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APPENDIXES


Appendix I. A model plan for strengthening national and regional capabilities in disease surveillance

Introduction

Containment, control and eradication of major diseases of aquatic animals in any area of the world require a coordinated regional approach. Countries within a region, or areas within a country, that have lower socio-economic standards, are liable to fall behind their more developed neighbours in disease control.

The majority of the populations in most developing countries are involved in smallholder agriculture. This also represents one of the poorest sectors of developing country society. In addition to food and draft power, livestock and aquatic animals represent an important income system within the village economy. Losses due to disease related mortalities and decreased production, therefore, cause a proportionately greater impact on these rural sectors. Strengthening aquatic animal health support of developing countries is therefore an efficient, well targeted approach to improving the overall livelihood of the rural poor on a national, regional and global basis.

The key to a coordinated regional disease control programme is the free exchange of reliable, compatible disease information between countries, and the harmonization of reporting and disease control procedures. Encouraging this approach will help significantly in control and eradication of many preventable aquatic animal diseases.

The objective of integrated control is use of a vertically managed approach to improve collection, analysis and use of aquatic animal health information for disease control. This can be achieved by addressing weaknesses at each level of the information chain - from farmers and fishermen to regional associations and organizations. The long term goal is to enable aquatic animal health services to control and eradicate major diseases successfully and in an environmentally sustainable manner.

The current difficulties experienced by poorer countries in control of significant aquatic animal diseases is the lack of internally funded, and dedicated programmes aimed at aquatic animal diseases - certainly in comparison with other livestock production sectors. Such programmes will establish a skill-base that can develop experience with local growing systems and environmental conditions. Such experience is not readily extrapolated from outside expertise (especially on an on-going basis). These skills can then be used to tackle other diseases of importance that may emerge as aquatic production intensifies and diversifies within the region. Commencing a disease eradication project without investing in preparedness (contingency planning, surveillance and zonation) is likely to result in expensive failure, and repeated disease outbreaks.

All effective disease control measures need sound information on the distribution and nature of significant diseases. This information can only be generated through a well-planned disease surveillance program. The following is a generic plan for strengthening disease surveillance capabilities at a national and regional level. It is particularly aimed at developing countries, but is also applicable to regions within developed countries that are expanding and diversifying aquaculture production.

Objectives directed at developing an effective and comprehensive surveillance capability

The following are relatively generic objectives which need to be met if a country is to successfully develop a national aquatic animal disease surveillance program. By clearly defining these objectives, necessary activities and support requirements can be more effectively identified.

Objective 1: Improve the collection of aquatic animal health information
Objective 2: Ensure sustainable laboratory support
Objective 3: Implement an information management system
Objective 4: Establish national and regional analysis and reporting systems

Outputs and activities

In this section, the required outputs and activities are briefly summarized for each objective stated above.

Objective 1: Improve the collection of aquatic animal health information

General surveillance

Improve disease reporting and specimen submission by farm owners, lease-holders, village or municipality representatives, district and provincial government authorities. General surveillance gathers information on disease outbreaks and identifies samples that require diagnostic laboratory analysis. Under-reporting in general surveillance systems means that the data collected is unrepresentative of the aquatic resources in general and, therefore, are of little use for developing disease control strategies or minimizing the impact from disease outbreaks. In countries where laboratory facilities are limited, the key personnel in the chain of reporting are the district officers who are responsible for submitting primary disease reports.

Activity 1.1.1: Training of provincial and district government staff

Highly targeted training to district staff should be provided to equip them with the skills to carry out effective disease investigations, collect disease history information, capture and examine aquatic animals, collect appropriate specimens, and submit these in optimum condition for laboratory analysis. Training should be provided in two-stages, starting with provincial staff, who receive detailed technical training, as well as appropriate methods to pass on to district staff (“train the trainer”). Training of the district staff should be audited, as soon as practical, to ensure training objectives are met and passed on successfully.

Activity 1.1.2: Provision of specimen collection kits

District staff need to be issued with basic sample collection kits (including capture equipment, specimen collection equipment, transport containers, appropriate preservatives, culture media, disinfectants, etc.), along with data recording forms and laboratory submission sheets.

