Intervention efforts should capitalize on and adhere to accepted
principles of integrated pest management (IPM) or integrated
disease and pest management (IDPM), such as:
IPM measures against T&T are implemented as part
of the broader development strategy for improved public
health, enhanced livestock-agricultural development and
appropriate utilisation of available natural resources;
The most appropriate intervention measures are selected
for application as part of the integrated campaign in
a phased manner in accordance with the prevailing agro-ecological
settings, farming systems and epidemiological conditions;
IPM measures take into account and capitalise on potential
favourable factors, such as seasonal variations and climatic
Major shortcomings of conventional IPM against transboundary
key pests can be summarised as follows:
IPM measures are only initiated once the problem exceeds
a predetermined economic threshold level;
Only a few farmers may decide to apply ‘field-by-field’
control measures and most of their neighbours will not
join. Hence, this situation requires a higher overall
intervention intensity (e.g. amount of insecticides, etc.).
The AW-IPM concept takes advantage of the obvious benefits of IPM measures and, through a more preventive approach that targets at entire and economically significant insect pest populations, avoids the above disadvantages. AW-IPM tries to give long-term solutions to key pest problems in large agro-ecosistems and complements quick-fix, short-term solutions on small hectarages. It also promotes the integration of environmentally benign pest/disease management techniques.
As T&T is one of the transboundary pest insect and disease problems that constitute a bottleneck for enhanced sustainable agriculture and rural development (SARD), the principles of AW-IPM should guide the planning and implementation of intervention programmes.