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CAC [Codex Alimentarius Commission]. 1999. Principles and guidelines for the conduct of Microbiological Risk Assessment. Document no. CAC/GL-30.

Carlin, B.P., & Louis, T.A. 1996. Bayes and empirical Bayes methods for data analysis. Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability, No. 69. London: Chapman and Hall.

Coleman, M., & Marks, H. 1998. Topics in dose-response modelling. Journal of Food Protection, 61(11): 1550-1559.

Cooke, R.M. 1991. Experts in uncertainty. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Dee, D.P. 1995. A pragmatic approach to model validation. Pp. 1-13, in: D.R. Lynch and A.M. Davies (eds). Quantitative skill assessment of coastal ocean models. Washington, DC: AGU.

De Kievit, T.R., & Iglewski, B.H. 2000. Bacterial quorum sensing in pathogenic relationships. Infection and Immunity, 68: 4839-4849.

Doucet, P., & Sloep, P.B. 1992. Mathematical modelling in the life sciences. Chichester, England: Ellis Horwood Limited. [In particular, see Chapter 13 - Working with models, and Chapter 14 - Constructing models.]

Efron, B., & Tibshirani, R.J. 1993. An introduction to the bootstrap. Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability, No. 57. London: Chapman and Hall.

FAO/WHO. 2002a. Risk assessments of Salmonella in eggs and broiler chickens. Microbiological Risk Assessment Series, Nos.1 and 2. WHO, Geneva, and FAO, Rome. Available on the Web at either or

FAO/WHO. 2002b. Principles and Guidelines for incorporating microbiological risk assessment in the development of food safety standards, guidelines and related texts. Report of a joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation, Kiel, Germany, 18-22 March 2002.

FDA/USDA/CDC [Food and Drugs Administration/United States Department of Agriculture/Center for Disease Control]. 2001. Draft assessment of the relative risk to public health from foodborne Listeria monocytogenes among selected categories of ready-to-eat foods. Available on the Web at

Fewtrell, L., & Bartram, J. (eds). 2001. Water quality: guidelines, standards and health. Assessment of risks and risk management for water-related infectious disease. London: IWA Publishing.

Gilks, W.R., Richardson, S., & Spiegelhalter, D.J. 1996. Markov chain Monte Carlo in practice. London: Chapman and Hall.

Granum, P.E., Tomas, J.M., & Alouf, J.E. 1995. A survey of bacterial toxins involved in food poisoning: a suggestion for bacterial food poisoning toxin nomenclature. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 28: 129-144.

Haas, C.N. 1983. Estimation of risk due to low doses of microorganisms: a comparison of alternative methodologies. American Journal of Epidemiology, 118: 573-582.

Haas, C.N., Rose, J.B., & Gerba, C.P. 1999. Quantitative microbial risk assessment. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.

Havelaar, A.H., Heisterkamp, S.H., Hoekstra, J.A., & Mooijman, K.A. 1993. Performance characteristics of methods for the bacteriological examination of water. Water Science Technology, 27: 1-13.

Havelaar, A.H., De Wit, M.A.S., Van Koningsveld, R., & Van Kempen, E. 2000. Health burden in the Netherlands due to infection with thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Epidemiology and Infection, 125: 505-522.

Hogg, R.V., & Craig, A.T. 1994. Introduction to mathematical statistics. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Holcomb, D.L., Smith, M.A., Ware, G.O., Hung, Y.C., Brackett, R.E., & Doyle, M.P. 1999. Comparison of six dose-response models for use with food-borne pathogens. Risk Analysis, 19: 1091-1100.

ILSI [International Life Sciences Institute]. 2000. Revised framework for microbial risk assessment. Washington, D.C: ILSI Risk Science Institute Press.

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Law, A.M. and Kelton W.D. 2000. Simulation Modeling and analysis. 3rd edition, McGraw Hill, New York.

McCullagh, P., & Nelder, J.A. 1989. Generalized linear models. 2nd ed. London: Chapman & Hall. [In particular, see Chapter 1 - Introduction.]

Medema, G.J., Teunis, P.F.M., Havelaar, A.H., & Haas, C.N. 1996. Assessment of the dose-response relationship of Campylobacter jejuni. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 30: 101-111.

Merrel, D.S., Butler, S.M., Qadri, F., Dolganov, N.A., Alam, A., Cohen, M.B., Calderwood, S.B., Schoolnik, G.K., & Camilla, A. 2002. Host-induced epidemic spread of the cholera bacterium. Nature, 417: 642-645.

Meynell, G.G., & Stocker, B.A.D. 1957. Some hypotheses on the aetiology of fatal infections in partially resistant hosts and their application to mice challenged with Salmonella paratyphi-B or Salmonella typhimurium by intraperitoneal injection. Journal of General Microbiology, 16: 38-58.

Notermans, S., Dufrenne, J., Teunis, P., & Chakraborty, T. 1998. Studies on the risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes. Journal of Food Protection, 61: 244-248.

Rubin, L.G. 1987. Bacterial colonization and infection resulting from multiplication of a single organism. Review of Infectious Disease, 9: 488-493.

Sperandio, V., Mellies, J.L., Ngyuen, W., Shin, S., & Kaper, J.B. 1999. Quorum sensing controls expression of the type III secretion gene transcription and protein secretion in enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 96: 15196-15201.

Teunis, P.F.M., & Havelaar, A.H. 2000. The Beta-Poisson model is not a single-hit model. Risk Analysis, 20: 513-520.

Teunis, P.F.M., Chappell, C.L., & Ockhuysen, P.C. 2002a. Cryptosporidium dose response studies: variation between isolates. Risk Analysis, 22: 175-183.

Teunis, P.F.M., Chappell, C.L., & Ockhuysen, P.C. 2002b. Cryptosporidium dose response studies: variation between hosts. Risk Analysis, 22: 475-485.

Teunis, P.F.M., Nagelkerke, N.J.D., & Haas, C.N. 1999. Dose response models for infectious gastroenteritis. Risk Analysis, 19: 1251-1260.

Vose, D. 2000. Risk analysis. A quantitative guide. 2nd ed. Chicester, UK: John Wiley and Sons.

WHO. 2000a. The World Health Report. Health systems: improving performance. Geneva: WHO.

WHO. 2000b. The interaction between assessors and managers of microbiological hazards in foods. Report of a WHO Expert Consultation. Kiel, Germany, 21-23 March 2000.

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