mara Murillo


New Zealand

Mr John H. Annala


Viet Nam

His Excellency Ngoc Ta Quang

Designation of Officers of the Scientific Symposium

9. The following officers were nominated:


Chairperson:

Mr Michael Sinclair


Vice-Chairpersons:

Mr Hein Rune Skjoldal
Mr Jóhann Sigurjónsson

Appointment of the Drafting Committee and its Officers

10. The Conference agreed that the Drafting Committee should be open to all Members of FAO represented at the Conference. The Honourable Abraham Iyambo, Minister for Fisheries of Namibia, was elected as Chairperson.

Introduction by Chairperson

11. The Chairperson outlined the purpose of the Conference and stated that he looked forward to the cooperation of all participants.

CONFERENCE: FIRST PLENARY SESSION - SETTING THE STAGE

12. Five documents covering a global overview of marine capture fisheries were presented to the Conference: obligations to protect marine ecosystems under international conventions and other legal instruments; incorporating ecosystem considerations into fisheries management: large-scale industry perspectives; small-scale fisheries perspectives on an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management; and an environmentalist's perspective on responsible fisheries: the need for holistic approaches. These documents will be published in the Proceedings of the Conference.

SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

13. The Scientific Symposium was divided into three sessions: Session 1: Dynamics of marine ecosystems; Session 2: The role of man in marine ecosystems; and Session 3: Incorporating ecosystem considerations in fisheries management. Sixteen documents were presented at these Sessions. These documents will be published in the Proceedings of the Conference.

SECOND PLENARY SESSION - FRAMEWORK FOR FUTURE ACTION

14. The Chairman of the Scientific Symposium, Mr Michael Sinclair, gave a brief account of the main considerations arrived at during the three Sessions of the Symposium and provided some observations by him and his co-chair Mr Johann Sigurjonsson (this informal document is given in Appendix H).

15. The Conference Chairman then introduced document Reykjavik 2001/4 entitled "Towards ecosystem-based fisheries management" and gave examples of his country's experience with considering ecosystem aspects in fisheries management.

16. The following Ministers responsible for fisheries in their respective countries addressed the Conference: His Excellency Mahmood Hojjati (Islamic Republic of Iran), His Excellency Ngoc Ta Quang (Viet Nam), The Honourable Fabius M. Byaruhanga (Uganda), The Honourable Abraham Iyambo (Namibia - on behalf of SADC countries), The Honourable Cassius B. Elias (Saint Lucia), His Excellency Rokhmin Dahuri (Indonesia) and Her Excellency Maria de Fatima Monteiro Jardim (Angola).

17. The following members of FAO also took the floor: Norway, New Zealand, United States of America, Ecuador, Japan, Iceland, Morocco, Republic of Korea, Ghana, Australia, European Community, Mexico, Canada, Algeria, Brazil, India, Bangladesh, El Salvador (on behalf of Central American countries), Chile, China, Cameroon, Indonesia, Malta, Mauritania, Cuba, Thailand, Tonga. A statement was also made by the Ukraine (member of the United Nations). A number of intergovernmental organizations and international non-governmental organizations delivered statements as well.

ADOPTION OF THE CONFERENCE DECLARATION

18. The Reykjavik Declaration on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem shown in Appendix I was adopted by the Conference on 4 October 2001. After its adoption the delegates of Japan and Saint Lucia made statements, indicating, although not blocking the consensus, their intention of abstaining from joining the consensus. Their statements are recorded in Appendixes J and K respectively.

ADOPTION OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE

19. This report was adopted on 4 October 2001.

APPENDIXES

A. Annotated Agenda

THE CONFERENCE

Morning: 09:00 hours

Opening Statements
Election of Chairman and Vice Chairmen
Adoption of Agenda and Arrangements

Introduction by Chairman

FIRST PLENARY SESSION - SETTING THE STAGE

Global Overview of Marine Capture Fisheries
- Serge Garcia

Obligations to Protect Marine Ecosystems under International Conventions and Other Legal Instruments
- Transform Aqorau

Incorporating Ecosystem Considerations into Fisheries Management: Large-scale Industry Perspectives
- Bernt O. Bodal

Small-scale Fisheries Perspectives on an Ecosystem-based Approach to Fisheries Management
- Sebastian Mathew

An Environmentalist's Perspective on Responsible Fisheries: The Need for Holistic Approaches
- Tundi Agardy

SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM (including Poster Sessions)

Session 1 Dynamics of Marine Ecosystems

Afternoon: 14:00 hours

Ecological Geography as Framework for a Transition toward Responsible Fishing
- Daniel Pauly, Reg Watson and Villy Christensen

The Functioning of Marine Ecosystems
- Philippe Cury, Lynne Shannon and Yunne-Jai Shin

Food Webs in the Ocean: Who Eats Who and How Much?
- Andrew W. Trites

Competition for Food in the Ocean: Man and other apical Predators
- Tsutomu Tamura

Multi-Species and Ecosystem Models
- Gunnar Stefansson

Discussion and summing up

Session 2 The Role of Man in Marine Ecosystems

Overview of Multiple Uses of Marine Ecosystems
- Andy A. Rosenberg

Impacts of Fishing on Marine Benthic Habitats
- Michel J. Kaiser, Jeremy S. Collie, Stephen J. Hall, Simon Jennings, Ian R. Poiner

The Magnitude and Impact of By-Catch Mortality by Fishing Gear
- Robin Cook

Tuesday, 2 October 2001

Morning: 09:00 hours

The Effects of Fishing on Species and Genetic Diversity
- Ellen Kenchington

The Effects of Fishing on Non-target Species and Ecosystem Structure and Function
- Henrik Gislason

Anthrogopenically-induced Changes in the Environment: Effects on Fisheries
- Katherine Richardson

Discussion and summing up

Session 3 Incorporating Ecosystem Considerations in Fisheries Management

The Performance of Fisheries Management Systems and the Ecosystem Challenge
- Jon G. Sutinen and Mark Soboil

The Role of Harvest Control Laws, Risk and Uncertainty, and the Precautionary Approach in Ecosystem-based Management
- Doug S. Butterworth and Andre E. Punt

Afternoon: 14:00 hours

Modifying Fishing Gears to Achieve Ecosystem Objectives
- John Willy Valdemarsen and Petri Suuronen

Incorporating Ecosystem Objectives into Management of Sustainable Marine Fisheries, including "best practice" Reference Points and the Use of Marine Protected Areas
- Keith Sainsbury and Ussif Rashid Sumaila

Governance for Responsible Fisheries: An Ecosystem Approach
- Michael P. Sissenwine and Pamela M. Mace

View of the Industry

Statements and Panel Debate by Industry and NGO Representatives

Discussion and Summing up

End of Scientific Symposium

Wednesday, 3 October 2001

SECOND PLENARY SESSION - FRAMEWORK FOR FUTURE ACTION

Morning: 09:00 hours

Towards Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management: Introduction

Country Statements

Afternoon: 14:00 hours

Country Statements and Discussion

Thursday, 4 October 2001

Morning: 08:00 hours

Excursion

Afternoon: 13:30

Conference Declaration

Adoption of the Administrative Report

CLOSING OF THE CONFERENCE

B. List of Participants

MEMBERS OF FAO

ALGERIA

Amar GHOUL
Ministre
Ministère de la pêche et des ressources halieutiques
Rue des quatre (4) canons
Alger

Farida AIOUAZE
Ambassador of Algeria to Sweden
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Algerian Embassy
Stockholm
Sweden

Abdel-Nassar ZAIR
Directeur d' Etudes
Ministère Algerien de la pêche et des ressources halieutiques
Rue des quatre (4) canons
Algers

Rabah DROUAZI
Chef Protocole
Ministère des pêches et des ressources halieutiques
Rue des quatre (4) canons
Alger

ANGOLA

Maria de Fátima JARDIM (Ms)
Ministra
Ministerio das Pescas e Ambiente
Avenida Marginal
Edificio Atlantico
Luanda

Maria Antonia NELUMBA (Ms)
National Director of Fisheries
Ministerio das Pescas e Ambiente
Avenida Marginal
Edificio Atlantico
83 Luanda

Hélia Sandra MORGADO DA SILVA (Ms)
Ministère des pêches et de l'environnement
Avenida Marginal
Edifício Atlântico
Luanda

Luisa Fernanda DE ALMEIDA PASCOAL (Ms)
1a Secretária
Ambaixada de República
P.O. Box 3199
S-103 64 Estocolmo
Sweden

Adul Carimo SÓ
Embassy Official
Embassy of Angola
Oslo
Sweden

Moiseris LONGVI
Director of Artisanal Fisheries
Ministerio das Pescas e Ambiente
Avenida Marginal
Edificio Atlántico
Luanda

ARGENTINA

Orlando R. REBAGLIATI
Embajador de la Argentina ante Norvega y ante Islandia
Drammemsveien 39, 3rd floor
0244 Oslo
Norway

AUSTRALIA

Robyn BROMLEY (Ms)
Director
Marine Protected Areas
Ministry of Environment Australia
GPO 787, Canberra
Email: robyn.bromley@ea.gov.au

Mark FLANIGAN
Director
Sustainable Fisheries
PO Box 787
Canberra
ACT 2601
Email: mark.flanigan@ea.gov.au

Les ROBERTS
General Manager Fisheries
Australian Fisheries Management Authority
Box 7051
Canberra Mail Centre
ACT 2610
Email: les.roberts@afma.gov.au

BANGLADESH

Samarendra Nath CHOUDHURY
Govt. Service
Principal Scientific Officer
Dept. of Fisheries
Matsya Bhaban
Ramna
Dhaka-1000
Email: sams@bol_online.com

BELGIUM

Thérèse WILLEKENS (Ms)
Ministère des affairs étrangères
Représentation Permanente de la Belgique à l'Union Européenne
Avenue du Vossegat, 39/1
B1180 Bruxelles
Email: belrep@belgoeurep.diplobel.fgov

BRAZIL

Fábio Hissa Vieira HAZIN
Rua Desembargador
Célio de Castro Montenegro 32 apto. 1702
Monteiro
CEP 52070008
Recife-Pe
Email: fhvhazin@terra.com.br

CAMEROON

Malloum Ousman BABA
Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries
Director of Fisheries
Yaounde
Email: minepia@camnet.cm

CANADA

David C. BEVAN
Director General
Resource Management
Department of Fisheries and Oceans
200 Kent St.
Ottawa K0A 1E6

Robert STEINBOCK
Senior Advisor
International Affairs Directorate
Fisheries Management
Fisheries & Oceans Canada
200 Kent Street
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0E6
Email: steinbob@dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Darro STINSON
Area Director
BC Interior
Fisheries and Oceans Canada
1278 Dahousie Dr.
Kamloops, BC
V2C 6G3
Email: stinsond@pac.dfo_mpo.gc.ca

Richard BEAMISH
Senior Scientist
Fisheries and Oceans Canada
3904 Hammond Bay Rd
Nanaimo, B.C. V9T 1G3

Vance McEACHERN
Chief
Fish Management
Department of Fisheries and Oceans
200 Kent St.
Ottawa K1A 0E6

Robert O'BOYLE
Associate Director
Bedford Institute of Oceanography
P.O. Box 1006
Dartmouth
Nova Scotia B2Y 4A2
Email: oboyler@mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Don LAWSETH
Responsible and Selective Fisheries Coordinator
Fisheries and Oceans
3225 Stephenson Point Road
Nanaimo, B.C. V9T 1K3
Email: lawsethd@pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Ellen L. KENCHINGTON (Ms)
Research Scientist
Maritimes Region
Bedford Institute of Oceanography
P.O. Box 1006
Dartmouth, NS B2Y 4A2
Email: kenchingtone@mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Jorgen HANSEN
Department of Fisheries and Oceans
Management Scotia Fund Sector
176 Portland St.
Dartmouth B2Y 4T3
Nova Scotia
Email: hansenj@mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Michael SINCLAIR
Regional Director, Science
Bedford Institute of Oceanography
1 Challenger Driver
P.O. Box 1006
Dartmouth
Nova Scotia
Email: sinclairm@mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Jake C. RICE
Coordinator Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat
Fisheries Research Branch
Fisheries and Oceans Canada
200 Kent Street, 12th Floor
K1A 0E6 Ottawa
Email: ricej@dfo-mpo.gc.ca

CAPE VERDE

Oscar David FONSECA MELICIO
Ingénieur technologiste des pêches
Institut national pour le développement des pêches (INDP)
São Vicente B.P. 132
Email: omelicio@yahoo.com

CHILE

Ricardo NORAMBUENA
Jefe
Departamento Pesquerias
Subsecretaría de Pesca
Bellavista 168, Piso 17
Valparaiso
Email: rnorambu@subpesca.cl

CHINA

Hecheng ZHANG
Deputy Director-General
Bureau of Fisheries
Ministry of Agriculture
No. 11 Nongzhanguan Nanli
Beijing 1000026

Qi TIAN
Division Director
Chinese Academy of Engineering
3 Fuxing Road
100038 Beijing
Email: qi_tian@china.com

Shuanglin DONG
Dean
Fisheries College
Ocean University of Qingdao
No. 5 Yushan Road
Shinan District
Qingdao
Shandong Province
Email: dongsl@ouqd.edu.cn

