Contents
 

Foreword \ Acknowledgements           LIST of TABLES             LIST of  FIGURES
 

 
1
Trees -- components of farming systems
1
     
1.1
Introduction
1
1.2
Feed resources avaible for ruminant production in developing countries
3
1.3
Overview: the potential uses of tree foliages
3
1.4
Trees foliage as ruminat feeds -- perspectives and properties
4
1.5
Trees in agricultural ecosystem
5
1.6
Tree foliage as basal feed or as supplements to other foliages
6
     
2
Background nutrition digestive physiology and metabolism of ruminants
8
     
2.1
Introduction
8
2.2
Forage / feed resource in developing countries
10
2.3
Animal productivity from forage resource in the tropics
11
  2.3.1 Effects of hight heat load on animal production
11
2.4
Improving ruminant production on low digestibility forages
14
2.5
Rumen digestive physiology
14
2.6
Microbial growth in the rumen
15
  2.6.1 Requirements for animo acids by rumen microbes 
15
  2.6.2 Inefficiences microbial growth 
16
  2.6.3 Inefficency, microbial growth and heat generation in the rumen
16
2.7
The effects of specific nutrient deficiences on rumen microbes
19
  2.7.1 Recent studies on the effects of ammonia levels on digestibility of forage and microbial efficiency in the rumen
20
2.8
Overview of microbial growth efficiency
22
  2.8.1 Strategies to alter P/E ratio in the nutrients absorbed by ruminants
22
  2.8.2 Manipulating P/E ratios using bypass protein supplements
24
2.9
Feeding standars -are they applicable to forage diets?
24
2.10
Role of fodder trees in the nutrition of ruminants
26
     
3
Balancìng nutrition te maximize forage utilization
28
   
3.1
Concepts of balanced nutrition
28
3.2
Meeting nutritional requierements of ruminants with appropiate supplements
29
3.3
Supplying the rumen microbies with ammonia 
30
3.4
Some examples of the value of ruminants in cattle given forage based diets
30
  3.4.1 Effects of supplementation with urea/molasses/multinutrient blocks (MUMB) on cattle production
31
  3.4.2 Effects of multinutrient mixes on growth rates and milk yield of cattle
32
  3.4.3 Effects of MUMB on reproduction af cattle, sheep and goats
34
  3.4.4 Conclusion on reproductive efficency
36
3.5
Conclusion on the use of supplements of that provide critically deficent nutrient
36
3.6
Crude protein requirement of ruminants
37
3.7
Application of the new feeding strategies based on balancing nutrients
38
  3.7.1 Major application of balanced nutrition in developing animal production system
39
3.8
Avaibility of by pass protein meals
40
3.9
Identification of by pass protein source
41
     
     
4
Potential roles of trees fodders in ruminant nutrition
44
   
4.1 
Introduction
44
4.2
Anti - nutritional and nutritionally beneficial aspects of tannins in forage
45
4.3
Effecta of tannins on rumen function
47
4.4
Tannin in plant foliage
48
4.5
Tannin mobilization
48
4.6
The implications of tannin build - up in foliage
49
4.7
Tannins in the rumen
50
4.8
Other secondary plant compounds in fodder trees
52
4.9
Comparisons of trees foliage and multinutrient blocks as supplements to ruminants fed poor quality feeds
53
4.10
Trees foliage as supplements to pasture or other low quality forages
54
4.11
Improvement in productivity of cattle from supplementation with tree foliage
60
4.12
Responses of cattle to supplementation of forage based diets with tree foliage
60
4.13
Evidence for tree foliages as sources of rumen ammonia and minerals
63
4.14
Foliage of fodder trees and mineral supplements
64
4.15
Tree foliage as potential sources of by pass proteins
65
4.16
Nutritional ecology of ruminants
68
4.17
Overall
70
4.18
Conclusions on the use of trees as fodder ruminants
70
     
5
Bypass proteins from tree foliages
72
   
5.1
Introduction
72
5.2
Natural protection of leaf proteins
73
5.3
Effects of drying fodder tree foliage
76
5.4
Effects of adding chemicals
78
5.5
Tree foliages as supplements or as basal diets
79
5.6
High density forage production from Leucaena
80
5.7
Assaying the nutritional value of protein in leaf foliages or meals
82
5.8
Conclusion
85
5.9
Postscript
86
     
6
Bibliography
87