Activity 1.1.3: Provision of ongoing support for district staff

After being trained, district staff need to be supported by provincial staff in carrying out field disease outbreak investigations, as they arise, as well as in the development of emergency disease outbreak response plans (contingency plans).

Activity 1.1.4: Monitoring staff activity

The activity of provincial and district staff in disease outbreak investigations, disease reporting and submission of specimens can be monitored with the assistance of an information management system of some type, preferably computerized. Provinces and districts that fail to submit health reports, report disease outbreaks or losses, or submit specimens for diagnostic analysis can be identified, and the reasons for this lack of activity investigated. Further training and support may be required. Information management systems need to address the needs of the aquatic animal health authorities and as well as existing information systems. A good example is the information system used by the Philippines Bureau of Animal Industries (BAI) for control of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in bovine livestock.

Activity 1.1.5: Establishment of specimen transport and feedback systems

Systems for efficient transport of specimens to the diagnostic laboratory, information feedback to provinces, districts and villages, are required. This includes maintenance of capture equipment, and submission materials (packaging, labels, preservatives and/or ice, etc.) where required. To assist laboratories with feedback to the districts and villages, simple information sheets on common diseases are very useful. They serve a double purpose of informing the field observers, as well as providing reference material to distinguish abnormal from common disease outbreaks.

Activity 1.1.6: Continuing aquatic animal health education for provincial and district staff

Provincial staff should be invited to attend periodic “refresher courses” on commonly encountered diseases or control issues, run by national counterparts. This will ensure maintenance of up-to-date field diagnostic skills and knowledge on new or emerging diseases. Trainees should be provided with reference materials and required to present the same information to district staff at regular (e.g. annual) provincial meetings.

Activity 1.1.7: Public awareness campaigns for small-scale farmers

Encouraging the support of small-scale farmers in disease reporting can be achieved through the development of appropriate public awareness and education materials in the local language and at a level consistent with local education levels.

Activity 1.1.8: Establish links with village-level agricultural projects

Links should be established with agricultural development projects working at the village level (e.g. via NGOs) to include this message in their work and distribute educational material.

Targeted surveillance

Targeted surveillance to collect reliable, population-based information on key diseases, and to monitor the progress of control campaigns is an essential complement to general surveillance.

Activity 1.2.1: Training of provincial and district staff in survey techniques

Where there is existing knowledge on specific diseases of concern to a country, province or district, surveillance information may be available to assist in the design of appropriate surveillance strategies for the stocks the authorities and industry wish to protect.

Activity 1.2.2: Implementing field disease surveillance

Training should include field exercises to give staff practical opportunities to assess the environmental constraints on theoretical surveillance strategies. For example, 30 animals every 4 months may not be feasible in some monsoon months, or when production stocks have been marketed. Likewise surveillance of certain size-classes may only be feasible at certain times of the year, month, etc.

Activity 1.2.3: Development of a targeted surveillance program

In collaboration with national staff, a coordinated programme of targeted surveillance should be established for priority diseases. This would initially aim at gathering baseline data on disease presence/absence and, where relevant, prevalence. Trained staff should be involved in these survey activities as part of their normal general aquatic animal disease surveillance responsibilities.

Activity 1.2.4: Use of targeted surveillance to support disease control programmes

Surveillance activities for priority areas should be maintained to ensure effective decision-making in response to disease outbreaks as well as development of informed and feasible control options.

Ancillary data

Training a range of personnel in reporting and data collection techniques relevant to their responsibilities is vital to ensuring that ancillary data which supports disease control is properly recorded, analysed and reported.

Activity 1.3.1: Train personnel in the collection of ancillary data

Personnel from industry cooperatives or associations, district offices, provincial offices and laboratories, as well as national agencies should receive basic training in the use of reporting forms and data/information collection necessary for disease surveillance and zonation. These include (but are not limited to):

Socio-economic data

Activity 1.4.1: Train national-level staff in the collection of socio-economic data

National-level staff should receive training in the collection of relevant socio-economic information. This should be combined with targeted surveillance activities, and be aimed at providing statistical support for priority setting in disease control programme implementation activities.

Objective 2: Ensure sustainable laboratory support

A vital component of any surveillance programme is competent and reliable diagnostic laboratory support that is fully integrated into the overall disease surveillance and control programmes. This approach has been used successfully in the Philippines for control of foot and mouth disease in livestock.