Guifeng SUN
Director
Department of International Co-operation
Ministry of Agriculture
No. 11 Nongzhanguan Nanli
Beijing 100026
Email: inter-coop@agri.gov.cn

Gang ZHAO
Bureau of Fisheries
Ministry of Agriculture
No. 11 Nongzhanguan Nanli
Beijing 100026
Email: inter-coop@agri.gov.cn

Jianguo XIAO
First Secretary
Department of Treaty and Law
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
No. 2 Chaowai Nanjie
Beijing 100701
Email: kentxiao@hotmail.com

Qisheng TANG
Director
Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute
No. 106 Nanjing Road
Qingdao 266071
Shandong Province
Email: ysfri@public.qd.sd.cn

CUBA

Julio A. BAISRE
Director of Fisheries Management
Ministeriode laIndustria Pesquera
5a Ave y 246, Barlovento
Sta Fe 19100
Playa, La Habana
Email: baisre@fishnavy.info.cu

DENMARK

Tine Kjaer HASSAGER
Coordinating Officer
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries
Danish Institute for Fisheries Research
Jaegersborgvej 64-66
DK-2800 Lyngby
Email: tkh@dfu.min.dk

Helle SIEGSTAD
Director
Research Department
P.O. Box 570
Greenlands Nature Institut
DK-3900 Nuuk
Greenland
Email: helle@natur.gl

Charlotte Betina MOGENSEN (Ms)
Head of Section
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries
Holbergsgade 2
1057 Copenhagen
Email: cmo@fvm.dk

Morten LAUTRUP-LARSEN
Deputy Permanent Secretary
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries
Holbergsgade 2
1057 Copenhagen
Email: mll@fvm.dk

Patrick M. SONDERGAARD
Special Advisor
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries
Holbergsgade 2
1057 Copenhagen
Email: psn@fvm.dk

Soren SKAFTE
Chief Executive Officer
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries
Holbergsgade 2
DK-1057 Copenhagen
Denmark
Email: ssk@fvm.dk

Kaj P. MORTENSEN
Director General
Ministry of Fisheries and Maritime Affairs
Yviri vio Strond 17
FO-100 Torshavn
Faroe Islands
Email: kajm@fisk.fo

Jorgen NICLASEN
Minister of Fisheries and Maritime Affairs
Fiskimálastýrio
Yviri vio Strond 17
Faroe Islands
Email: jorgenn@fisk.fo

Eyofinn ur FINNSSON
Fiskimálastýrio
Ministry of Fisheries and Maritime Affairs
Yviví vio Strond 17
FO-100 Torshavn
Faroe Islands
Email: eydfinnurf@fisk.fo

Odma JOHANNESEN
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries
Holbergsgade 2
DK-1057
Copenhagen K
Email: ojo@fvm.dk

ECUADOR

Rafael TRUJILLO
Subsecretario de Recursos Pesqueros
Ministerio de Comercio Exterior, Industrialización y Pesca
Av. 9 de Octubre y Pichincha
Piso 7o
Quito
Email: subpesca@jupiter.expoltel.net

José Alfredo Salvador ALBÁN
Director General de Pesca
Ministerio de Comercio Exterior, Industrialización, Pesca y Competitividad
Edificio del Banco Central del Ecuador
Av. Nueve de Octubre #200
entre P. Carbo y Pichincha
Quito
Email: dirpesca@jupiter.espoltel.net

Luis ARRIAGA
Asesor
Subsecretaria Pesca
Av. Interior 213
Guayaquil

EGYPT

Ashraf SABET
Vice President
Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport
Building 2M, square 1166
El Shahid Zacharia St.
P.O. Box 2033 Al Horia
Heliopolis
Cairo
Email: asabet@aast.edu

EL SALVADOR

Jorge LOPEZ
Asesor scientifico
Ministerio de Agricultura
CENDEPESCA
Residence Holanda
Av. los Victorias
Pol. 0 #2
Nueva San Salvador
Email: peony@salnet.net

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

Olle HAGSTROM
Principal Administrator
Fisheries Directorate-General
European Commission
Rue de la Loi 200
B-1049 Bruxelles
Belgium
Email: ulle.hagstroem@cec.eu.int

John FARNELL
Director
Conservation Policy
Directorate General Fisheries
European Commission
Rue Joseph-II, 99
B-1049 Brussels
Belgium
Email: john.farnell@cec.eu.int

Patrick McCUTCHEON
Principal Administrator
Environment Directorate Generale
European Commission
Rue de la Loi 200
1049 Bruxelles
Belgium
Email: patrick.mccutcheon@cec.eu.int

Armando ASTUDILLO GONZALEZ
Chef d'Unité
Direction Générale de la Pêche
Commission des communautés européennes
200 rue de la Loi
Bruxelles
Belgique

Aldo SIRAGUSA
Head of Division
Council of the European Union
General Secretariat
Rue de la Loi 175
1048 Brussels
Email: aldo.siragusa@consilium.eu.int

Cornelia E. NAUEN (Ms)
Principal Scientific Officer
Research Directorate Generale
European Commission
Rue de la Loi 200
1049 Bruxelles
Belgium
Email: cornelia.nauen@cec.eu.int

J. Michael VAKILY
Coordinateur Adjoint
Projet SIAP/FIAS
Email: michael.vakily@jrc.it

Anita KUNITZER (Ms)
European Environment Agency
Kongens Nytovv 6
DK-1050 Copenhagen
Denmark
Email: anita.kuenitzer@eea.cu.int

FINLAND

Orian BONDESTAM
Counsellor of Fisheries
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
Department of Fisheries and Game
PL 30, 00023 Helsinki
Email: orian.bondestam@mmm.fi

FRANCE

Bérengère PRINCE
Ministère de l'agriculture et de la pêche
3 place de Fonteroy
75007 Paris
Email: berengere.prince@agriculture.gouv.fr

Laurence PETITGUILLAUME
Ministère de l'aménagement du territoire et de l'environnement
20 avenue Ségur
75302 Paris
Email: laurence.petitguillaume@environnement.gouv.fr

Patrice CAYRÉ
Directeur
Departement ressources vivantes
Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD)
213 rue Lafayette
75010 Paris
Email: drv@paris.ird.fr

David VALENCE
Cultural Deputy
Embassy of France
Nylendugata 196
Reykjavik

GERMANY

Marlies REIMANN (Ms)
Regierungsdirektorin
Federal Ministry of Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture
Rochusstrasse 1
53123 Bonn
Email: marlies.reimann@bmvel.bund.de

GHANA

Emmanuel Mantey MENSAH
Assistant Director of Fisheries
Fisheries Department
Ministry of Food and Agriculture
P.O. Box 630
Accra

GREECE

Vassilios SKOUNTIS
Ministry of Merchantile Marine
Port Police Directorate
Fisheries Department
Grig. Lambraki 150
185 18 Piraeus
Email: kpa@mail.yen.gr

ICELAND

Halldór ÁSGRÍMSSON
Minister for Foreign Affairs and External Trade
Ministry for Foreign Affairs and External Trade
Raudararstigur 25
150 Reykjavik

Árni M. MATHIESEN
Minister of Fisheries
Ministry of Fisheries
Skulagata 4
Reykjavik

Sverrir H. GUNNLAUGSSON
Permanent Secretary of State
Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Raudararstigur 25
150 Reykjavik

Thorsteinn GEIRSSON
Secretary General
Ministry of Fisheries
Skulagata 4
150 Reykjavik
Email: thgeir@hafro.is

Arni Muli JONASSON
Deputy Director of Fisheries
Ministry of Fisheries
Skulagata 4
Reykjavik

Gudmundur Bjorgvin HELGASON
Permanent Secretary
Ministry of Agriculture
Solvholsgata 7
101 Reykjavik
Email: gudmundur.b.helgason@lan.stjr.is

Magnus JOHANNESSON
Secretary General
Ministry for the Environment
Vonarstraeti 4
150 Reykjavik

Sigridur SNAEVARR (Ms)
Ambassador
Permanent Representative of Iceland to FAO
8, Avenue Kléber
75116 Paris
France
Email: sigridur.snaevarr@utn.stjr.is

Eidur GUDNASON
Ambassador
Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Raudararstigur 25
150 Reykjavik

Stefan SKJALDARSON
Ambassador
Director of the Political Dept.
Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Raudararstigur 25
150 Reykjavik

Thorir IBSEN
Minister-Counsellor
Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Raudararstigur 25
150 Reykjavik

Stefan ASMUNDSSON
Legal Adviser
Ministry of Fisheries
Skúlagata 4
150 Reykjavik
Email: stefas@hafro.is

Kolbeinn ARNASON
Legal Adviser
Ministry of Fisheries
Skulagata 4
150 Reykjavik

Tomas H. HEIDAR
Legal Adviser
Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Raudararstigur 25
150 Reykjavik
Email: tomas.heidar@utn.stjr.is

Nick HANNIGAN
Counsellor
Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Raudararstigur 25
150 Reykjavik

Bryndis KJARTANSDOTTIR (Ms)
First Secretary
Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Raudararstigur 25
150 Reykjavik

Audunn ATLASON
First Secretary
Ministry for Foreig n Affairs
Raudararstigur 25
150 Reykjavik

Kristin MAGNUSSON (Ms)
Head of Division
Ministry of Fisheries
Skulagata 4
150 Reykjavik
Email: kristinm@hafro.is

Gudrun EYJOLFSDOTTIR (Ms)
Special Adviser
Ministry of Fisheries
Skulagata 4
150 Reykjavik
Email: gudrune@hafro.is

Kristinn HUGASON
Specialist
Ministry of Fisheries
Skúlagata 4
150 Reykjavik

Bjorn SIGURBJORNSSON
Former Permanent Secretary of State
Ministry of Agriculture
Styrimannastig 12
101 Reykjavik

Jóhann SIGURJÓNSSON
Director-General
Marine Research Institute
Skulagata 4
P.O. Box 1390
121 Reykjavik
Email: johann@hafro.is

Arndis STEINTHORSDOTTIR (Ms)
Director of Economics
Ministry of Fisheries
Skulagata 4
150 Reykjavik
Email: arndis@hafro.is

Jon Erlingur JONASSON
Deputy Permanent Representative of Iceland to FAO
Via Nazionale 163
00184 Rome
Italy
Email: jejonasson@tin.it

Thorir SKARPHEDINSSON
Legal Adviser
Ministry of Fisheries
Skulagata 4
150 Reykjavik

Hannes HEIMISSON
Director
Department of Information, Cultural Affairs and Consular Liaison
Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Raudararstigur 25
150 Reykjavik

Armann Kr. OLAFSSON
Special Assistant to the Minister
Ministry of Fisheries
Skúlagata 4
150 Reykjavik
Email: armann@hafro.is

Dorothea JOHANNSDOTTIR (Ms)
Economist
Ministry of Fisheries
Skulagata 4
150 Reykjavik
Email: dora@hafro.is

Halldor THORGEIRSSON
Director
Sustainable Development and International Affairs
Ministry for the Environment
Vonarstraeti 4
150 Reykjavik
Email: halldor.thorgeirsson@umh.stjr.is

INDIA

Nair RAVEENDRAN, M. K.
Fisheries Development Commissioner
Ministry of Agriculture
242, Krishi Bhavan
110001 New Delhi
Email: m.k.v.nair@lycos.com

INDONESIA

Rokhmin DAHURI
Minister
Ministry of Marine and Fisheries
Jl. MT. Haryono Kav. 52-53
Pancoran
Jakarta Selatan 12770
Email: delp@indosat.net.id

Made L. NURDJANA
Director General of Capture Fisheries
Department of Marine Affairs and Fisheries
Ministry of Marine and Fisheries
Jakarta, Selatan

Otto RIADI
First Secretary
Embassy of Indonesia
Oslo
Norway

Tarmizi TAHER
Ambassador of Indonesia to Norway and Iceland
Indonesian Embassy
Gange Rolvsgata
0244 Oslo
Norway
Email: kbrioslo@online.no

Muhamad ARIFIN
Ministry of Maritime and Fisheries
Jl. Harsono Rm. no.3
Ragunan Pasar Minggu
Jakarta

Robert SUMENDAP
Indonesian Fisheries Association

IRAN (ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF)

Mahmood HOJJATI
Minister
Ministry of Agriculture
Fatemi-avn. No. 250
Shilat building
Tehran

Kodakarm JALALI
Deputy Minister for Fisheries
Ministry of Agriculture
Fatemi-avn. No. 250
Shilat building
Tehran

Seyed Aminollah TAGHAVIMOTLAGH
General Manager
Fisheries Affairs
Ministry of Agriculture
Fatemi-avn No. 250
Shilat Building
Tehran

IRELAND

John JOYCE
Section Manager
Marine Fisheries
Services Division
Marine Institute
Abbotstown Laboratory Complex
Snugboro Rp.
Dublin 15

ITALY

Enrico DE AGOSTINI
Counsellor
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Rome
Email: enricodeagostini@esteri.it

Plinio CONTE
Ministry of Agricultural Policy
Directorate of Fisheries and Aquaculture
Viale dell'Arte, 16
Rome
Email: nonfinpesca@politicheagricole.it

Stefano CATAUDELLA
University of Rome "Tor Vergata"
Ministry of Agricultural Polic y
Directorate of Fisheries and Aquaculture
Viale dell'Arte 16
Rome
Email: cataudel@uniroma2.it

