Contents

Page
Introduction
v
List of participants
xiii
Trees as browse and to support animal production by M. Baumer, ICRAF, Kenya
1
Fodder trees and fodder shrubs in range and farming systems of the Asian and Pacific region by C.P. Chen, MARDI, Malaysia; R.A. Halim, Universiti Pertanian, Malaysia F.Y. Chin, Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia
11
Fodder trees and fodder shrubs in range and farming systems of tropical dry Africa by M.S. Dicko, Royal Tropical Institute, The Netherlands
27
Fodder trees and fodder shrubs in range and farming systems of tropical humid Africa by O.B. Smith, IDRC, Senegal
43
Fodder trees and fodder shrubs in range and farming systems of North Africa by A. El Aich, Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, Maroc
61
Practical technologies to optimise feed utilization by ruminants by R.A. LENG, University of New England, Armidale, Australia
75
Nutritional potential of fodder trees and shrubs as protein sources in ruminant nutrition by C. Devendra, IDRC, Singapore
95
Nutritional potentialities of fodder trees and fodder shrubs as protein sources in monogastric nutrition by J.P.F.D'Mello, Scotland Agricultural College, Edinburgh University, United Kingdom
115
Feeding behaviour and quantitative and qualitative intake of browse by domestic ruminants by M.S. DICKO, Royal Tropical Institute, The Netherlands
129
Antinutritional factors. The potential risks of toxicity. Methods to alleviate by Ravindra Kumar, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar, Rajasthan, India
145
Lessons from main feeding experiments conducted at CATIE using fodder trees as part of Nration by M. Kass, CATIE, Costa Rica
161
The potential for tree forage supplements to manipulate rumen protozoa to enhance protein to energy ratios in ruminants fed on poor quality forages by R.A. Leng, University of New England, Armidale, Australia
177
The role of multipurpose trees in integrated farming systems for the wet tropics by T.R. Preston, CIPAV, Colombia
193
The role of fodder trees in Philippine smallholder Farmers by F.A.Moog, Bureau of Animal Industry, Philippines
211
Feeding systems based on traditional use of trees for feeding livestock by D.V. Rangnekar, Bharatiya AgroIndustries Foundation, India
221
Heteropsylla cubana. Impact on feeding systems in SouthWest Asia and the Pacific by F.A. Moog, Bureau of Animal Industry, Philippines
233
Alley farming and protein banks for tropical Africa by O.B. Smith, IDRC, Senegal
245
The genus Prosopis and its potential to improve livestock production in arid and semiarid regions by F. Riveros, FAO Rome
257
The use of fodder trees and shrubs as protein supplements to ruminants and as a means of soil stabilization. The Nepalese case by N.P. Joshi, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
277
Short communication: Fodder trees as renewable energy source through biomass gasification by D.V. Rangnekar, Bharatiya AgroIndustries Foundation, India
295
Fodder trees and fodder shrubs. Socio economic aspects and Government policies by P. Amir, Asianics AgroDev. International, Pakistan
309
Acacia nilotica. Une espéce fourragère traditionnelle chez les Afar de Djibouti, une espéce de base dans les projets de restauration du milieu pastoral by J. Audru, IEMVT, France (paper available in French, kindly presented by M. Baumer)
317
Conclusions and recommendations
327