Effective laboratory support for field activities

Laboratory and field services should be coordinated to ensure optimum use of the expertise of both disciplines.

Activity 2.1.1: Provision of specimens to provincial and national laboratories

Regular submissions of specimens (diseased or healthy) from the field to diagnostic laboratories are required to ensure diagnosticians maintain their ability to detect abnormalities. Sporadic samples can result in loss of such skills and production of unreliable results. Thus, field surveillance should routinely include specimen collections for submission to government and/or private diagnostic support laboratories. Such collections should be planned to provide useful information, such as stock production cycles, seasonal variations, or other relevant environmental factors. Such surveillance efforts must be designed in collaboration with diagnostic laboratory personnel and managers.

Activity 2.1.2: Provision of diagnostic reagents to laboratories

In addition to maintaining staff skills, the sustainability of diagnostic laboratories depends on a reliable supply of diagnostic reagents. Essential reagents and other laboratory materials must be available to support diagnostic testing. Samples may perish and valuable information lost if they have to be stored pending delivery of requisite materials.

Activity 2.1.3: Development of systems for local production of key diagnostic reagents

In some instances, (especially in tropical climates with limited refrigeration/cool storage capacity) it may be necessary to produce some short-lived reagents locally, or from basic compounds within the laboratory. Reagents suitable for local production should be identified, staff trained and systems set up for their sustainable production.

Activity 2.1.4: Train laboratory staff in new diagnostic techniques as appropriate

Techniques such as PCR have been developed to assist the diagnosis of several significant aquatic animal diseases. These require expensive equipment and short-lived, costly, reagents. In addition, these molecular techniques require highly trained expertise. For some priority diseases, additional more simple and rapid tests exist. Where appropriate staff should be trained who can be dedicated to these techniques. The rapid evolution of these techniques, and the materials that support their use in diagnostics, does not make them appropriate for part-time responsibility.

Objective 3: Implement an information management system

A useful information system should be simple to use, inexpensive, and adaptable to a wide range of changing aquatic animal health information. Ideally such a system should include specialized epidemiological analytical capability, but these can also function as an independent data processing system, as appropriate. With modern technology and networking capability, systems can now be developed which meet the needs of all levels of aquatic animal health personnel, and which can operate within the various organizational structures of different countries. A wide range of report formats can be incorporated including automated disease mapping where base maps are available.

Efficient management of aquatic animal health information

Observation and recording of disease events is most reliable where a human and data management system is in place that can archive, analyse, interpret and communicate the data, as appropriate.

Activity 3.1.1: User analysis needs and database designs

Experience suggests that databases may need to be work within a specific administrative or organizational structure within a particular country. However, modularized systems are more flexible and can be tailored to meet the needs of specific countries.

Activity 3.1.2: Development and translation of user manuals

Comprehensive user manuals should be developed and translated for each data/information management system. A core manual prepared in English could provide the basis for all data management manuals, being modified solely where individual countries have specific requirements, and then translated. Bilingual versions should be available in each country.

Activity 3.1.3: Training of staff in the use of systems

Inputs into information systems come from many different areas within the government services of a country. Roles and responsibilities should be clearly defined, and appropriate training provided on a regular basis or whenever the system is updated. A small specialized core of national epidemiological data management staff should be trained in the detailed operation and programming of the system.

Activity 3.1.4: Phased implementation

Where required, systems should be phased-in, running in parallel with any existing systems until training and data transfer (where appropriate) onto the new system is completed. It may be necessary to archive back-dated data that cannot be readily transcribed to the new system (time-wise or programme-wise). Where possible, data management systems should be implemented at least the provincial and national levels.

Objective 4: Establish national and regional analysis and reporting systems

Because of the ease of movement of aquatic animals and diseases from one country, province or zone to another containing susceptible resource, disease control requires a regional approach. National staff needs to develop the skills to analyse data, and summaries results that can be used to establish cooperative regional approaches to disease control.

Improved ability of national staff to analyse and interpret animal health information

National staff require substantial investment in ongoing training in order to ensure they keep up to date on the rapid evolution of aquatic animal disease knowledge that is relevant to protection of national aquatic resources (wild and farmed).