Mauro BERTELLETTI
Ministry of Agricultural Policy
Directorate of Fisheries and Aquaculture
Viale dell'Arte, 16
Rome
Email: pesca2@politicheagricole.it

JAPAN

Seiji KAWAMOTO
Deputy Director General
Fisheries Agency of Japan
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
1-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo 100-8907

Masayuki KOMATSU
Counsellor Director
Fisheries Agency of Japan
1-2-1 Kasumigaseki Chiyodo-ku
Tokyo 1008907

Takanori OHASHI
Programme Coodinator
Fisheries Agency
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
1-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo
Email: takanori_ohashi@nm.maff.go.jp

Makoto ITO
Secretary
Japan Whaling Association
Toyomishinko Bldy 7F
4-5 Toyumi-Cho, Chuo-Ku
Tokyo

Dan GOODMAN
Counsellor
The Institute of Cetacean Research
Suisan Bldg.
4-18 Toyomi-Cho Chua-Ku
104 0055 Tokyo

Minoru OKAZAKI
First Secretary
Embassy of Japan to Iceland
Reykjavik

Akiko TOMITA
Fisheries Agency of Japan
Ministry of Agriculture, Foresty and Fisheries
1-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo

Tsutomu TAMURA
Ecosystem Section
The Institute of Cetacean Research
Suisan Bldg.
4-18 Toyomi-Cho Chua-Ku
104 0055 Tokyo

Takanori NAGATOMO
Chief
Pelagic Whaling Section
Far Seas Fisheries Division
Japan Fisheries Agency
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
1-2-1 Ksumigaseki, Chiyoda
Tokyo 100-8807
Email: takanori_nagatomo@nm.maff.go.jp

KOREA, REPUBLIC OF

Jaehack OH
Minister
Korean Embassy to Norway
Inkognito Gata 3
0244 Oslo
Norway

Chiguk AHN
Assistant Director
International Cooperation
Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries
139 Chungjong No.3
Seodaemun-Gu
Seoul 120-715
Email: chiguka@netian.com

Kyu-Seok PARK
Chairman, Board of Directors
Korea Fisheries Association
444, Dunchon-Dong
Kangdong-Gu, Seoul
Email: 772park@hanmail.net

Chang-Doo PARK
Researcher
Fisheries Engineering Division
National Fisheries Research & Development Institute
408-1, Sirang-ri
Gijang-eup
Busan 619-902
Email: cdpark@haema.nfrda.re.kr

LATVIA

Maris BERZINS
Head of Production, Development and Strategic Planning Unit
National Board of Fisheries
Republikas Lauk 2
Riga, LV-1010
Email: maris.vzp@latnet.lv

MALAWI

Moses BANDA
Acting Assistant Chief Fisheries Research Officer
Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Affairs
Malawi Fisheries Research Institute
P.O. Box 27
Monkey Bay

MALDIVES

Mohamed FAIZ
Assistant Director
Fisheries Management
Ministry of Fisheries, Agriculture and Marine Resources
Ghazee Building
Ameeru Ahmei Magu
20-05 Mal é
Email: admin@fishagri.gov.mv

MALTA

Francis Montanaro MIFSUD
Ambassador
Permanent Representative
Permanent Representation of the Republic of Malta to FAO
Lungotevere Marzio 12
00186 Rome
Italy

Matthew CAMILLERI
Fisheries Consultant
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries
Fort San Lucjan
Marsaxlokk BBG 06
Malta
Email: matthew.camilleri@magnet.mt

MAURITANIA

Chérif OULD TOUEILEB
Directeur des Etudes et de l'Aménagement
Ministère des pêches et de l'économie maritime
Nouakchott
Email: dearh.mpem@mauritania.mr

Mohamed M'Bareck OULD SOUEILIM
Directeur du centre national de recherches océanographiques et des pêches
Ministère des pêches et de l'économie maritime
BP 22
Nouadhibou
Email: dvib@toptechnology.mr

MAURITIUS

Baboo Dooshyant RATHACHAREN
Ministry of Fisheries
Port Louis

MEXICO

Mara MURILLO (Ms)
Director General
Planning, Programming and Evaluation
Secretariat for Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries and Food
Insurgentes 475
Mexico DF

Miguel A. CISNEROS
Research Director
National Fisheries Institute
Pitágoras 1320 Sta. Cruz Atoyac
México DF 03310

MOROCCO

Said CHABAATOU
Ministre
Ministère de le pêche maritime
Rue Bel Hassan El Ouazzani
B.P. 476
Rabat

Driss MESKI
Directeur de la coopération et des affaires juridiques
Ministère des pêches maritimes
Rue Mohammed Ben El Hassan El Ouazzani
Agdal
B.P. 476
Rabat
Email: meski@mp3m.gov.ma

Abdellatif BERRAHO
Directeur
Institut National de Recherche Halieutique (INRH)
Ministère des pêches maritimes
2 rue Tiznit
Casablanca

Menouar ALEM
Ambassador
Embassy of the Kingdom of Morocco
Oregaards Allé 19
2900 Hellerup
Denmark
Email: sifamadk@inet.uni2.dk

Hamid BEHAJ
Conseiller
Ministère des pêches maritimes
Secteur 23 N.12
Hayriad
Rabat

MOZAMBIQUE

Alfredo MASSINGA
Vice-Ministro
Ministério das Pescas
Rua Consiglieri Pedroso, 343
Caiza Postal 1723
Maputo
Email: alfredo@mozpesca.org

Lídia Abiba MASSALANA (Ms)
Directora Nacional de Administracion Pesqueira
Ministério das Pescas
Rua Consiglieri Pedroso, 343
Caixa Postal 1723
Maputo
Email: lidia@mozpesca.org

Eusébio Feliciano SIQUELA
Director Nacional de Economia Pesqueira
Ministério das Pescas
Rua Consiglieri Pedroso 347
Maputo

Maria Lizette Palha de SOUSA (Ms)
Chefe de Departamento
Instituto Nacional de Investigacaõ Pesqueira
P.O. Box 4603
Maputo
Email: lsousa@iip.co.mz

Paula Santana AFONSO (Ms)
Chefe de Departamento
Instituto Nacional de Investigacáo Pesqueira
P.O. Box 4603
Av. Mau Tse Tung 387
Maputo
Email: psantana@iip.co.mz

NAMIBIA

Abraham IYAMBO
Minister
Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources
Private Bag 13355
Windhoek
Email: aiyambo@mfmr.gov.na

Hashali HAMUKUAYA
Deputy Director
Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources
Private Bag 13355
Windhoek
Email: hhamukuaya@mfmr.gov.na

Vilhjálmur Hansson WIIUM
Advisor to Minister
Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources
Private Bag 13355
Windhoek
Email: vwiium@mfmr.gov.na

Shihepo HELLAO
Ambassador
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Embassy of Namibia
PO Box 26042
100 41 Stockholm
Sweden

Georgi DASKALOV
NATMIRC
Swakopumund
Windhoek

NETHERLANDS

Barbara M. SCHOUTE (Ms)
Policy Adviser
Fish Stock Management
Department of Fisheries
Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries
Bezuidenhoutsweg 73, Postbus 20401
2500 The Hague
Email: b.m.schoute@viss.agro.nl

NEW ZEALAND

Stan CROTHERS
Deputy Chief Executive
Ministry of Fisheries
PO Box 1020
Wellington

Tim CAUGHLEY
International Legal Adviser
Director, Legal Division
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade
Stafford House
40 The Terrace
Private Bag 18 901
Wellington
Email: tim.caughley@mfat.govt.nz

Jonathan PEACEY
Chief Policy Analyst
Policy and Treaty Strategy
Ministry of Fisheries
ASB Bank House
101-103 The Terrace
PO Box 1020
Wellington
Email: jonathan.peacey@fish.govt.nz

Nicola GIBBS (Ms)
Policy Manager
NZ Seafood Industry Council
Private Bag 24901
Wellington
Email: nici@seafood.co.nz

Kevin STOKES
Chief Scientist
NZ Seafood Industry Council
Private Bag 24901
Wellington
Email: stokesk@seafood.co.nz

John H. ANNALA
Chief Scientist
Ministry of Fisheries
P.O. Box 1020
Wellington
Email: annalaj@fish.govt.nz

Kirstin WOODS (Ms)
Senior Policy Analyst
Treaty of Waitangi Fisheries Commission
P.O. Box 3277
Wellington
Email: kirsty.woods@tokm.co.nz

NICARAGUA

Miguel MARENCO U.
Director Ejecutivo
Administraci ón Nacional de Pesca y Acuacultura
Sandy's C. Masaya 1 c. al Este
Apdo. 2020
Managua
Email: adpesca@ibw.com.ni

NIGERIA

Rabiu Dagari
Senior Counsellor
Embassy of Nigeria
56 Leeson Park
Dublin 6
Ireland

NORWAY

Otto GREGUSSEN
Minister
Ministry of Fisheries
P.O. Box 8118 Dep
0032 Oslo
Email: otto.gregussen@fid.dep.no

Johan H. WILLIAMS
Director General
Ministry of Fisheries
P.O. Box 8118 Dep.
N-0032 Oslo

Ove MIDTTUN
Deputy Director General of Fisheries
Directorate of Fisheries
PB 185 Sentrum, Bergen
Email:
ove.midttun@fiskeridir.der.telemax.no

Kjell H. HALVORSEN
Norwegian Embassy
P.O. Box 250
Fjolugt 17
Reykjavik
Iceland
Email: emb.reykjavik@mfa.no

Brit Ragnhilo FISKNES (Ms)
Adviser
Ministry of Fisheries
P.O. Box 8118 Dep.
0032 Oslo
Email: brit.fisknes@fid.dep.no

Odd Gunnar SKAGESTAD
Ambassador
Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
P.O. Box 8114 Dep.
0032 Oslo

Jan Helge FOSSA
Senior Scientist
Institute of Marine Research
P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes
N-5817 Bergen
Email: jan.helge.fossaa@imr.no

Asgeir AGLEN
Senior Scientist
Institute of Marine Research
Boks 1870
N5024 Bergen

Hein Rune SKJOLDAL
Senior Scientist
Institute of Marine Research
P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes
N-5817 Bergen
Email: hain.rune.skjoldal@imr.no

Knut SUNNANA
Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture
N-9291 Tromso
Email: knut.sunnana@fiskforsk.norut.no

Jan Odin OLAVSEN
Chairman
High North Alliance
P.O. Box 123
N-8398 Reine i Lofoten
Norway
Email: hna@highnorth.no

Birgitte Wisur OLSEN (Ms)
Communications Officer
High North Alliance
P.O. Box 123
N-8398 Reine i Lofoten
Norway
Email: birgitte@highnorth.no

Geir WULFF-NILSEN
High North Alliance
P.O. Box 123
N-8398 Reine i Lofoten
Norway
Email: hna@highnorth.no

Rune FROVIK
Secretary
High North Alliance
P.O. Box 123
N-8398 Reine i Lofoten
Norway
Email: hna@highnorth.no

SAINT LUCIA

Cassius B. ELIAS
Minister
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Castries
Email: minister@slumaffe.org

Sarah GEORGE (Ms)
Deputy Chief Fisheries Officer
Department of Fisheries
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Castries
Email: deptfish@slumaffe.org

SENEGAL

Modou THIAM
Conseiller Technique
Ministère de la pêche
Building administratif, 4ème étage
B.P. 4050
Dakar
Tél: 221 6808336

SOUTH AFRICA

Douglas BUTTERWORTH
Professor
Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics
University of Cape Town
Rondebosch 7701
Email: dll@maths.uct.ac.za

SPAIN

Fernando CURCIO
Subdirector General de Organismos Multilaterales de Pesca
Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación
c/Ortega y Gasset, 57
Madrid

Susana JUNQUERA (Ms)
Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia
Instituto Español de Oceanografia
Apdo. 1552
36390 Vigo
Email: susana.junquera@vi.ieo.es

Santiago LENS
Instituto Español de Oceanografia
Laboratorio de Vigo
Apdo. 1552
36390 Vigo
Email: santiago.lens@vi.ico.es

Francisco SANCHEZ DELGADO
Instituto Español de Oceanografia
Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia
P.O. Box 240
Santander
Email: f.sanchez@st.ieo.es

Pilar PEREDA PÉREZ (Ms)
Investigadora Jefe de Programa
Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología
c/Varadero 1
30740 San Pedro des Pinatar
Murcia
Email: pilar.pereda@mu.ieo.es

SUDAN

Mohamed ABDEL RAHMAN
Director
Fisheries Conservation
Ministry of Animal Resources
P.O. Box 293
Khartoum

SWEDEN

Rolf AKESSON
Deputy Director
Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries
Drottninggatan 21
10333 Stockholm
Email:
rolf.akesson@agriculture.ministry.se

Arne ANDRÉASSON
Director
Department of Marine Resources
National Board of Fisheries
Ekelundsgatan 1
Box 423
SE-401 26 Goteborg
Email: arne.andreasson@fiskeriverket.se

Maggi MIKAELSSON
Riksdagsledamot
10012, Stockholm
Email: maggi.mikaelsson@riksdagen.se

TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF

Thomas Wanyika MAEMBE
Director of Fisheries
Ministry of Natural Resources & Tourism
Fisheries Division
P.O. Box 2462
Dar-es-Salaam
Email: fisheries@twiga.com

