must be considered under the heading “snow cover”:
snow extent, snow depth, snow water equivalent, snow all
and solid precipitation.
Snow cover standards report
by UNFCCC SBSTA/COP for its 23rd Session in Montreal, November
2005, GTOS is undertaking the assessment of the status of
the development of standards for each of the essential climate
variables in the terrestrial domain. The following report,
documentation and other material have been compiled for
snow cover. We very much welcome your comments and inputs
in improving and completing the analysis. Please send any
material and comments to the GTOS
below are the major references that have been identified
in regards to methodology and standards for snow cover.
Please inform us if you are aware of any other documentation
or material which could be considered.
Allison, I., Barry, R.G. and Goodison, B.E.
(eds.; 2001): Climate and Cryosphere Project Science and
Co-ordination Plan Version 1. WCRP-114, WMO/TD No. 1053,
Geneva: 45, 53-54).
Armstrong, R.L., and M.J. Brodzik. (2001). Recent Northern
Hemisphere snow extent: a comparison of data derived from
visible and microwave sensors. Geophysical Research Letters
Barry, R.G. (1995): Observing systems and
data sets related to the cryosphere in Canada: a contribution
to planning for the Global Climate Observing System. Atmosphere
- Ocean 33 (4): 771-807
Campbell Scientific Companies. 2007. SR50 Sonic Ranging
Sensor. Instruction Manual. Utah
Doesken, Nolan J., A. Judson, 1996: The Snow Booklet: A
Guide to the Science, Climatology, and Measurement of Snow
in the United States. Colorado State University.
Easterling, D.R., Karl, T.R., Lawrimore,
J.H. and Del Greco, S.A. (1999): United States Historical
Climatology Network Daily Temperature, Precipitation, and
Snow Data for 1871-1997. ORNL/CDIAC-118, NDP-070. Carbon
Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National
Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 84 pp.
Frei, A., and D.A. Robinson. (1999). Northern
Hemisphere snow extent: regional variability 1972-1994.
International Journal of Climatology 19: 1535-1560.
D.E., Brown, R.D. and Crane, R.G. (lead authors; 1999):
Cryospheric systems. Eos Science Plan, NASA pp. 261-307.
Goodison, B. E., et al., 1988: The Canadian automatic snow
depth sensor: a performance update. Proceedings of the Fifth-sixth
Annual Western Snow Conference, Atmospheric Environment
Service, Canada, pp. 178–181.
Groisman, P., T.R. Karl, and R.W. Knight.
(1994). Observed impact of snow cover on the heat balance
and the rise of continental spring temperatures. Science
Lundberg, A., and Halldin, S., (2001). Snow
measurement techniques for land-surface-atmosphere exchange
studies in boreal landscapes. Theoretical and Applied Climatology
Kennett M, Laumann T, Elvehùy H (1996)
Snow-pro-et barometer-basert utstyr for profilmaÈlning
av snùdyp. Norges Vassdrags- og Energiverk NVE rapport
14, 10 pp
Robinson. D.A. (1993). Recent Trends in
Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover. Fourth Symposium on Global
Change Studies. American Meteorological Society. Anaheim,
Serreze, M.C., Clark, M.P., Armstrong, R.L.,
McGinnis, D.A. and Pulwarty, R.S. (1999): Characteristics
of the western United States snowpack from snowpack telemetry
(SNOTEL) data. Water Resources Research 7: 2145-2160
GCOS (2003): Status Report on the Key Climate
Variables Technical Supplement to the Second Report on the
Adequacy of the Global Observing Systems for Climate . Draft
Version 2.7 10th September 2003
U.S. Department of Commerce, (1997): Snow
Measurement Guidelines for National Weather Service Cooperative
Observers. Silver Spring, MD.
C. J and 15 others (The Ad Hoc Group on Global Water Data).
(2001) Global water data: An endangered species. EOS 82(3),
World Meteorological Organization, 1992: Snow Cover Measurements
and Areal Assessment of Precipitation and Soil Moisture
(B. Sevruk). Operational Hydrology Report No. 35, WMO–No.
WMO 1994, Guide to hydrological practices, data acquisition
and processing, analysing forecasting and other applications,
fifth edition, WMO report No 168, WMO, Geneva, 286 pp .
below are links relevant to snow cover. New links are welcome.