changes in permafrost temperatures and depth of seasonal
freezing/thawing are reliable indicators of climate change
in high latitude and mountain regions. Warming may result
in a reduction in the extent of permafrost and can have
an impact on terrain stability and moisture and gas fluxes.
Like glaciers, mountain permafrost and seasonally-frozen
ground can also provide a significant contribution to summer
water availability. Standardized in situ measurements are
essential, both to calibrate and to verify regional and
global climate change.
biomass standards report
by UNFCCC SBSTA/COP for its 23rd Session in Montreal, November
2005, GTOS is undertaking the assessment of the status of
the development of standards for each of the essential climate
variables in the terrestrial domain. The following report,
documentation and other material have been compiled for
permafrost. We very much welcome your comments and inputs
in improving and completing the analysis. Please send any
material and comments to the GTOS
below are the major references that have been identified
in regards to methodology and standards for permafrost.
Please inform us if you are aware of any other documentation
or material which could be considered.
J., K.M. Hinkel, and F.E. Nelson (2000) The Circumpolar
Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) program: Research designs
and initial results. Polar Geography, 24(3), 165–258.
Burgess, M.M., Smith, S.L., Brown, J., Romanovsky, V., and
Hinkel, K. (2000). The Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost
(GTNet-P): Permafrost monitoring contributing to global
climate observations. In Current Research 2000E, Geological
Survey of Canada. Available on-line at: GSC Bookstore ECV-T7-permafrost-ref-04
Hinkel, K.M, Paetzold R, Nelson, F.E, Bockheim, J.G (2001).
Patterns of soil temperature and moisture in the active
layer and upper permafrost at Barrow, Alaska: 1993-1999.
Global and Planetary Change 29: 293-309. ECV-T7-permafrost-ref-19
International Permafrost Association. (1998). Circumpolar
Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS) CD-ROM, version 1.0.
Published by the National Snow and Ice Data Centre, Boulder,
International Permafrost Association (IPA) The Working Group
on Periglacial Processes and Environments (2004) A Handbook
on Periglacial Field Methods ,Edited by Ole Humlum Norikazu
F.M, (2000).Thaw-depth monitoring. In The Physical Environment
of the Mackenzie Valley, Northwest Territories: a Base Line
for the Assessment of Environmental Change. Geological Survey
of Canada Bulletin 547: 119-126. See
F.M.: Mackenzie Valley CALM sites, background information.
Implementation Plan for Global Observing Systems for Climate
in Support of the UNFCCC, GCOS – 92,October (2004)
(WMO/TD No. 1219). ECV-T7-permafrost-ref-05
Second Report on the Adequacy of the Global Observing Systems
for Climate in Support of the UNFCCC, GCOS-82, April 2003
(WMO/TD No. 1143) ECV-T7-permafrost-ref-18
SUBSIDIARY BODY FOR SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL ADVICE,
Twenty-fifth session, Nairobi, 6–14 November 2006,
Item 6 of the provisional agenda, Research and systematic
Arctic Research Commission Permafrost Task Force (2003)
Climate Change, Permafrost, and Impacts on Civil Infrastructure.
Special Report 01-03, U.S. Arctic Research Commission, Arlington,
World Meteorological Organization - WMO (1997). Global Climate
Observing System: GCOS/GTOS Plan for terrestrial climate-related
observations, Version 2.0. GCOS-32, WMO/TD-No. 796, UNEP/DEIA/TR97-7,
WMO, Geneva, Switzerland, 130 pp.
below are the links to the major institutions involved in
permafrost measurements. New links are welcome.