Valeria Emil MUSHI (Ms)
Senior Fisheries Officer
Ministry of Natural Resources & Tourism
Fisheries Division
PO Box 2462
Dar-es-Salaam
Email: fisheries@twiga.com

THAILAND

Anant SARAYA
Director
Marine Fisheries Division
Department of Fisheries
Kasetsart University Campus
Paholyothin Rd.
Bangkok
Email: anants@fisheries.go.th

TONGA

'AKAU'OLA
Secretary for Fisheries
Ministry of Fisheries
P.O. Box 871
Nuku'alofa

UGANDA

Fabius M. BYARUHANGA
Minister of State for Fisheries
Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries
P.O. Box 102
Entebbe

Dick NYEKO
Commissioner for Fisheries
Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries
P.O. Box 4
Entebbe
Email: whc@imul.com

UNITED KINGDOM

Christopher TOMPKINS
Adviser
Marine Policy
Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Zone 3B7
Ashdown House
123 Victoria Street
London SW1E 6DE
Email: chris.tompkins@defla.gef.gov.uk

David FORD
Head
Fisheries Strategy Branch
Scottish Executive Rural Affairs Dept.
Sea Fisheries Division
Pentland House
47 Robb's Load
EH14 1TY Edinburgh
Email: david.ford@scotland.gsi.gov.uk

John LOCK
Fisheries Research Manager
DEFRA
Chief Scientist's Group
Room 404, Cromwell House
Dean Stanley St.
London SW1P 3JH
Email: johnlock@maff.gsi.gov.uk

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

William FOX
Director
Office of Scie nce and Technology
NOAA
National Marine Fisheries Service
1315 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Email: william.fox@noaa.gov

Pamela MACE (Ms)
Fisheries Scientist
National Marine Fisheries Service
166 Water Street
Woods Hole
MA 02543

Steven MURAWSKI
Chief
Population Dynamics Branch
NOAA/NMFS
166 Water St.
Woods Hole, MA 02543

Sally COCHRAN (Ms)
International Relations Officer
US Department of State
Office of Marine Conservation, Rm 5806
2201 C. St., NW
Washington, DC 20520
Email: cochransa@state.gov

Stephen K. BROWN
Biological Oceanographer
NOAA
National Marine Fisheries Service
1315 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Email: stephen.k.brown@noaa.gov

Magnea Kristin MARINOSDOTTIR (Ms)
Political and Environmental Assistant
US Embassy
Laufasnegur 21
101 Reykjavik
Email: magnea@usa.is

Dean SWANSON
Chief
International Fisheries Division
International Affairs
National Marine Fisheries Service, F/SF4
1315 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Email: dean.swanson@noaa.gov

Jean-Pierre PLÉ
Ocean Affairs Officer
US Department of State
2201 C St. NW, Rm 5805
Washington, DC 20520
Email: plejp@state.gov

Colin McIFF
Foreign Trade Officer
US Department of State
OES/OMC, rm.5806
2201 C. St., NW
Washington, DC 20520
Email: mciffcl@state.gov

Melissa A. HALTUCH (Ms)
Knauss Sea Grant Fellow
US Department of State
Office of Marine Conservation, rm. 5806
2201 C. Street, NW
Washington, DC 20520
Email: haltuchma@state.gov

Michael SISSENWINE
Director
Northeast Fisheries Science Center
National Marine Fisheries Service
166 Water Street
Woods Hole, MA 025403

Mary Beth WEST (Ms)
Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oceans and Fisheries
US Department of State
2201 C St. NW
Washington, DC 20520

Sonja FORDHAM (Ms)
Fish Conservation Project Manager
The Ocean Conservancy
1725 De Sales St. NW#600
Washington, DC 20036
Email: sfordham@oceanconservancy.org

VIET NAM

Ngoc TA QUANG
Minister
Ministry for Fisheries
No. 10 Nguyen Cong Hoan
Hanoi
Email: htat@hn.vnn.vn

Long NGUYEN
Vice Director of Research Institute of Marine Products
Ministry of Fisheries
170 Lelai str.
Haiphong City

Trieu VU VAN
Vice Director General
Ministry of Fisheries
No. 10 Nguyen Cong Hoan St.
Badinh District
Hanoi

ZAMBIA

Teddy SIMAKUNGWE
Embassy of Zambia
Engelbreksgatan 7
Box 26013
S-100 41, Stockholm
Sweden
Email: info@zambiaembassy.se

OBSERVERS FROM UNITED NATIONS MEMBER STATES

RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Leonid KHOLOD
Deputy Chairman
State Committee for Fisheries of the Russian Federation
12, Rozhdestvenskii Blvd.
103031 Moscow
Email: kholod@fishcom.ru

Kamel Abdulovich BEKIASHEV
Adviser to Director
State Committee for Fisheries of the Russian Federation
17 V. Krasnoselskaya
107140 Moscow

Louri RIAZANTSEV
Senior Scientist
Fisheries Committee of the Russian Federation
17 v. Krasnoselskaya
107140 Moscow

Sergey SIMAKOV
Chief
International Department
State Committee for Fisheries of the Russian Federation
12, Rozhdestvenskii blvd
103031 Moscow
Email: simakov@fishcom.ru

UKRAINE

Petro DMYTRYSHYN
Manager
Administration of Fleet, Ports, Safety of Navigation and Labour Protection
State Department for Fisheries
45a Artema Str.
Kyiv 04053

Volodymyr HERASYMCHUK
Head of Division
International Fisheries Policy of the State Department of Fisheries of Ukraine
82a Turhene vska str.
Kiev 04050
Email: ffish@fm.com.ua

Alexander BOLTACHEV
Deputy Director
Institute of Biology of Southern Seas
2 Nakhimov ave.
Sevastopol 99011
Crimea
Email: boltach@ibss.iuf.net

PERMANENT OBSERVER TO FAO

HOLY SEE

Vincenzo BUONOMO
Mission Permanente du Saint-Siège auprès de la FAO
Palazzo S. Callisto
00120 Cité du Vatican
Rome
Italy
Email: osserfao@mhsfao.va

REPRESENTATIVES OF UNITED NATIONS AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES

UNITED NATIONS

André TAHINDRO
Senior Law of the Sea Officer
Division for Ocean Affairs/Law of the Sea (DOALOS)
Office of Legal Affairs
2 United Nations Plaza
New York, NY 10017
USA
Email: tahindro@un.org

CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

Marjo VIERROS
Programme Officer
UNEP
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (SCBD)
393 St. Jacques, Suite 300
Montreal, QC
H24 1N9 Canada
Email: marjo.vierros@biodiv.org

INTERGOVERNMENTAL OCEANOGRAPHIC COMMISSION

Umit UNLUATA
Head
Ocean Sciences
IOC/UNESCO
1 rue Miollis
75015 Paris
France

WORLD BANK GROUP

David FREESTONE
Chief Counsel
The World Bank
1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
USA

Elly K.J. GUDMUNDSDOTTIR
Counsel
The World Bank
1818 H Street NW
Washington, DC 20433
USA

OBSERVERS FROM INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK

A. Kader DIA
Expert Pêche
ADB
B.P. 3894
Abidjan
Cote d'Ivoire

CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA

Malan LINDEQUE
Chief
Scientific Coordination Unit
CITES Secretariat
International Environment House
15, chemin des Anémones
Châtelaine
CH-1219 Geneva
Switzerland
Email: cites@unep.ch

COUNCIL OF EUROPE

Wolfgang BEHRENDT
Vice President
Platz der Republik
11011 Berlin
Germany
Email: wolfang.behrendt@bundestag.de

Francis AGIUS
Chairman
Sub-Committee on Fisheries
The Munibles
34 Joseph Street
Zabbar
Malta

EASTERN CARIBBEAN CETACEAN COMMISSION

Horace WALTERS
Executive Director
P.O. Box 3074 Castries
Saint Lucia

INTER-AMERICAN TROPICAL TUNA COMMISSION

Robin L. ALLEN
Director
IATTC
8604 La Jolla Shores Drive
La Jolla
California 92037-1508
USA
Email: rallen@iattc.org

INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE EXPLORATION OF THE SEA

Keith BRANDER
Fisheries Scientist
ICES
Palaegade 2-4
DK-1261 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Email: deith@ices.dk

INTERNATIONAL WHALING COMMISSION

Nicky GRANDY
Secretary
The Red House
135 Station Road
Impington
CB4 9NP Cambridge
UK
Email: secretariat@iwcoffice.org

LAKE VICTORIA FISHERIES ORGANIZATION

William Michael KUDOJA
Senior Scientist
PO Box 1625
Jinja
Uganda
Email: lvfo@source.co.ug

LATIN AMERICAN ORGANIZATION FOR FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT

Carlos MAZAL
Director Ejecutivo
OLDEPESCA
Las Palomas 422
Urbanizaci ón Limtambo
Lima 34
Peru
Email: cmazal@terra.com.pe

NORTH ATLANTIC MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION

Grete HOVELSRUD-BRODA (Ms)
General Secretary
NAMMCO
Polar Environmental Centre
N-9296 Tromso
Norway
Email: nammco-sec@nammco.no

NORTH ATLANTIC SALMON CONSERVATION ORGANIZATION

Malcolm L. Windsor
NASCO
Secretary
11 Rutland Square
EH1 2AS Edinburgh
UK
Email: hq@nasco.int

NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC FISHERIES COMMISSION

Kjartan HOYDAL
Secretary
NEAFC
22 Berners Street
W1T 3DY London
UK
Email: info@neafc.org

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

Carl-Christian SCHMIDT
Head of the Fisheries Division
Directorate of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries
OECD
2, rue André-Pascal
75775 Paris
France
Email: carl-christian.schmidt@oecd.org

SECRETARIAT OF THE PACIFIC COMMUNITY

Valérie ALLAIN (Ms)
SPC
B.P. D5
98848 Noumea Cedex
New Caledonia
Australia
Email: valeriea@spc.int

SOUTHEAST ASIAN FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT CENTRE

Panu TAVARUTMANEEGUL
Secretary-General
SEAFDEC Secretariat
Suraswadi Building
Kaselsart University Campus
P.O. Box 1046 Kasetsart Post Office
Bangkok 10903
Thailand
Email: sg@seafdec.org

Yasuhisa KATO
Special Adviser
SEAFDEC
Suraswadi Building
Department of Fisheries Compound
Kasetsart University
Main Campus Chatuchak
Bangkok 10900
Thailand
Email: kato@seafdec.org

OBSERVERS FROM NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

EUROPEAN BUREAU FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT

Despina SYMONS PIROVOLIDON (Ms)
Director
EBCD
Rue de la Science, 10
1000 Brussels
Belgium
Email: despina.symons@ebcd.org

FRIENDS OF THE EARTH

Gunnar ALBUM
Fisheries Campaigner
Barentshavkontoret
8285 Leines
Norway
Email: album@online.no

GREENPEACE INTERNATIONAL

Xavier PASTOR
Fisheries Advisor
Greenpeace International
Keizersgracht 176
1016 DW Amsterdam
Netherlands
Email: xavier.pastor@diala.greenpeace.org

Mark SIMMONDS
Director of Science
WDCS
Alexander House
James St West
Bath BA1 2BT
UK
Email: marks@wdcs.org

INTERNATIONAL COLLECTIVE IN SUPPORT OF FISHWORKERS

Sebastian MATHEW
Executive Secretary
ICSF
27 College Road
Chennai 600 006
India
Email: icsf@vsnl.com

INTERNATIONAL FISHMEAL AND OIL MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Stuart M. BARLOW
Chief Executive Officer
IFFO
2 College Yard
Lower Dagnall St.
UK
Email: secretariat@ifoma.org

INTERNATIONAL WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT CONSORTIUM

Jaques BERNEY
Executive Vice-President
IWMC
3, passage de Montriond
CH-1006 Lausanne
Switzerland
Email: iwmcch@iwmc.org

MARINE STEWARDSHIP COUNCIL

Duncan LEADBITTER
International Fisheries Director
119 Altenburg Gardens
SW11 1JQ London
UK

SEAS AT RISK

Christien ABSIL
Northsea Foundation/SAR
3511 BH Utrecht
Netherlands
c.absil@nordzee.nl

WORLD WIDE FUND FOR NATURE

Arni FINNEISSON
Chairman
Iceland Nature Conservation
Thverholt 15
105 Reykjavik
Iceland

Katherine M. SHORT (Ms)
Fisheries Officer
WWF
GPO Box 52-8
Sidney NSW 2049
Australia

INDIVIDUAL CAPACITY

Tom ABBORS
T&E Keskus
FIN-00241 Helsinki
Finland

Mohsen AL-HUSAINI
Research Associate Scientist
Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research
P.O. Box 1638 Salmyiah
22017 Kuwait
Email: mhusaini@kisr.edu.kw

Franco ANDALORO
ICRAM
00166 Rome, Italy

M. Gabriella ANDREOLI (Ms)
Scientist
University of Palermo
Viale delle Science
Palermo, Italy

Ragnar ARNASON
Ministry of Fisheries
Reykjavik
Iceland
Email: kilbeinn@hafro.is

Thor ASGEIRSSON
Deputy Director
UNU/FTP
Reykjavik
Iceland

Anibal AUBONE
Ministry of Economy
Mar del Plata
Argentina

Wijayaratne BADULLAGE
UNU/FTP
Reykjavik
Iceland

Colin BANNISTER
Senior Fisheries Advisor
CEFAS
Lowestoft
UK

Manuel BARANGE
GLOBEC International Project Office
Plymouth
UK
Email: m.barange@pml.ac.uk

