ANNEX II - GUIDELINES FOR WORKING GROUP SESSIONS AND TERMS OF REFERENCE
The workshop is expected to review information on socio-economic impacts, risks
of disease incursions and health management strategies in rural, small-scale
aquaculture and enhanced fisheries programmes. It should identify potential
interventions for better health management in rural aquaculture, and follow
up actions from the workshop, which can be carried out at local, national and
regional levels. The workshop is complementary to ongoing efforts of FAO/NACA
and others to assist countries within the region to develop effective policy
and capacity to control serious shrimp and fish disease outbreaks. However,
the focus of this workshop is to look specifically at the occurrence of aquatic
animal health problems, their impacts and management within small-scale rural
aquaculture and livelihood programmes involving aquaculture and enhanced fisheries.
It will emphasize low external input fisheries and aquaculture rather than more
intensive systems and will focus on populations rather than pathogens and on
livelihoods rather than production.
Expected Outputs from Working Group Sessions
1) An assessment of the impacts of aquatic animal diseases on rural aquaculture,
including where available poverty alleviation programmes involving aquaculture.
The assessment would identify where possible direct and indirect impacts, and
'nature of the impacts'.
2) An assessment of the risks to poverty alleviation programmes through disease
incursions and lack of primary aquatic animal health.
3) An assessment of the impact of current strategies for disease control targeted
at rural communities, including extension programmes, special diagnostic requirements
etc. Analysis on comparative costs and benefits of different strategies would
also be included where available.
4) Identification of possible model intervention strategies for primary aquatic
animal health care.
5) Identification of strategies for effective integration of aquatic animal
health management within national and regional rural aquaculture development
and enhanced fisheries livelihood programmes.
6) Identification of indicators of aquatic animal health and indicators for
monitoring the impacts of primary health care interventions in aquaculture and
enhanced fisheries development initiatives.
7) Identification of research and associated needs to clarify various matters
related to aquatic animal health management.
Organization of Working Groups
The workshop will split into three Working Groups, which will develop conclusions
and recommendations on the following issues. All groups should look at the appropriate
interventions and provide detailed recommendations as to how GO/NGO/private
sector institutions, donor agencies, etc., could assist in facilitating implementing
the identified interventions. The interventions should also be prioritized.
All working groups should broadly think of the regional situation - different
status/circumstances - different issues and solutions. The following issues
should also be considered:
- Aquaculture technology for small-scale rural aquaculture is largely
developed and tested.
- There is an on-going requirement for adjustment of basic technical
messages to suit specific farming systems/nontechnical requirements.
- Whilst farmers are very capable of recognizing what will and will not
work in their specific situations they are often not capable of identifying
effective management strategies. This is largely due to lack of experience/skills
- especially in cases where aquaculture has recently been introduced.
- Increasing production is not always a priority for smallscale rural
- Similarly, best management practice is not employed due to increased
requirement for management control and inputs to the system. The result of this
is that smallscale aquaculture systems will have many pre-disposing characteristics
for health management problems.
- The inevitability of losses in the small-scale system is acceptable
to farmers and is probably found elsewhere in their system. This is probably
why farmers do not ratedisease ahead of other factors (until a specific problem
causes mass mortality - and forces farmers to revise their opinion of the risk
level of the system).
- The dependence of small-scale aquaculture upon hatcheries for their
seed fish exposes them to diseases of intensity (focal nature of hatcheries
in some countries/more intensive stocking densities etc.). This emphasizes that
intensive/higher income aquaculture is linked to the rural aquaculture system.
- There is a greater focus towards management of artisanal inland fisheries
and aquatic resources rather than aquaculture in some countries. Aquaculture
has the ability to significantly impact wild fisheries that are a far more important
resource (food security) in some countries (e.g. Cambodia, Lao PDR others?).
- Importance of different levels of interventions for different countries
depends on capacity, capability, and infrastructure availability.
