ISBN 92 9 156229 3 (WHO) (LC/NLM classification: QW 138.5.S2)
ISBN 92 5 104872 X (FAO)
ISSN 1726-5274

Microbiological Risk Assessment Series
2

Risk Assessments of Salmonella in Eggs and Broiler Chickens - 2

World Health Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

2002

 
Table of Contents


Cover design:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
and the World Health Organization.

 

Cover picture:

© Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc.

WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

Risk assessments of Salmonella in eggs and broiler chickens.

(Microbiological risk assessment series; no. 2)
1.Salmonella - pathogenicity 2.Salmonella enteritidis - pathogenicity 3. Eggs - microbiology 4.Chickens - microbiology 5.Risk assessment - methods 6.Risk management - methods 7.Guidelines I.World Health Organization II.Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations III.Series

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© WHO/FAO 2002

For further information on the joint FAO/WHO activities on microbiological risk assessment, please contact:

Food Quality and Standards Service
Food and Nutrition Division
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy

Fax: +39 06 57054593
E.mail: [email protected]

Web site: http://www.fao.org/es/esn

or

Food Safety Department
World Health Organization
20, Avenue Appia
CH-1211 Geneva 27
Switzerland

Fax: +41 22 7914807
E.mail: [email protected]

Web site: http://www.who.int/fsf



Table of Contents


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

RISK ASSESSMENT DRAFTING GROUP

REVIEWERS

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE TEXT

FOREWORD

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Risk assessment
1.2 Background to the FAO/WHO microbiological risk assessment work
1.3 Scope of the risk assessment
1.4 References cited in Chapter 1

2. HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

2.1 Summary
2.2 Salmonella in foods and association with illness
2.3 Public health outcomes
2.4 Host-adapted Salmonella
2.5 Defining the scope of the risk assessments
2.6 References cited in Chapter 2

3. HAZARD CHARACTERIZATION OF SALMONELLA

3.1 Summary
3.2 Organism, host and matrix characteristics

3.2.1 Characteristics of the organism
3.2.2 Host characteristics
3.2.3 Factors related to the conditions of ingestion

3.3 Human feeding trials
3.4 Dose-response assessment

3.4.1 Dose-response models for Salmonella

3.5 Epidemiological information

3.5.1 Summary of epidemiological and outbreak information

Case Number: 1 - 16
Case Number: 17 - 33

3.5.2 Epidemiological data summary and analysis

3.6 Discussion and conclusions
3.7 References cited in Chapter 3

4. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS IN EGGS

4.1 Summary
4.2 Review of literature, data and existing models

4.2.1 Introduction
4.2.2 Production
4.2.3 Distribution and storage
4.2.4 Egg products processing
4.2.5 Preparation and consumption
4.2.6 Summary

4.3 Exposure assessment model, model parameters and assumptions

4.3.1 Introduction
4.3.2 Model overview
4.3.3 Production
4.3.4 Shell egg processing and distribution
4.3.5 Egg products processing
4.3.6 Preparation and consumption

4.4 References cited in Chapter 4

5. RISK CHARACTERIZATION OF SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS IN EGGS

5.1 Summary
5.2 Risk estimation for S. Enteritidis in eggs

5.2.1 Model overview
5.2.2 Results
5.2.3 Uncertainty
5.2.4 Discussion

5.3 Risk management options for S. Enteritidis in eggs

5.3.1 Estimation of the risk of illness from S. Enteritidis in eggs in the general population at different prevalence and concentration levels of contamination
5.3.2 Estimation of the change in risk likely to occur from reducing the prevalence of infected flocks and destroying breeding or laying flocks, and estimation of the change in risk likely to occur from reducing the prevalence of S. Enteritidis-positive eggs through testing of flocks and diversion of their eggs to pasteurization, and including the effect of pasteurization
5.3.3 Estimation of the change in risk likely to occur from the use of competitive exclusion or vaccinating flocks against S. Enteritidis
5.3.4 Estimation of the change in risk likely to occur from minimizing the number of S. Enteritidis organisms in eggs through refrigeration of eggs after lay and during distribution, or requiring a specific shelf life for eggs stored at ambient temperatures

5.4 Discussion
5.5 References cited in Chapter 5

6. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF SALMONELLA IN BROILER CHICKENS

6.1 Summary
6.2 Review of literature, data and existing models

6.2.1 Introduction
6.2.2 Production-to-consumption pathways
6.2.3 Primary production
6.2.4 Transport and processing
6.2.5 Retail, distribution and storage
6.2.6 Preparation
6.2.7 Consumption
6.2.8 Review of models available
6.2.9 Recommendations

6.3 Exposure assessment model, model parameters and assumptions

6.3.1 Introduction
6.3.2 Model overview
6.3.3 Processing
6.3.4 Distribution and storage
6.3.5 Preparation and consumption
6.3.6 Calculation of the number of salmonellae consumed

6.4 Model description and parameters
6.5 References cited in Chapter 6

7. RISK CHARACTERIZATION OF SALMONELLA IN BROILERS

7.1 Summary
7.2 Risk estimation

7.2.1 Results
7.2.2 Validation of model results
7.2.3 Impact of uncertain parameters on risk estimates

7.3 Risk management options using alternative assumptions

7.3.1 Reducing prevalence
7.3.2 Reduction in numbers of Salmonella on contaminated carcasses
7.3.3 Change in consumer behaviour and the impact on risk
7.3.4 Intervention methods for controlling Salmonella on poultry

7.4 References cited in Chapter 7

8. DATA GAPS AND FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS

8.1 Hazard characterization
8.2 Exposure assessment of S. Enteritidis in eggs
8.3 Exposure assessment of Salmonella in broiler chickens

9. THE APPLICATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

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