Christopher BARKER
Technical Manager
Waltham
UK

Brynhildur BENEDIKTSDOTTIR (Ms)
Fisheries Association of Iceland
105 Reykjavik
Iceland

Gabriella BIANCHI (Ms)
Research Director
Institute of Marine Research
Bergen, Norway

Petur BJARNASON
Fisheries Association of Iceland
105 Reykjavik
Iceland

Bjorn BJORNSSON
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Hoskuldur BJORNSSON
Scientist
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Arthur BOGASON
National Association of Small Boat Owners
Reykjavik
Iceland

Ray BOWERING
Fisheries Research Scientist
NW Atlantic Fisheries Center
P.O. Box 5667
ATC 5X1
St. John's NF
Canada
Email: boweringr@dfo-mpogc.ca

Edwin BROWN
US Embassy
Laufasvegur 21
101 Reykjavik
Iceland
Email: brown@usa.is

Magese BULAYI
UNU/FTP
Reykjavik
Iceland

Dieter N. BUSCH
Director
Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission
Washington, D.C. 20005
USA
Email: dbusch@asmfc.org

Phil CADWALLADER
Director
Great Barrier Reef
Marine Park Authority
Queensland
Australia
Email: p.cadwallader@gbrmpa.gov.au

Nick CAPUTI
Supervising Scientist
Department of Fisheries (Western Australia)
W.A. Marine Research Laboratories
North Beach W.A. 6020
Australia
Email: ncaputi@fish.wa.gov.au

Pierre CHAVANCE
Fisheries Biologist
Institut de Recherche pour le
Developpement (IRD-France)
BP 1386
Dakar, Senegal

Villy CHRISTENSEN
University of British Columbia
Vancouver B.C.
V6T 1Z4 Canada

Ratana CHUENPAGDEE
Assistant Professor of Marine Science
VIMS
Virginia 23062
USA
Email: ratana@vims.edu

Jason COPE
Moss Landing Marine Labs
Moss Landings, CA 95039
USA

Parzival COPES
Emiritus Professor of Economics
Simon Fraser University
Canada
Email: copes@sfu.ca

Steve COUSINS
Associate Professor
Cranfield University
Bedford MD43 0AL
UK
Email: s.cousins@cranfield.ac.uk

Wenda DAI (Ms)
Dalian Fisheries University
China

Asgeir DANIELSSON
National Economics Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Kristjan DAVIDSSON
Islandsbanki
Reykjavik
Iceland

Cynthia DECKER (Ms)
Director
Census of Marine Life Secretariat
Consortium for Oceanographic Research and Education, Suite 800
1755 Massachusetts Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20036-2102
USA
Email: cdecker@coreocean.org

Juanjo DE LA CERDA
PESCANOVA
36320 Chapela
Pontevedra, Spain

Maria Álvaer DONGALA BOMBAXE (Ms)
Haskoli Islands
Hringbraut
Iceland

Agust EINARSSON
University of Iceland
Reykjavik
Iceland

Petur EINARSSON
Islandsbanki
Reykjavik
Iceland

Hrafnkell EIRIKSSON
Ministry of Fisheries
Reykjavik
Iceland

Margrét EINARSDOTTIR (Ms)
Programme-Coordinator
ICEIDA
Reykjavik
Iceland

Helga EYJOLFSDOTTIR (Ms)
Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories
Reykjavik
Iceland

Tryggvi FELIXSON
Reykjavik
Iceland

Mario FERRETTI
FEDERCOOPESCA
Via De' Gigli d'Oro, 21
00186, Rome
Italy

John G. FIELD
Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research
7700 Rondebosch
South Africa

Ray FINN
Division Manager
Habitat Management
DFO
Canada

Guy FONTENELLE
Professor
Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique
35042 Rennes
France

Eilif GAARD
Faroese Fisheries Laboratory
Faroe Islands
Email: eilifg@frs.fo

Guangzhi GAO
Professor
Dalian Fisheries University
China

Julio GARCIA
INIDEP
Mar del Plata
Argentina

Otello GIOVANARDI
ICRAM
30015 Chioggia
Italy

Agusta GISLADOTTIR (Ms)
Specialist
ICEIDA
Reykjavik
Iceland

Astthor GISLASON
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Henrik GISLASON
Professor
Danish Institute for Fisheries Research
DK2920 Charlottencuno
Denmark

Silvestro GRECO
ICRAM
Via di Casalotti, 300
Rome, Italy

Sigmar GUDBJORNSSON
Reykjavik
Iceland

Einar Kristinn GUDFINNSSON
Icelandic Parliament
Reykjavik
Iceland

Hafsteinn GUDFINNSSON
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Asta GUDMUNDSDÓTTIR (Ms)
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Elena GUIJARRO GARCIA (Ms)
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland
Email: elena@hafro.is

Cástor GUISANDE
Professor
Universidad de Vigo
Vigo
Spain

Gudmundur GUNNARSSON
Marketing and Development Director
Reykjavik
Iceland

J. A. HEDINSSON
Reykjavik
Iceland

María Rita HERNANDEZ PALACIOS (Ms)
UNU/FTP
Reykjavik
Iceland

Daniel HOWELL
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Arni ÍSAKSSON
Freshwater Fisheries
Reykjavik
Iceland

Astrid JARRE (Ms)
Greenland Institute of Natural Resources
3900 Nunk
Greenland

Simon JENNINGS
Senior Scientist
CEFAS
Suffolk NR33 0HT
UK
Email: s.jennings@cefas.co.uk

Einar JULIUSSON
Dosent
Reykjavik
Iceland

Arni Steinar JOHANNSSON
Hafnarstraetti 79
600 Akureyr
Iceland

Svanfridur JONASDOTTIR (Ms)
Parliament of Iceland
Reykjavik
Iceland

Sigurdur Thor JONASSON
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Einar JONSON
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Ingibjorg JONSDOTTIR (Ms)
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Sujatha KANDULA
Department of Marine Living Resources
Andhra University, Waltair
Visakhapatnam - 530003
India
Email: kandulasujatha@mailcity.com

Gudmundur KARLSSON
Fiskistofa
Reykjavik
Iceland
Claire Jane KEENAN (Ms)
University of Strathclyde
Glasgow G4 0NG
UK

Boaz Blackie KEIZIRE
UNU/FTP
Reykjavik
Iceland

Trevor J. KENCHINGTON
Gadus Associates
Nova Scotia
Canada
Email: gadus@istar.ca

Darren KINDLEYSIDES
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
Edinburgh, EH4 3TP
UK
Email: darren.kindleysides@rspb.org.uk

Aslak KRISTIANSEN
R&D Coordination
Norwegian Fishermen's Association
Norway

Jón KRISTJÁNSSON
Fisheries Consultant
Reykjavik
Iceland

Volker KUNTZSCH
Frozen Fish International GmbH
27572 Bremerhaven
Germany
Email: volker.kuntzsch@unilever.com

Raymond LAE
Marine Biologist
Institute de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD-France)
BP 1386 Dakar
Senegal

Thor J. LASSEN
Ocean Trust
Arlington, Virginia 22209-3199
USA
Email: tjlassen@oceantrust.org

Don LAWSETH
Regional Selective Fisheries Coordinator
Fisheries and Oceans
Canada
Email: lawsethd@pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Dino LEVI
Director
IRMA/CNR
Via Vaccari, 61
91026 Mazara del Vallo
Italy
Email: levi@irma.pa.cnr.it

Kristen LILLIENDAHL (Ms)
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Kristján LOFTSSON
Hafnarfjordur
Iceland
Email: kl@hvalur.is

Silvia LUCATO (Ms)
SOC-SOES
Southampton
UK
Email: shbl@soc.soton.ac.uk

Arní MAGNUSSON
Seattle, WA 98105
USA

Evagelia MAKRIGIANAKI (Ms)
Ipsilanyou 100
Piraeus
Greece

Marcus MALLIKAGE
UNU/FTP
Reykjavik
Iceland

Caroline McGILLIURAY (Ms)
University of Strathclyde
Glasgow G4 0NG
UK

Jan MEES
Director
VLIZ
B-8400 Oostende
Brussels, Belgium
Email: jan.mees@vliz.be

Richard MIDDLETON
Associated Press
Reykjavik
Icela nd

Toby MIDDLETON
UNED Forum
London SW1A 2EL
UK

Erik Jaap MOLENAAR
Research Associate
Netherlands Institute for the Law of the Sea
Achter Sint Pieter 200
3512 HT Utrecht
Netherlands
Email: e.molenaar@law.uu.nl

Walter R. MONROE
IFCNR
P.O. Box 1019 Podesville
Vienna, Virginia 22180 MD 20837
USA
Email: ifcnr@cs.com

Cliff MORRISON
Young's Bluecrest Seafood Ltd.
Grimsby DN31 3SR
UK
Email:
cliff_morrison@youngsbluecrest.com

Prisna NEUNGSIGKAPIAN (Ms)
Earth Negotiations Bulletin
New York
USA
Email: prisna@iisd.org

Klaus NIELSEN
President
ESPERSEN
Ronne
Denmark
Email: klaus.nielsen@espersen.dk

Friday NJAYA
UNU/FTP
Reykjavik
Iceland

Giuseppe NOTARBARINO DI SCIARA
ICRAM
00166 Rome
Italy

Michael O'CONNOR
Highliner Foods
100 Battery Point
P.O. Box 910
Lunenburg, Nova Scotia
Canada B0J 2C0

Geir ODDSSON
Landmat International
Reykjavik
Iceland

Ignatius ODONGO
UNU/FTP
Reykjavik
Iceland

Droplaug OLAFSDOTTIR (Ms)
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Magnús Freyr OLAFSSON
VST Consulting Engineers
Reykjavik
Iceland

Gudmundar OSKARSSON
Fishery Scientist
Iceland

Wilfred OSUMO
UNU/FTP
Reykjavik
Iceland

Olafur PALSSON
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Thorgeir PALSSON
ICECON
Reykjavik
Iceland
Email: thorgeir@icecon.is

M. H. PAPST
Division Manager
Freshwater Institute
Winnipeg, Canada

Graham PATCHELL
Resource Manager
Sealord Group
Nelson
New Zealand

Andrew PAYNE
Science Area Head
CEFAS
Lowestoft
Suffolk, NR33 0HT
UK

Groa PETURSDOTTIR (Ms)
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Gudrun PETURSDOTTIR (Ms)
University of Iceland
Reykjavik
Iceland

Sigurdur PETURSSON
SIF Group
222 Hafnarfjordur
Iceland

John K. PINNEGAR
Fisheries Ecologist
CEFAS
Lowestoft
Suffolk NR33 0HT, UK
Email: j.k.pinnegar@cefas.co.uk

José QUEVEDO
UNU/FTP
Reykjavik
Iceland

Stefan Aki RAGNARSSON
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland
Email: steara@hafro.is

Marie-Joelle ROCHET (Ms)
IFREMER
Nantes
France

Birane SAMB
CRUDT
Senegal

Martin SAYER
Scottish Association for Marine Science
Argyll DA34 4AD
UK

Sigfus SCHOPKA
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Lynne SHANNON (Ms)
Marine and Coastal Management
Cape Town
South Africa

Yunne SHIN
Marine Biologist
Institute de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD-France)
34203 Sète
France
Email: shin@ird.fr

Thorsteinn SIGURDSSON
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Matti SIPPONEN
Fisheries Manager
40101 Jyvaskyla
Finland
Email: matti.sipponen@te-kcskms.fi

Tony SMITH
CSIRO
Marine Research
Hobart Tasmania
7001 Australia
Email: tony.smith@marine.csiro.au

Jon SOLMUNDSSON
Biologist
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Chris SPENCE
Earth Negotiations Bulletin
New York
USA
Email: chris@iisd.org

Richard STEAD
Research Technician
Dept. Fisheries and Oceans
Canada

John STEELE
W.H.O.I.
Woods Hole, MA 02543
USA

Gunner STEFANSSON
Associate Professor
University of Iceland
Reykjavik
Iceland

Bjorn STEINARSSON
Senior Scientist
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Sigmar Arnar STEINGRIMSSON
Ministry of Fisheries
Reykjavik
Iceland

Pernilla STRID (Ms)
Miljoaktuellt
10648 Stockholm
Sweden

Ussif Rashid SUMAILA
Senior Research Fellow
Vancouver, BC
Canada

Jon SUTINEN
Professor
University of Rhode Island
Kingston, RI 02881
USA

Petri SUURONEN
Research Director
Finnish Game and Fish Research Institute
Finland

Lorna TAYLOR (Ms)
MRI
Iceland

Kristjan THORARINSSON
Ecologist
Reykjavik
Iceland

Halldor THORGEIRSSON
Director
Ministry for the Environment
Reykjavik
Iceland

Vilhja lmur THORSTEINSSON
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Robert M. THORSTEINSON
Icicle Seafoods, Inc.
Seattle, WA 98199
USA

Ross TOCKER
General Manager
Sealord Group
Nelson
New Zealand

Tumi TOMASSON
Director
UNU/FTP
Reykjavik
Iceland

Luong TRANDUC
UNU/FTP
Reykjavik
Iceland

Philip TRATHAN
Marine Ecologist
British Antarctic Survey
Cambridge
UK

Lucia TUDINI (Ms)
Istituto Nazionale di Economia Agraria
Firenze
Italy
Email: inea.fi@libero.it