Activity 4.1.1: Training of national staff in data analysis

Epidemiological expertise should work in collaboration with diagnostic personnel to ensure accurate interpretation of national disease information. This can include field and contingency planning exercises, as well as quality control exercises such as blind “ring tests” to ensure consistency of results between laboratories and between epidemiology-based surveillance programs. On-the-job training should be encouraged through exchanges with neighbouring provincial or national laboratories or disease control offices. Subregional workshops for national aquatic animal disease control personnel should be conducted to provide more consistent epidemiological training, data analysis and interpretation, and development of effective disease control options.

Activity 4.1.2: Language training

National level staff from countries where the primary language of communication is not an international language should receive ongoing language support where it is required. This should be reinforced by their contact with foreign project staff. This will increase their ability to participate fully in regional meetings, prepare publications and reports, access international literature and many aquatic animal health specialists and use many software programmes.

Improved regional communication and coordination of disease control activities

Regional activities should be conducted in close collaboration with international expertise.

Activity 4.2.1: Establishment of a regional disease outbreak database

A regional geo-referenced database should be established to facilitate collation and analysis of aquatic animal health information. Contributing countries could access to up-to-date information on the disease status of neighbours, in order to help prevent accidental cross-border spread of diseases with live aquatic animals and product trade.

Activity 4.2.2: Regional data analysis

Regional coordination with national staff and regional organizations would be required to analyse regional data collected through general surveillance, targeted surveillance, socio-economic studies, and aquatic animal movement records, and maintain an effective disease reporting system.

Activity 4.2.3: Country coordinators’ meetings

Where regional programmes are instituted, country coordinators and their regional counterparts need to maintain close and open communication. In addition to correspondence, there should be regular meetings rotating through each of the regional countries. These meetings will serve to exchange the experiences with aquatic animal disease surveillance and zonation in different countries, as well as facilitate open discussion of resource and any data reporting issues.

Activity 4.2.4: Economic group member coordination meetings

Links should be established with formal trading group committees to institutionalize regional information sharing and disease control activities. In addition to working with formal committees, a series of technical meetings could be called to:

Activity 4.2.5: Short-term attachments

Staff from regional participating countries could be involved in short-term attachments or exchanges to the relevant services in different countries in the region. Epidemiologists from developed countries would have an opportunity share their experiences in light of environmental and aquatic animal production infrastructure differences that constitute the aquatic resource responsibilities of less developed neighbours. Conversely, exchanges between personnel from less developed countries would permit them to examine developed country disease surveillance systems and assess their applicability to their home country.

Activity 4.2.6: Newsletter

If formulated as a series of regional projects, it may be useful to distribute a newsletter to all countries in the region, focusing on practical and technical aspects of disease surveillance and zonation as a means of disease management and control, as well as providing an informal format for information communication.

Personnel

The implementation of a program, such as that described above, requires development of regional business plans and the involvement of a core number of personnel. In addition to an overall programme manager, regional coordinators would be required, as well as full-time national aquatic animal disease management advisers. Regional coordinators should be people with experience in aquatic animal disease control within the region, as well as with inter-jurisdictional project management experience. Each regional coordinator would be based in a convenient capital city within the region and would be responsible for overall project management, country coordinator support, and regional activities.

A country coordinator should be present in each participating country, and be responsible for day to day running of project activities. Each country coordinator should have interest in aquatic epidemiology, good interpersonal and management skills, and cultural sensitivity. In particular, they should have well developed training and communication skills (they may be required to address public or media concerns in the face of emergency disease outbreaks). One key core (national/government) staff member should be identified within each participating country in a region to support the work of the country coordinator. The country coordinators’ positions could be phased out after the first two years, with key core staff-member taking over full responsibilities. Short term expert consultants may be required for a variety of tasks, including computer programming, development of public information materials, economic analyses, laboratory diagnostic techniques, etc.

