La liste ci-dessous donne une définition des termes les plus fréquemment utilisés dans les domaines de la collecte et de la transformation du lait.
Acidity test: milk quality test that measures lactic acid
Adulteration: addition of other substances to milk which reduces the quality of the milk (e.g. water)
Alcohol test: milk quality test
Artificial insemination: animal breeding method
Association: association consisting of and governed by representatives of milk producer groups
Babcock test: traditional method of measuring the butterfat content of milk, which may be used for calibrating modern electronic testing devices.
Bacteria: single-celled organisms living either independently or in close association with other living organisms; often referred to as microbes or micro organisms because of their microscopic size. Some bacteria are beneficial, but others cause infectious diseases.
Breeding services: upgrading of animals through introduction of improved genes.
Cheese: milk product
Churning: agitation of whole milk or cream to make butter adding starters and rennet
Clot on boiling test: milk quality test through heating
Clotting: change from liquid milk to (semi-) solid by
Collection centre: a place to collect milk in bulk
Cream: milk product
Curd separation: after coagulation the milk is separated into whey and cheese curd
Dairy cow: a bovine from which milk production is intended for use or sale for human consumption, or is kept for raising replacement dairy heifers
Dairy goat breed: group of dairy goats having a common origin and identifiable traits (frequently colour)
Dairy goat: any goat from which milk production is intended for human consumption, or is kept for raising replacement dairy kids
Developing countries: see Development Assistance Committee (DAC) list - www.oecd.org/dac/htm/daclst2000.htm
FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Feasibility study: assessing whether a product is likely to make money
Fermented milk: milk left at room temperature (less than 21c) in which the lactose is fermented into lactic acid. Fermented milk can be used to feed young calves and may include extra colostrum, transitional milk, or mastitic milk that are not saleable but have nutritional value.
Flavoured milk: A subclass of fluid (packaged milks) to which flavouring has been added, such as chocolate, strawberry and vanilla.
Fluid milk products: milk, flavoured milk, concentrated milk, filled milk, skim milk, fortified skim milk, low fat milk, buttermilk, milk drinks, and cream products.
Gerber test: test to determine amount of fat in milk
Ghee: concentrated milk fat prepared by melting butter, decanting the fat after gravity separation from the serum, and driving off most of the remaining moisture by heating. About 1 percent moisture remains. It is used mostly in Asia and Africa.
Heat treatment:destroying any potential pathogenic germs by heating milk at a minimum of 63C for 30 min
Lactoperoxidase:enzyme that keeps the milk for a longer period
Marketing:selling milk products
Milk collection: collection of milk from more than one farmer to a collection point or centre.
Milk cooling: cooling milk to increase keeping time
Milk hygiene: making sure a milk product is clean and safe for consumption
Milk payments: payments from group to an individual member
Milk preservation: increasing keeping time of milk
Milk processing: processing of raw milk into milk products
Milk producer association: see association
Milk producer groups: group consisting of milk producers with, as a main activity, collecting milk from members in order to sell directly, process, cool or transport the milk.
Milk producer union: national organization of milk producer groups
Milk sampling: taking small amounts of milk for analysis later
Milk testing: checking the hygiene and composition of milk
Milk: milk from animals that is collected and processed (from cows, goats, sheep, yaks, buffaloes, camels)
Organoleptic tests:tests based on taste, smell, or visual observations.
Participation: acknowledging ideas of all group members
Pasteurization: destroying any potential pathogenic germs by heating milk at a minimum of 63C for 30 min
Processing of milk: making milk products like cheese, yoghurt, etc.
Rennet:substance causing milk to coagulate, used for the preparation of cheese
Skim milk: Milk from which sufficient cream has been removed to reduce its milk fat content to not more than 0.2 percent. Skim milk contains protein, lactose, minerals and water-soluble vitamins and only half as many calories as whole milk. In the final beverage form, it has been pasteurised or ultra-pasteurised and contains added vitamins A and D. It can be used in a liquid form to feed young calves.
SNF: Solids Non Fat
Standardisation: making milk with constant butterfat through partial skimming
TS: total Solids
Whey: watery part remaining after milk has curdled
Whole milk: unaltered milk collected from day 4 after calving until the end of a lactation (see also colostrum and transitional milk).
Yoghurt: fermented milk product