Benedikt VALSSON
FFSI
Reykjavik
Iceland
Email: ffsi@netheimar.is

Hreidar VALTYSSON
Reykjavik
Iceland

Gert VAN SANTEN
Consultant
Bethesda, MD 20817
USA
Email: gvansanten@starpower.net

Nelson VELHO
UNU/FTP
Beira
Mozambique

Gísli VÍKINGSSON
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Thithu Huong VO
UNU/FTP
Reykjavik
Iceland

Lars WALLOE
Professor
Institute of Physiology
P.O. Box 1103
Blindern
Norway
Email: lars.walloe@basalmed.uio.no
Vidar WESPESTAD
Chief Scientist
Pacific Whiting Conservation Coop
Lynnwood, WA 98036
USA

David WILLS
Peat Institute
P.O. Box 27
Beallsville, MD 20839
USA
Email: peatins@cs.com

Eva YNGVADOTTIR (Ms)
Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories
Reykjavic
Iceland

Halldór ZOEGA
Head of Department
Directorate of Fisheries
Reykjavik
Iceland

SPEAKERS

Tundi AGARDY
Executive Director
Sounds Seas
6620 Broad Street
Bethesda, MD 20816
USA
Email: tundiagardy@earthlink.net

*Transform AQORAU
South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency
P.O. Box 629
Honiara
Solomon Islands
Email: transform.agorau@ffa.int

* Unable to attend. Presentation made on his behalf

Bernt O. BODAL
American Seafoods Group LCC
2025 1st Ave. suite 1200
Seattle WA 98121
USA
Email: bernt.bodal@americanseafoods.com

Douglas BUTTERWORTH
Professor
Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics
University of Cape Town
Rindebosch 7701
South Africa
Email: dll@maths.uct.ac.za

Robin COOK
Marine Fisheries Adviser
FRS Marine Laboratory
P.O. Box 101
Victoria Road
Aberdeen AB11 9DB
UK
Email: r.cook@marlab.ac.uk

Philippe CURY
Oceanography Department
University of Cape Town
7701 Rondebosch
South Africa
Email: curypm@uctvms.uct.ac.za

Serge M. GARCIA
Director
Fishery Resources Division
FAO

Astthor GISLASON
Marine Research Institute
Reykjavik
Iceland

Michel KAISER
Senior Lecturer
Marine Benthic Ecology
School of Ocean Sciences
Universityof Wales Bangor
Menai Bridge
Anglesey LL59 5EY
UK
Email: m.j.kaiser@bangor.ac.uk

Ellen L. KENCHINGTON (Ms)
Research Scientist
Maritimes Region
Bedford Institute of Oceanography
P.O. Box 1006
Dartmouth, NS B2Y 4A2
Email: kenchingtone@mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Sebastian MATHEW
Executive Secretary
ICSF
27 College Road
Chennai 600 006
India
Email: icsf@vsnl.com

Daniel PAULY
Professer
Fisheries Centre
2204 Main Mall
University of British Columbia
Vancouver B.C. V6T 1Z4
Canada
Email: d.pauly@fisheries.ubc.ca

Katherine RICHARDSON (Ms)
Institute of Biological Sciences
Department of Marine Ecology
Finlandsgade 14
DK 8200 Aarthus N
Denmark
Email: richardson@biology.au.dk

Andrew ROSENBERG
Dean
College of Life Sciences
University of New Hampshire
354 Concord Street
Gloucester, MA 01930
USA
Email: andy.rosenberg@unh.edu

Keith SAINSBURY
CSIRO
Castry Esp.Hobart
Australia

Michael SISSENWINE
Director
Northeast Fisheries Science Center
National Marine Fisheries Service
166 Water Street
Woods Hole, MA 025403

Gunner STEFANSSON
Associate Professor
University of Iceland
Reykjavik
Iceland
Jon SUTINEN
Professor
University of Rhode Island
Kingston, RI 02881
USA

Tsutomu TAMURA
Ecosystem Section
The Institute of Cetacean Research
Tokyo Suisan Bldg, 4-18
Toyomi-Cho Chuo-Ku
Tokyo 104-0055
Tokyo

Andrew TRITES
Director
Marine Mammal Research Unit
Vancouver, B.C.
Canada
Email: trites@zoology.ubc.ca

John W. VALDEMARSEN
Chief
Fishery Technology Service
FAO

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome
Italy

FISHERIES DEPARTMENT

Ichiro NOMURA
Assistant Director-General
(Fisheries Department)

Serge M. GARCIA
Director
Fishery Resources Division

Ulf WIJKSTRÖM
Chief
Development Planning Service

Jorge CSIRKE
Chief
Marine Resources Service

Kevern L. COCHRANE
Senior Fishery Resources Officer
Marine Resources Service

Eric REYNOLDS
Fishery Planning Officer
Development Planning Service

LEGAL OFFICE

William EDESON
Senior Legal Officer

SECRETARIAT

Grimur VALDIMARSSON
Conference Secretary
Director
Fishery Industries Division

Janet C. WEBB (Ms)
Meetings Officer
International Institutions and Liaison Service

Joanne ANTONELLI (Ms)
Administrative Secretary
Fishery Industries Division

Marianne GUYONNET (Ms)
Secretary
International Institutions and Liaison Service

Tanya ALEXANDER (Ms)
Secretary
Fishery Industries Division

Barbara VERMEIL (Ms)
Fishery Industries Division

Wolfgang KRONE
Consultant

Thorgeir LAWRENCE
Consultant

ICELANDIC SECRETARIAT

Möller Alda
Reykjavik Executive Committee

Gudmundsdóttir Helga Lára
Iceland Travel

Hjaltason Lene
Iceland Travel

C. List of Documents[1]

Reykjavik 2001/1 Rev.1

Provisional Annotated Agenda and Timetable



Reykjavik 2001/2

Executive Summaries of papers to be presented to the First Plenary Session - Setting the Stage



Reykjavik 2001/3

Abstracts of the papers to be presented to the Scientific Symposium




· Session 1

Dynamics of Marine Ecosystems


· Session 2

The Role of Man in Marine Ecosystems


· Session 3

Incorporating Ecosystem Considerations in Fisheries



Reykjavik 2001/4

Towards ecosystem-based fisheries management



Reykjavik 2001/Inf.1

Provisional List of Documents



Reykjavik 2001/Inf.2

Provisional List of Participants



Reykjavik 2001/Inf.3

Opening Address by the Minister for Foreign Affairs and External Trade, Iceland



Reykjavik 2001/Inf.4

Statement by the Director-General of FAO



Reykjavik 2001/Inf.5

Statement by the Minister for Fisheries, Norway



Reykjavik 2001/Inf.6

Not issued

D. Statement by Jacques Diouf, Director-General, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Your Excellency, Chairperson of the Conference
Your Excellency, President of Iceland
Your Excellencies, Distinguished Ministers
Your Excellencies
Ladies and Gentlemen

It gives me great pleasure to be among you in this great country of Iceland at the opening of a Conference which aims at strengthening global efforts to ensure the responsible utilization of marine resources and sound management of the ocean ecosystem.

At the outset, I wish to express my profound gratitude to the Government of Iceland for hosting this Conference and to the Government of Norway for providing much-required support. It shows the commitment of these countries towards the responsible use of the natural marine resources.

Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen,

During his visit to FAO in 1998, the President of Iceland made a memorable speech to FAO staff. Referring to his childhood experience, he reminded us in a vivid way, how - not so long ago - the people of his country were preoccupied with making ends meet with regard to food provisions - to make sure that they would last until the next harvest. It is necessary to remind those who live in the urban areas of the developed world, and who take it for granted that they can go to the next supermarket to buy food, that, unfortunately, food security is still a major issue for too many people. It is also necessary to remind these same urban dwellers that food is not made in factories, but grown in the field by the toil of the farmer or pulled from the ocean by a fisherman who often risks his life to bring in the harvest. The lives of most of the world's poor are a constant battle to secure enough food for themselves and their families. Mahatma Gandhi said: "To the millions who have to go without two meals a day... God can only appear as bread".

FAO is committed to food security and the fight against hunger. There are still almost 800 million people who suffer due to lack of food and at least 300 million children are malnourished. This is a sad and tragic failure, to be on the conscience of humanity, not the least because much can be done to alleviate this situation. In 1996, national leaders gathered in Rome for the World Food Summit, of whom His Excellency Davíd Oddsson, Prime Minister of Iceland, made a pledge to halve the number of the hungry by the year 2015. This November, five years after the Summit, FAO is convening a meeting to review progress in the fight against hunger.

Capture fisheries, and particularly their management, bear heavily on food security. The livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people around the world are dependent on fisheries, and for many countries, fish constitutes the main source of animal protein. After decades of successful fisheries developments in most coastal and ocean areas of the world, the rate of increase in fish supplies has far surpassed that of the world population increases. This is a remarkable achievement, as it means that the nominal per caput consumption of fish has never been as high as it is now.

The current catches from the oceans, about 100 million tonnes a year, including discards, have, in the view of FAO, reached the maximum that we can practically expect to take from the wild fish stocks in the ocean. However, this does not mean that we cannot get more food from the oceans. We can make much better use of ocean resources by allowing overfished stocks to recuperate, reducing wastage, and in particular by making renewed efforts in better management. After decades of ocean fisheries development, we need an era of implementing effective fisheries management. This means developing capacity for fisheries research and management, allocating specific fishing rights and improving monitoring control, and surveillance, not to mention improved catch reporting. Many countries are making a great effort to this end and experience is being gathered that should be made available to all countries engaged in fisheries. FAO is certainly willing to assist in that area.

The underlying reason why countries have been so slow to adopt effective management regimes is probably because, firstly, it takes time to realize that a given system is not effective enough and, secondly, because transitions towards new systems can be costly. For a long time the Great Oceans were considered inexhaustible, and the perception was that controls were really not needed. However, slowly, and often painfully, mankind had to realize that this was not so. The Great Oceans are indeed exhaustible. Despite the fact that the majority of all ocean resources are now fully exploited, access to these resources remains open, or practically open, in far too many fisheries around the world. Consequently today there are too many vessels chasing too few fish. This has been caused by significant over-investment in fishing which has led to overfishing, which has in turn increased the pressure to invest more in order to catch more fish. Utilizing ever improving technology that, due to its low cost, is becoming available to even small fishing operators, man is really not giving the fish in the sea much chance of escaping from the fishing gear and allowing them time to grow and reproduce. The necessity for managing fishing capacity is recognized by the 'International Plan of Action for the Management of Fishing Capacity', adopted by the FAO Committee on Fisheries in 1999, which, among others, calls for development of national plans and policies and reporting to FAO. The same is true for the 'International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing', not only on the high sea, but also within national jurisdiction, which was adopted by the same Committee this year. These actions result from increased understanding and commitment with emphasis on conservation and applying more responsible fishing approaches.

Recently, many important instruments have been developed under the overarching umbrella of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, and agreements have been reached to tie the loose ends in the Convention of the Law of the Sea. Commonly called The 1993 FAO Compliance Agreement and The 1995 UN Fish Stock Agreement, they both still need to be ratified and implemented by the fishing nations.

Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen,

The Conference that is opening here today is a stepping stone towards a more responsible use of the living resources of the oceans. An ecosystem approach recognizes that man is part of the ecosystem and that taking food from a natural ecosystem carries with it clear obligations as well as rights. Moreover, in the long run, an ecosystem-based approach to management is likely to increase productivity of the oceans and thus increase the amount and quality of food production available to man in a sustainable manner. It also recognizes that we should limit, as far as possible, the harmful effects that human activities can have on the living ocean resources. The task at hand is to examine how to manage the fisheries with a view to ensuring sustainable utilization of the food available in the oceans for the benefit of present and future generations without harming the ecosystem's capacity to support human life.

I look forward to the development of a global consensus for fisheries which will tell the world that fishing nations have decided, jointly, to successfully face the challenge of an ecosystem-based management of fisheries.

Once again, I would like to thank the Governments of Iceland and of Norway for, respectively, hosting and supporting the Conference.

Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen,

I wish you successful deliberations, and I look forward to your guidance on how, together, we can move towards more responsible management of ocean capture fisheries.

E. Statement by His Excellency Otto Gregussen, Minister, The Royal Norwegian Ministry of Fisheries

Excellencies, honourable participants, ladies and gentlemen.

It is a great pleasure for me and a great honour for Norway and the Norwegian delegation at the Conference to have the opportunity to give this opening address.

This Conference has the scope of becoming the major global event setting the future guidelines for an ecosystem approach to world fisheries management.

Norway welcomes this conference, we commend FAO for arranging it, and Iceland for hosting it and for their great financial and other support to the conference. Norway is happy to have been able to take part as co-sponsor contributing to making this conference possible.

Norway is highly dependent on the sustainable harvesting of our living marine resources. The fish, the seals, the whales and all other sources of food, trade and livelihood that the sea provides, is the only reason why the Norwegian coast was populated in the first place. This tradition, this knowledge, and the coastal settlement are thus the backbone of our present economy: oil, gas, shipping, fishing and aquaculture. All predictions indicate that the importance of our marine cluster will increase in national importance in the future. The challenges ahead to make this come true are immense.