Potential collaboration

Implementation of a programme such as that described in 4.5.3 would require the cooperation of a number of agencies. Potential donor agencies would need to be identified during the planning phase and the programme developed with their collaboration

Main financial needs

The main items which would require financing include; core project personnel, ongoing technical support for national government services, training of provincial and district staff, support for field surveillance activities, and support for regional cooperation networks. Training and personnel costs are, therefore, likely to make up the most significant part of the budget. Some specific items which will need to be considered in developing business plans include:

Activities and outputs by administrative level

Region

Participation in regional meetings
Establishment of standard definitions and rules for disease reporting
Forging links with appropriate regional bodies and committees
Institutionalizing regional cooperation
Regional analysis of disease, and animal movement patterns
Establishment of regional disease outbreak databases

Subregion

Harmonized disease surveillance and reporting systems
Sharing of disease information for improved ability to prevent cross-border movement of animals

Nation

Improved general surveillance systems
Establishment of effective active surveillance systems Improved understanding of priority diseases
Short-term attachments and exchanges between countries
Support and development of laboratory capabilities

Province

Training in general and targeted surveillance
Improved skills in disease outbreak investigation and response

District

Training in general and targeted surveillance
Improved reporting of aquatic animal demographics Improved reporting of aquatic animal movements

Village/municipality

Increased awareness of the need to report and control diseases

Example of a project activity schedule

The GANTT[14] chart below outlines how a project to deliver the required outputs might be delivered.

Year

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Quarter

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

Objective 1: Improve the collection of animal health information













Output 1.1: General surveillance













Activity 1.1.1: Training of provincial and district staff













Activity 1.1.2: Provision of specimen collection kits













Activity 1.1.3: Provision of ongoing support for district staff













Activity 1.1.4: Monitoring staff activity













Activity 1.1.5: Establishment of specimen transport and feedback systems













Activity 1.1.6: Continued training for provincial and district staff













Activity 1.1.7: Public awareness campaigns for farmers













Activity 1.1.8: Establish links with village level agricultural projects













Output 1.2: Targeted Surveillance













Activity 1.2.1: Training of provincial and district staff in survey techniques













Activity 1.2.2: Implementing field disease surveillance













Activity 1.2.3: Development of a targeted surveillance programmes













Activity 1.2.4: Use targeted surveillance to support disease control programmes













Quarter

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

Output 1.3: Ancillary Data













Activity 1.3.1: Train staff in the collection of ancillary data













Output 1.4: Socio-economic Data













Quarter

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

Activity 1.4.1: Train national staff in the collection of socio-economic data













Objective 2: Ensure sustainable laboratory support













Output 2.1: Effective laboratory support for field activities













Activity 2.1.1: Provision of specimens to national laboratories













Activity 2.1.2: Provision of diagnostic reagents to laboratories













Activity 2.1.3: Sustainable local production of key diagnostic reagents













Activity 2.1.4: Train laboratory staff in new diagnostic techniques as appropriate













Objective 3: Implement information management system













Output 3.1: Efficient management of aquatic animal health information













Activity 3.1.1: User needs analysis and database design













Activity 3.1.2: Development and translation of users' manuals













Activity 3.1.3: Training of staff in the use of the system













Activity 3.1.4: Phased implementation













Objective 4: Establish national and regional analysis and reporting system













Output 4.1: National staff able to analyse and interpret animal health information













Activity 4.1.1: Training of national staff and data analysis













Activity 4.1.2: English language training













Quarter

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

Output 4.2: Improved regional communication and coordination













Activity 4.2.1: Establishment of regional disease outbreak database













Activity 4.2.2: Regional data analysis













Activity 4.2.3: Country managers meetings











Activity 4.2.4: Regional member coordination meetings













Activity 4.2.5: Short term attachments













Activity 4.2.6: Newsletter













Appendix II. List of participants of the Expert Consultation

Dr Kevin H. AMOS (Consultation Chair), National Fish Health Co-ordinator, NOAA/NMFS, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 8924 Libby RD NE, Olympia, WA 98506, United States of America. E-mail: Kevin.Amos@noaa.gov

Dr Chris BALDOCK, Director, AusVet Animal Health Services, 19 Brereton Street, PO Box 3180, South Brisbane Queensland 4101, Australia. Email: chris@ausvet.com.au

Dr Peter BEERS, Manager, Aquatic Animal Biosecurity, Animal Biosecurity, Biosecurity, Australia. E-mail: peter.beers@affa.gov.au

Dr Franck C. J. BERTHE, Molluscan Health Advisor to the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission (AAHC) and European Union, Member of the AAHC, IFREMER, Laboratoire de Génétique et Pathologie, BP 133, 17390 La Tremblade, France. E-mail: fberthe@ifremer.fr