- Include interventions within inland stock enhancement programmes -
especially to minimise transfer of pathogens, movement of species, obtaining
good quality seed, stocking healthy fry, etc.
- National policy development - assistance, sector reviews,etc., technical
co-operation among farmers for self-help opportunities, risk management for
poor people - accessto credit, trans-boundary issues impacting rural aquaculture
health, vulnerability of different groups and farming systems related to health
- Aquaculture systems where disease/pathogens may impact on poor households
should also be considered.
Terms of Reference - Working Group 1
This group will focus on impacts and risks to farmers/ fishers, producers/consumers,
strategies for the management of risks, and appropriate skills development.
The group will specifically address the following:
- What are the impacts and risks of disease/healthproblems in small-scale
rural aquaculture and enhanced fisheries?
- How does this impact/risk influence farmer investment/management decisions?
- What are the differences between farmers/farming systems and livelihood
- What can realistically be done about them - how can risks be minimized?
- What intervention/management strategies are appropriate?
- What is the present knowledge and success of intervention strategies?
Can the group identify models of appropriate intervention strategies?
- How to develop management skills within poor farming households - what
- What resources are needed? How can access to information, knowledge,
and skills be improved?
- Can health management be a "lever" for improved farm practices,
leading to better livelihoods and environmental conditions?
- Surveillance systems, early warning, etc.
- How separate is health
management from pond/system management?
- The group should also identify opportunities for health management as "entry
point" for sustainablerural livelihoods.
The group will identify recommendations on follow up required - directed at
different levels/organizations as required at GO/NGO/private sector national,
regional and international levels, including capacity building, policy development,
research as appropriate.
Terms of Reference - Working Group 2
This group will look into the institutional environment, what does it deliver
and how should it deliver more to address needs. More specifically it will
- What is currently delivered by GO/NGO/private sector in the low external
input sector? However, many systems involving poor people areresource intensive
- should these be included?
- What are institutional priorities and are they appropriate (livelihoods
vs. revenue)? How can the supply of goods and services to minimize risks and
improve management be supported?
- Identify examples, where available, of appropriate institutional support.
- How to reach large numbers of farmers in 'extension'programmes?
- How can education be most effectively delivered?
The group will identify recommendations for follow up directed at different
levels/organizations as required at GO/NGO/private national, regional and international
levels, including capacity building, information exchange, policy development,
research as appropriate.
Terms of Reference - Working Group 3
This group will look into the research needs, programmes, monitoring aspects,
and indicators for monitoring management of health in rural, small-scale aquaculture
sector. They will consider the following:
- Modelling/assessment methodologies - what can be done to improve methods?
- How can we best measuredirect and indirect impacts?
- Health assessments - can we make some recommendations on better approaches?
- Is there a bigger role for participatory assessments?
- Indicators for aquatic animal health and for monitoring effectiveness
of interventions to improve health management in aquaculture and enhanced fisheries
- How to design simple analytical tools - analysing what is happening
in their ecology - is this a basis for dialogue on health issues?
- What further information needs to be generated to further reduce current
risks and minimize the impacts of future risks to farmers. Where should this
work take place and how can it integrate better with current livelihoods programmes.
- What research approaches/methodologies are most appropriate?Should
there be more emphasis on action research? Consider - issues, timeliness, improving
linkages - what can be done now?
- Where are the common interests of researchers and development professionals?
Can opportunities for co-operation be identified? What strategies of knowledge
building, research, linkages with development projects might be proposed at
the operational level.
The Group should also bear in mind the following statement - "
very narrowly at only pathogens/bugs which would further fuel supply-driven
research rather than concentrating on what would really benefit small-scale
fishers/farmers. It is this last point that is the real challenge".
The Group will identify recommendations on follow up required - directed
at different levels/organizations as required at GO/NGO/private national,
regional and international levels, including capacity building, information
exchange, policy development, research as appropriate.