Only by balancing growth, use and protection can our vision become reality.

Our vision, boldly phrased "Values from the Ocean. The Norwegian Future" requires careful but courageous decisions. Norway and a number of other nations are developing their aquaculture industry to levels not known before. The demand for increased supply of seafood, and the advancements in technology increase the pressure on the living marine resources, on the coastal zone, and on the marine ecosystem as a whole.

That is why this conference is so important. That is why the timing is now.

The awareness about the ecosystem and the need to develop guidelines through international processes, both on global and regional levels, require bold decisions and bold actions from all our governments. Only if we act together can results be achieved.

Therefore, the great attendance of so many countries at the Conference being brought together is a great opportunity. Here are all the world's important fisheries and aquaculture producers being represented, many with their foremost representatives in this area. This creates the possibility for us to break new ground.

The Conference is an opportunity - an opportunity that has to be embraced - to agree on a framework for managing our living marine resources within an ecosystem context.

It is the wish and expectation of Norway that the outcome of the Conference will be:

I promise you all that Norway will act constructively and positively in the deliberations in the days to come to promote a result towards this end.

The Norwegian delegation thus looks forward with great expectations to the next four days. It will be four days of hard work. The Scientific Symposium will provide better knowledge towards a common understanding of the dynamics of the marine ecosystem, of the role of man in the marine ecosystem and most important to managers; the incorporating of ecosystem considerations in fisheries management. Excellent and prominent scientists will guide us through the sessions.

It will be a challenge to us during the Conference plenary sessions, to use the highlighted knowledge provided to us, and to discuss and develop a declaration that sets the stage for the future national and international implementation of the principles of an ecosystem based management of the living marine resources in practical fisheries management.

I welcome the great effort undertaken by the Conference Steering Committee, the Conference Scientific Committee, the Reykjavik Executive Committee, the FAO Staff and all experts presenting papers and posters. Their work has paved the ground.

It is our challenge to transform their efforts into a Conference of Prominence, a Conference of Results, a Conference of Importance. Not to us, but to our Oceans and our living Marine Resources.

I therefore challenge all nations present, through their distinguished representatives, as well as all intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, to participate and contribute towards a result we all can be proud of and benefit from in the time to come.

Finally, Excellencies, honourable participants, ladies and gentlemen. I know from experience that our Icelandic hosts are the most hospitable and generous host anyone can imagine. We can therefore look forward not only to four busy days but also indeed four pleasant days. Norway is happy to be able to return some of the Icelandic friendliness by inviting all participants to a reception on Wednesday night.

I look forward to the days ahead of us.

Thank you for your attention.

F. Address by His Excellency Halldór Ásgrímsson, Minister for Foreign Affairs and External Trade of Iceland

President of Iceland, Director-General of FAO, Honourable Ministers, Ladies and Gentlemen,

It gives me great pleasure to welcome all of you to Iceland and to this very important conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem. Iceland is an appropriate place to hold such a conference for many reasons. The ocean, which batters our coast all year round is also the source of our livelihood, and in the dark days of the 17th and 18th centuries, when volcanic eruptions devastated our agricultural land, fishing probably prevented the complete extermination of Iceland as a nation. Still today, our wealth is built on fisheries, with 60-70 percent of our export in goods being marine products. We have a very special interest and concern in the state of fisheries. And in our small world, we know that it is not enough to limit our concern to our own back yard.

Mr Chairman,

All over the world, there is a growing concern about overfishing and the state of fish stocks. These worries are understandable in the light of the importance of fisheries for world food security. Fisheries also provide for the livelihood of millions of people and even of whole nations and for a number of countries export of fish and fish products is vital for their national economy.

However, it is important to caution against over-generalizations and over-simplifications. The state of fisheries is certainly alarming in certain regions, but it is actually in very good shape in others. Indeed, fishing can be sustainable and a number of countries already implement effective sustainable fisheries management. It is important that these cases be recognized as positive examples for others to follow.

In Iceland we know from experience that sustainable resource management is a pre-condition of our prosperity and welfare. We simply cannot afford to get it wrong.

The fisheries management system in Iceland was not invented overnight and indeed it is still developing. It is the result of much scientific work and political effort, and required many difficult decisions. Through trial and error we have developed a sustainable fisheries management system which by international standards must be considered at once advanced, innovative and successful. But we still face new challenges that we must overcome.

By applying modern technology, science and management methods, we have been able to make use of our fishing grounds in a sustainable manner. This has made us a leading fishing nation and allowed us to build up a prosperous society with modern standards of housing, healthcare and education, despite our harsh natural environment.

We have also sought to allow our fisheries know-how to benefit others. Aid to develop sustainable fisheries is one of the principle pillars of Iceland's development assistance programme. Icelandic public institutions have moreover provided developing countries with assistance in building the scientific and legal basis of their fisheries management systems. Icelandic companies have also invested in fishing operations and fish processing industries throughout the world and Icelandic companies have been involved in many development projects building up regional fishing industries.

Here I would like to mention specifically the United Nations University Fisheries Training Programme, which was established here in Iceland in 1998. The programme provides post-graduate training for practicing professionals from the fisheries sectors in developing countries. The programme will be presented here in the lobby and I encourage you to learn more about it.

Mr Chairman,

There is without doubt much need for international cooperation to promote sustainable fisheries. I sincerely hope that this conference will make a significant contribution.

I share the concern of many countries over the state of fish stocks and fisheries management in some regions. Before becoming Foreign Minister, I was Fisheries Minister for eight years and had to deal with the many difficult social and economic issues while we made radical changes in our fisheries management system to build up sustainable fisheries.

I also understand the position of those countries that press for a more active role of global forums such as the United Nations in the area of fisheries. But allow me to be frank. Most of these countries are advanced industrialized countries. Some of them have lost fish stocks due to overfishing. Others have hunted their marine mammals to near extinction. Still others have so much overcapacity in their fishing fleets that they have to send their fleets to distant waters to fish. These countries should not, however, seek to export their problems to other countries or assume that other countries will inevitably make the same mistakes as they did. The fact that these countries have had difficulties does not mean that living marine resources are not being managed sustainably in other regions of the world.

We have to bear in mind that for many countries, fisheries is a key economic sector. We cannot expect these countries to tolerate micro-management of their economies by the world community. International cooperation on fisheries must be consistent with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

Having said this, what then should international cooperation in the area of fisheries focus on? I see four areas of critical importance.

Firstly, technical and scientific cooperation on common issues of concern is pivotal for advancing our knowledge of ocean resources and the best ways to manage them. This conference is a good example of such cooperation. The world community has come to understand the common interest in advancing the ecosystem approach to fisheries management. Therefore we have gathered here to learn from the scientists and from one another's experiences about what can and cannot be done in incorporating ecosystem considerations into fisheries management, and to identify ways in which we can cooperate to promote and develop the approach of eco-system based management of living marine resources.

Secondly, it is important that we make the global market conducive to sustainable fisheries. International trade rules can either support or undermine sustainable fisheries management. Experience has shown that market distortions, like tariff-escalations and subsidies, have the effects of encouraging overfishing. Subsidies and high tariffs in the OECD countries have in particular negative effects on the developing countries, both for their trade interests and their use of their fisheries resources.

More than half of the total world export of fish and fish products comes from the developing countries. Most of this export goes to the OECD countries, which together import about 75 percent of internationally traded fishery products. These same importing countries are responsible for the bulk of the fisheries subsidies granted in the world and they also apply tariffs to products from the developing countries.

Thirdly, it is imperative that we increase the support of the world community to the developing countries in the area of fisheries.

Fish is the prime source of animal protein for one billion people in the developing world. Of the 30 countries most dependent on fish as a protein source, all but four are in the developing world. The developing countries account for more than half of the total world export of fish and fish products. We should also bear in mind that fisheries are of critical importance in some low-income food-deficit countries and small island developing States.

I believe that we the fisheries nations, FAO and the international financial institutions have a responsibility to form a partnership with the developing countries and support them in building their own sustainable fisheries management systems that fit their own circumstances and needs.

A few years ago the major donors in the area of fisheries created the concept of the Forum for Sustainable Fisheries to build exactly that partnership. It is imperative that this initiative gain a new momentum, and that we the member States of FAO call upon the World Bank to continue its collaboration with FAO on this important matter.

Lastly, we must promote better understanding between governments, the fishing industry, environmental NGOs and the general public about the importance of conserving and sustainable utilization of living marine resources for the benefit of present and future generations. In this context I stress in particular the need for active participation of the fishing industry.

Mr Chairman,

This is the only FAO-related conference dealing with fisheries to be held before the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, where world leaders will renew the commitment of the world community to sustainable development. A strong message on global partnership in support of sustainable utilization of living marine resources must be delivered from Reykjavik to Johannesburg.

I would like to thank the Government of Norway for its generous support to this conference and the Director-General of FAO for the rewarding cooperation in preparing this conference. I hope you will have a pleasant stay while in Iceland.

Thank you Mr Chairman.

G. Statement by His Excellency Árni M. Mathiesen, Minister for Fisheries of Iceland

Ladies and gentlemen,

During the past decades, nations around the world realized that fisheries have to be managed. Authorities have tried to respond to that need, to the best of their abilities with varied results, by managing fisheries on a stock by stock basis. For the last few years there has been a growing understanding that the point of view has to be broader than it has been, that fisheries management needs to take into consideration the whole marine ecosystem. This is supported by growing demand by civil society to use the resources rationally and preserve the environment.

This conference on responsible fisheries in the marine ecosystem is organized in such a way, that we will now hear different views on the important issue that we are going to discuss. This afternoon the scientific symposium will deal with the various scientific aspects of ecosystem-based fisheries management. After the symposium, we will resume the intergovernmental conference. There I hope we are going to have a discussion on key policy issues, drawing on what we will have heard here and from our own national experiences.

I hope that we will here in Reykjavik agree on:

The intent is, that at the end of this Conference we will adopt a declaration that is going to be finalized by an open-ended drafting committee. I would like to encourage you to focus on what you want to see in such a declaration. Work on the declaration will start today and eventually deepen as we get more information from the overview and the scientific presentations.

It is my hope that this conference will be a milestone on our way. That we will show the world that we are responsible when striving for a sustainable use of living marine resources, to supply marine products and to secure the quality of these products. We are taking a new and important step in outlining the future direction to take in management of living marine resources.

My wish is that we will have a fruitful debate and that you all will have a pleasant stay in Iceland.

H. Observations from the Scientific Symposium by the Co-chairs, Mr Michael Sinclair and Mr Jóhann Sigurjónsson[2]

The following are individual observations rather than formal conclusions of the Symposium.

1. The first session summarized present understanding of the structure and function of marine ecosystems, marine food webs and feeding relationships, and our capability of modeling single species and multi-species fisheries.

2. The second session provided a synthesis of the impacts of fishing, and other ocean uses, on marine ecosystems.

3. The third session addressed how ecosystem considerations could be better incorporated into fisheries management, as well as governance changes that are required.

4. A fishing industry panel provided their perspective on the changes underway in fisheries management to enhance sustainability. They were in general receptive to the need to better incorporate ecosystem considerations into fishing practices, yet concerned about the time scale and costs that would be needed for the adjustments.

5. Throughout the three sessions, and the industry panel, two key issues were highlighted. These were:

- overfishing driven by overcapacity
- incentives for rationalization under " Rights-based" fishing.

Without urgent attention to reducing overcapacity it was considered very difficult to make progress on "Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem".

Without "Rights-based" fishing, in some form, it was considered unlikely that overcapacity will be reduced.

It is noted that outside the Symposium there have also been informal discussion among scientists on the urgent need to address overcapacity and reduce overfishing as a necessary condition for making progress on ecosystem-based management.

6. The challenge provided to the Symposium was to define the practical next steps for enhancing "Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem". How can we move from the present fisheries management framework to ecosystem-based management? What is ecosystem-based management (EBM)?

7. Although a formal definition was not agreed to, our sense is that EBM has the following features:

- Integrated management of multiple fisheries, and other ocean uses, within a geographic context.

- Incorporation of a broader set of conservation objectives than is presently the case for most fisheries management plans. In the case of the fisheries sector, the objectives would ensure sustainability of ecosystem features as well the target species of interest.

- It is the human activities that are being managed, not the ecosystem.

8. Although there was a consensus that successful single species fisheries management would move us a long way towards the objectives of EBM, it was recognized that additional measures are required to address emerging ecosystem concerns.

9. There was a clear signal that EBM should start now. Although additional research on marine ecosystem is, of course, desirable; it is not a necessary condition for the initiation of EBM. We have sufficient knowledge and management tools to get started.

10. EBM can be initiated now in developing countries as well as in developed countries.

11. A first step is to define the broader set of conservation objectives that are desirable to sustain both the target species of fishing and the features of the ecosystem that require protection. These objectives should explicitly address biodiversity, productivity, and habitat.

12. These ecosystem objectives, including those for the target species of fishing, would be included within present single species (or multi-species) fisheries management plans. Just as there are indicators and reference points for decisions on fishing mortality and stock biomass levels, there would be measures for meeting the broader ecosystem objectives. These could address, for example, the geographic area required to protect three dimensional habitat features (such as deep sea corals), as well as by-catch limits for species of special concern (eg. Leatherback turtle). It is recognized that some of these measures are already in place in an ad hoc manner.