Dr Susan M. BOWER, Senior Research Scientist, Shellfish Pathology, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada, Pacific Biological Station, 3190 Hammond Bay Road, Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada, V9R 5K6. E-mail: bowers@dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Dr David BRUNO, Principle Scientist, FRS Marine Laboratory, PO Box 101, Victoria Rd, Aberdeen, Scotland. AB11 9DB, United Kingdom. E-mail: d.bruno@marlab.ac.uk

Dr María Cristina CHÁVEZ SÁNCHEZ, Senior Scientist, Mazatlán Unit on Aquaculture and Environmental Management of CIAD, A.C. Section: Aquaculture, Histopathology Lab., Av. Sábalo Cerritos s/n, Apdo Postal 711. Mazatlán, CP. 821010, Sinaloa, México. E-mail: marcris@victoria.ciad.mx

Dr Supranee CHINABUT, Director, Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute (AAHRI), Chairperson, Fish Health Section of the Asian Fisheries Society, Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute, Department of Fisheries, Kasetsart University Campus, Jatujak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. E-mail: supranee@fisheries.go.th

Mr Daniel F. FEGAN, Shrimp Specialist, BIOTEC, Thailand, Apt. 1D, Prestige Tower B, 168/25 Sukhumvit 23, Klongtoey, Bangkok 10110, Thailand. E-mail: dfegan@usa.net

Professor Giorgio GIORGETTI, Chief (retired), Department of Fish Pathology, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, EEC National Reference Center for Fish Diseases, National Reference Center for Fish, Shells and Crustacean Diseases. G. G. via Venezuela 17 Udine, 33100, Italy. E-mail: giorgiorfishpath@libero

Professor Tore HÅSTEIN, OIE Fish Disease Commission Chair and Senior Advisor, National Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway. E-mail: tore.hastein@vetinst.no

Professor Barry HILL, (Consultation Technical Secretariat) Vice President of the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission (AAHC) and Chief Advisor for Fish and Shellfish Health, Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), The Nothe, Weymouth DT4 8UB, United Kingdom. E-mail: b.j.hill@cefas.co.uk

Dr P. Mike HINE, Senior Scientist, National Centre for Disease Investigation, MAF Operations, P.O. Box 40-742, Upper Hutt, New Zealand. E-mail: hinem@maf.govt.nz

Dr Donald V. LIGHTNER, Crustacean Health Advisor to the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission, and Professor, Department of Veterinary Science and Microbiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, United States of America. E-mail: dvl@u.arizona.edu

Dr Sharon A. MacLEAN, Supervisory Research Fishery Biologist, Leader, Ecosystems Monitoring Group, NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 28 Tarzwell Drive, Narragansett, RI 02882-1199, United States of America. Email: sharon.maclean@noaa.gov

Dr Sharon E. McGLADDERY, (Consultation Technical Secretariat) Senior Research Scientist, National Aquatic Animal Health, Oceans and Aquaculture Science, 200 Kent Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E6, Canada. E-mail: mcgladderys@dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Dr Alasdair H. McVICAR, Senior Science Advisor, National Aquatic Animal Health, Oceans and Aquaculture Science, 200 Kent Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E6, Canada. E-mail: mcvicara@dfo-mpo.gc.ca(did not participate in the Expert Consultation but provided technical assistance in compiling the final document).

Dr Gilles OLIVIER, Division Chief, Aquaculture Division, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Gulf Fisheries Centre, PO Box 5030, Moncton, New Brunswick, E1C 9B6, Canada. E-mail: olivierg@dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Dr Michael J. PHILLIPS, Environmental Specialist, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA), Suraswadi Bldg., DOF Complex, Kasetsart University Campus, Ladyao, Jatujak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. E-mail: michael.phillips@e-naca.org

Dr Melba B. REANTASO, Aquatic Animal Research Pathologist, Cooperative Oxford Laboratory, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 904 S. Morris Street, Oxford, MD 21654, United States of America. E-mail: mreantaso@dnr.state.md.us(did not participate in the Expert Consultation but prepared one of the working documents and provided technical assistance in compiling the final document).

Dr Rohana P. SUBASINGHE, (Consultation Technical Secretariat) Senior Officer, Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service, Fisheries Department, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. E-mail: Rohana.Subasinghe@fao.org

Dr Alejandro B. THIERMAN, International Organizations Co-ordinator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, United States of America. E-mail: Alejandro.B.Thiermann@usda.gov(did not participate in the Expert Consultation but provided technical advice)

Dr Peter John WALKER, Associate Professor, Senior Principal Research Scientist, CSIRO Livestock Industries, 120 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly Q 4068, Australia. E-mail: Peter.Walker@csiro.au

Appendix III. Consultation work programme

Date

Time

Activity

Monday, 14 October 2002

09.00 - 09.30

· Welcome remarks · Election of Chair


09.30 - 10.00

· Introduction to Consultation

· Rationale and Goals


10.00 - 10.30

· Coffee


10.30 - 11.00

· Presentation of Working Document I - Freshwater Finfish - Barry Hill


11.00 - 11.30

· Plenary discussion


11.30 - 12.00

· Presentation of Working Document II - Marine and Diadromous Finfish - Kevin Amos


12.00 - 12.30

· Plenary discussion


12.30 - 14.00

· Lunch


14.00 - 14.30

· Presentation of Working Document III - Molluscs - Sharon McGladdery


14.30 - 15.00

· Plenary discussion


15.00 - 15.30

· Coffee


15.30 - 16.00

· Presentation of Working Document IV - Crustaceans - Peter Walker


16.00 - 16.30

· Plenary discussion


16.30 - 17.00

· Presentation of Working Document V - Wild stock surveillance - Sharon MacLean


17.00 - 17.30

· Plenary discussion


17.30 - 16.00

· Presentation of Working Document VI - Establishment of Surveillance and Zoning: Developing Countries - Michael Phillips (in lieu of Melba Reantaso)

Tuesday, 15 October 2002

09.00 - 10.00

· Breakout Working Groups

· Working Group I - Freshwater finfish

· Working Group II - Marine and diadromous finfish · Working Groups III - Molluscs

· Working Group IV - Crustaceans

· Working Group V - Wild stock surveillance


10.30 - 11.00

· Coffee


11.00 - 12.30

· Working Group discussions continue


12.30 - 14.00

· Lunch


14.00 - 15.30

· Working Group discussions continue


15.30 - 16.00

· Coffee


16.00 - 17.30

· Working Group discussions continue

Wednesday, 16 October 2002

09.00 - 10.30

· Working Group discussions continue


10.30 - 11.00

· Coffee


11.00 - 12.30

· Working Group discussions continue


12.30 - 14.00

· Lunch


14.00 - 15.30

· Plenary presentation of Working Group findings - Groups I and II followed by discussion


15.30 - 16.00

· Coffee


16.00 - 17.30

· Plenary presentation of Working Group findings - Groups III and IV followed by discussion

Thursday, 17 October 2002

09.00 - 10.30

· Plenary presentation of Working Group findings - Groups V followed by discussion


10.30 - 11.00

· Coffee


11.00 - 12.30

· Continue plenary discussion of Working Group presentations - issues applicable to I-V


12.30 - 14.00

· Lunch


14.00 - 15.30

· Plenary discussion on developing country needs


15.30 - 16.00

· Coffee


16.00 - 17.30

· Breakout to revise and finalize discussion papers and recommendations by the Working Groups

Friday, 18 October 2002

09.00 - 10.30

· Plenary presentation of working group recommendations - Working Groups I and II - followed by discussion


10.30 - 11.00

· Coffee


11.00 - 12.30

· Plenary presentation of working group recommendations - Working Groups III and IV - followed by discussion


12.30 - 14.00

· Lunch


14.00 - 15.30

· Plenary presentation of Working Group V recommendations, followed by discussion

· Plenary presentation of recommendations on developing country needs - followed by discussion


15.30 - 16.00

· Coffee


16.00 - 17.00

· Final plenary discussions


17.00 - 17.30

· Closing remarks


[14] The Gantt chart is a two axis graphical chart with the vertical axis used for a list of related tasks or project stages and the horizontal axis representing the passage of time on a linear scale. The duration of each task or project stage on the chart is represented by a horizontal bar. The Gantt chart is one of the foundations of modern Project Management. The chart is named after the early scientific management pioneer Henry Lawrence Gantt (1861-1919) who first developed it.

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