13. The present tools for fisheries management would be used in new ways to address ecosystem considerations. These tools are quotas, effort control, closed areas, and gear restrictions. For example closed areas could be used for benthic habitat in addition to the protection of spawning components or small fish.

14. There is not a consensus on the geographic areas within which the regulatory plans for the multiple uses would be evaluated with respect to the ecosystem objectives. Ecological boundaries and areas of administrative convenience will need to be considered on regional or country by country basis. Irrespective of the ocean management areas that are defined for the implementation of EBM, some plans, such as relatively sessile lobsters and scallops, could be evaluated within a single ocean management area. Other fisheries management plans, such as those for migratory tuna and some squids, will need to be evaluated within contiguous ocean management areas.

15. Present institutional arrangements for the implementation of fisheries management plans will need to be supplemented to meet the new governance requirements. There will be a need to evaluate the aggregate fisheries management plans, as well as the plans for other ocean uses, in relation to the ecosystem objectives that are defined under EBM.

16. There was the sense from the Symposium that achievement of "Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem", through EBM, will be an evolutionary rather that a revolutionary process. That said there are some urgent ecosystem issues to be addressed in a timely manner, including overfishing and excess capacity.

17. The Precautionary Approach was repeatedly brought up as a key feature of EBM.

In closing, on behalf of the participants of the Scientific Symposium, we hope that our observations will be of help to you during your deliberations at the Conference. Thank you for the opportunity to make this presentation.

I. The Reykjavik Declaration on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem

Having met at the Reykjavik Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem from 1 to 4 October 2001,

Appreciating the initiative taken by the Government of Iceland and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to organize the Conference with the co-sponsorship of the Government of Norway,

Recalling that this initiative was endorsed at the Twenty-fourth Session of the FAO Committee on Fisheries (26 February - 2 March 2001) and at the One Hundred and Twentieth Session of the FAO Council (June 2001),

Reaffirming that the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (the Convention) sets out the rights and duties of States with respect to the use and conservation of the ocean and its resources, including the conservation and management of living marine resources,

Recalling that in recent years the world community has agreed on several additional legal and political commitments that supplement the provisions of the Convention, including the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and Agenda 21 (Chapter 17),

Reaffirming the principles of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries,

Recalling further the four International Plans of Action formulated in accordance with the Code of Conduct, namely for the Management of Fishing Capacity, for the Conservation and Management of Sharks, for Reducing Incidental Catch of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries, and to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing,

Reaffirming that the FAO Council during its One Hundred and Twentieth Session recommended that ecosystem-based fisheries management studies to be conducted by FAO as agreed in paragraph 39 of the Report at the Twenty-fourth Session of the FAO Committee on Fisheries should be balanced and holistic in approach,

Welcoming and taking into account the discussion in the scientific symposium of the Conference,

Recognizing that sustainable fisheries management incorporating ecosystem considerations entails taking into account the impacts of fisheries on the marine ecosystem and the impacts of the marine ecosystem on fisheries,

Confirming that the objective of including ecosystem considerations in fisheries management is to contribute to long-term food security and to human development and to assure the effective conservation and sustainable use of the ecosystem and its resources,

Appreciating that the Conference represented an important opportunity for all fisheries stakeholders to jointly assess the means for including ecosystem considerations in fisheries management,

Aware that the sustainable use of living marine resources contributes substantially to human food security, as well as dietary variety, provides for the livelihood of millions of people and is a central pillar of many national economies, especially low-income food-deficit countries and small island developing States,

Recognizing the complex inter-relationship between fisheries and other components of the marine ecosystems,

Convinced that including ecosystem considerations in fisheries management provides a framework within which States and fisheries management organizations would enhance management performance,

Affirming that incorporation of ecosystem considerations implies more effective conservation of the ecosystem and sustainable use and an increased attention to interactions, such as predator-prey relationships, among different stocks and species of living marine resources; furthermore that it entails an understanding of the impact of human activities on the ecosystem, including the possible structural distortions they can cause in the ecosystem,

Recognizing the need to strengthen and sustain management capacity, including scientific, legal and institutional frameworks with the aim of incorporating among other things ecosystem considerations,

Emphasizing that the scientific basis for including ecosystem considerations in fisheries management needs further development and that there is incomplete scientific knowledge about the structure, functioning, components and properties of the ecosystem as well as about the ecological impact of fishing,

Recognizing that certain non-fishery activities have an impact on the marine ecosystem and have consequences for management. These include land-based and sea-based activities which affect habitat, water quality, fisheries productivity, and food quality and safety,

Recognizing also that the majority of developing countries face major challenges in incorporating ecosystem considerations into fisheries management and that international cooperation and support are necessary,

Declare that, in an effort to reinforce responsible and sustainable fisheries in the marine ecosystem, we will individually and collectively work on incorporating ecosystem considerations into that management to that aim.

Towards this end, we further declare:

1. Our determination to continue effective implementation of the FAO Code of Conduct, which is our common and agreed guide in strengthening and building fisheries management systems, as well as the International Plans of Action as formulated in accordance with the Code, and the Kyoto Declaration and Plan of Action on the Contribution of Fisheries to Food Security.

2. There is a clear need to introduce immediately effective management plans with incentives that encourage responsible fisheries and sustainable use of marine ecosystems, including mechanisms for reducing excessive fishing efforts to sustainable levels.

3. It is important to strengthen, improve, and where appropriate establish, regional and international fisheries management organizations and incorporate in their work ecosystem considerations and improve cooperation between those bodies and regional bodies in charge of managing and conserving the marine environment.

4. Prevention of adverse effects of non-fisheries activities on the marine ecosystems and fisheries requires action by relevant authorities and other stakeholders.

5. While it is necessary to take immediate action to address particularly urgent problems on the basis of the precautionary approach, it is important to advance the scientific basis for incorporating ecosystem considerations, building on existing and future available scientific knowledge. Towards this end we will undertake to:

(a) advance the scientific basis for developing and implementing management strategies that incorporate ecosystem considerations and which will ensure sustainable yields while conserving stocks and maintaining the integrity of ecosystems and habitats on which they depend;

(b) identify and describe the structure, components and functioning of relevant marine ecosystems, diet composition and food webs, species interactions and predator-prey relationships, the role of habitat and the biological, physical and oceanographic factors affecting ecosystem stability and resilience;

(c) build or enhance systematic monitoring of natural variability and its relations to ecosystem productivity;

(d) improve the monitoring of by-catch and discards in all fisheries to obtain better knowledge of the amount of fish actually taken;

(e) support research and technology developments of fishing gear and practices to improve gear selectivity and reduce adverse impacts of fishing practices on habitat and biological diversity;

(f) assess adverse human impacts of non-fisheries activities on the marine environment as well as the consequences of these impacts for sustainable use.

6. The interaction between aquaculture development in the marine environment and capture fisheries should be monitored through relevant institutional and regulatory arrangements.

7. Our determination to strengthen international cooperation with the aim of supporting developing countries in incorporating ecosystem considerations into fisheries management, in particular in building their expertise through education and training for collecting and processing the biological, oceanographic, ecological and fisheries data needed for designing, implementing and upgrading management strategies.

8. We resolve to improve the enabling environment by encouraging technology transfer contributing to sustainable management where appropriate, introducing sound regulatory frameworks, examining and where necessary removing trade distortions, and promoting transparency.

9. We urge relevant technical and financial international organizations and FAO to cooperate in providing States with access to technical advice and information about effective management regimes and about the experience from such arrangements, and other support, devoting special attention to developing countries.

10. We would encourage FAO to work with scientific and technical experts from all different regions to develop technical guidelines for best practices with regard to introducing ecosystem considerations into fisheries management. These technical guidelines should be presented at the next session of the FAO Committee on Fisheries.

AND REQUEST that the Government of Iceland convey this Declaration to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, the Director-General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the Chairman of the World Summit on Sustainable Development to be held in Johannesburg in September 2002 and relevant fisheries management organizations for their consideration.

J. Statement by Mr M. Komatsu on behalf of the Delegation of Japan

Thank you Mr Chairman,

Mr Chairman, Japan is disappointed with the Declaration now adopted by this Plenary.

In our view the Declaration fails to deal with a number of major issues that were the theme of this Conference and mandated to us by FAO's Committee on Fisheries and Council. Regrettably, in this sense, the Declaration is a regressive step and a missed opportunity to move toward our goal of including ecosystem considerations in fisheries management.

Mr Chairman, in the discussions of the Drafting Committee, one of the major points of disagreement was the use of the term "marine living resources". As you are aware, this term is used in a number of instruments including UNCLOS and UNCED. A similar term, "living aquatic resources" is also used in the FAO Code of Conduct and the Kyoto Declaration and Plan of Action. Yet, a few delegations, including the USA, Australia and New Zealand have refused to accept the use of this term in the current draft declaration. To us, this is a position that puts us back 20 years and a position that certainly contradicts the objective of including ecosystem considerations in fisheries management.

Mr Chairman, I would like to note that the role of marine mammals in the ecosystem and specifically the consumption of fish by marine mammals was the subject of considerable discussion during the Scientific Symposium. While the subject was notably absent from the summary of the Scientific Symposium it is a fact that it was discussed and as such, it should be properly reflected in the declaration. Yet, in the Drafting Committee, it was the position of some, that the term "marine mammals" should not appear anywhere in the document.

Refusal to use the term "marine mammals" in this declaration as if they did not exist or as if they are not a part of the ecosystem has made this Conference a political forum like the IWC. In our view, this is regrettable.

Mr Chairman, at its Twenty-fourth Session, the Committee on Fisheries unanimously agreed that FAO should conduct studies on the interaction between fisheries and marine mammals but again, in the Drafting Committee, there was a refusal to even quote directly the words of paragraph 39 of the COFI report as if we now no longer agree with what was agreed this past March.

Further, the One hundred and twentieth Session of the FAO Council recommended that the ecosystem-based fisheries management studies to be conducted by FAO, as agreed in paragraph 39 of the Report of COFI, should be balanced and holistic in approach and agreed that this Conference would be an appropriate forum to address these matters. Mr Chairman, this is an instruction that we cannot simply avoid.

Mr Chairman, there are a number of other substantive points that Japan tried to introduce into the declaration and that are in our view critical to ensuring responsible fisheries. These include, free access to markets for products from IUU vessels and the negative impacts on the marine ecosystem of the capture of juvenile fish for aquaculture. It is our view that exclusion of these issues from the declaration means that the Conference has failed to address key issues required for effective implementation of ecosystem based fisheries management.

Mr Chairman, Japan is committed to the establishment of responsible fisheries and convinced that the incorporation of ecosystem considerations into fisheries management will be a significant step toward ensuring sustainable use of marine resources. This Conference was an opportunity to progress in this direction and we are pleased with the presentations and discussion that took place during the Scientific Symposium. However, for the reasons I have noted, we cannot go along with or accept the declaration as it is before us now. However, in the spirit of compromise Japan did not block the consensus on this Reykjavik Declaration.

K. Statement by The Honourable Cassius B. Elias, Minister for Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries and the Environment, Saint Lucia

Mr Chairman,

St. Lucia wishes to express its concern on the Final Declaration of this Conference as it appears not to adequately reflect the views and discussions that dominated our meeting this week. Mr Chairman, St. Lucia has always advocated a holistic approach to ecosystems management, particularly in the context of realistically addressing all of the marine species that comprise the ecosystem.

Also, Mr Chairman, my delegation was concerned about the manner in which the Drafting Committee conducted its work in isolation of the main body of the Conference.

While we would not join the consensus on the Declaration, we would not oppose it. St. Lucia is concerned, Mr Chair, that there appears to be a blocking mechanism by several countries to issues which do not find favour in their capitals and tend to politicize these issues which have broader implications as they relate to food security and the principle of sustainable use of marine living resources.

I have been emphatic during the last four years about the moratorium that was placed on cetaceans and the lack of recognition by several members of the international community to the fact that these species have continued to recover and cause untold damage and depletion to other marine species which form part of their diet.

Mr Chairman, in small developing island States like mine where we have a responsibility to provide food for our people, we must be ever cognizant of the fact that we are surrounded by water and it is incumbent on government not to encourage a blockage in the use of marine living resources, favouring the resources over people. There must be the recognition that cetaceans have a high level of daily consumption and appropriate research must be encouraged to create and establish a balance between man and nature.

Mr Chairman, when I indicated that the declaration appears inadequate, I was referring specifically to steps that have already been taken in the IWC to convene a meeting in St. Lucia early in the new year on the competition which exists between cetaceans and fisheries. While this topic is one that several countries would wish to shy away from, the reality exists that the world fish catch, according to FAO, has levelled at around 100 million metric tons, while the consumption of cetaceans accounts for up to five times this figure.

Mr Chairman, I trust that as FAO seeks to undertake a comprehensive involvement in an ecosystems approach to marine resources management, it would be ever mindful of these realities and encourage the membership of this august body to cooperate in truly bringing about this new dimension of research to the sustainable utilization of all marine living resources.

BACK COVER

The Reykjavik Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem was held in Reykjavik, Iceland, from 1 to 4 October 2001. The Conference adopted the Reykjavik Declaration on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem, given in Appendix I to this report.


[1] The Symposium Papers are on the Reykjavik Conference website.
[2] Informal document – endorsement by the Conference was not sought for this document.

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