albedo is both a forcing variable controlling the climate
and a sensitive indicator of environmental degradation.
Albedo varies in space and time as a result of both natural
processes (e.g. changes in solar position, snowfall and
vegetation growth) and human activities (e.g. clearing and
planting forests, sewing and harvesting crops, burning rangeland)
(GCOS, 2004). Since albedo depends on both the unique anisotropy
of the surface (related to the intrinsic composition and
structure of the land cover) and the atmospheric condition
at any time, remote sensing offers the only viable method
of measuring and monitoring the global heterogeneity of
albedo (Schaaf et al. 2006).
albedo standards report
by UNFCCC SBSTA/COP for its 23rd Session in Montreal, November
2005, GTOS is undertaking the assessment of the status of
the development of standards for each of the essential climate
variables in the terrestrial domain. The following report,
documentation and other material have been compiled for
albedo. We very much welcome your comments and inputs in
improving and completing the analysis. Please send any material
and comments to the GTOS
below are the major references that have been identified
in regards to methodology and standards for albedo. Please
inform us if you are aware of any other documentation or
material which could be considered.
Baret, F., Schaaf,
C., Morisette, J., and Privette, J. 2005. Report on the
Second International Workshop on Albedo Product Validation.
The Earth Observer 17 (3): 13-17.
M., Lewis, P., Disney, M., Thackrah, G., Quaife1, T., Shaw,
J., Rebelo, L., Roberts, G., Hobson, P., and Muller, J-P.
2002. MOD43 Validation: UK Activities. CEOS/WGCV Land Product
Validation Workshop on Albedo, Boston University, October
GCOS. 2004. Implementation
plan for the Global Observing System for Climate in support
of the UNFCCC. Report GCOS – 92 (WMO/TD No. 1219).
GCOS. 2006. Satellite-
based products for climate. Supplemental details to the
satellite- based component of the “Implementation
Plan for the Global Observing System for Climate in Support
of the UNFCCC”, GCOS-107 (WMO/TD No. 1338). 90p.
Ohmura A., Dutton,
E., Forgan, B., Frohlich, C., Gilgen, H., Hegne, H., Heimo,
A., Konig-Langlo, G., McArthur, B., Muller, G., Philipona,
R., Whitlock, C., Dehne, K., and Wild, M. 1998. Baseline
Surface Radiation Network (BSRN/ WCRP): New precision radiometry
for climate change research. Bulletin of the American Meteorological
Society 79: 2115-2136.
A. 2005. Status of BSRN: database and FTP file archive.
CEOS/ WGCV/Land Product Validation Workshop on Albedo Products,
Vienna, April 27. See
C., Strahler, A., Martonchik, J., Charlock, T., Rutan, D.,
Zeng, X., Liang, S., Chopping, M., Lyapustin, A., and Rossow,
W. 2006. Global land surface albedo and anisotropy. See
A. P., Luo, Y., Khlopenkov, K., Latifovic, R., Park, W.B.,
Wang, S., Li, Z., and Cribb, M. 2005. Surface albedo for
ARM over Southern Great Plains. 2nd CEOS/WGCV/LPV Workshop
on Albedo Products, April 27-28, 2005, Vienna, Austria.
WMO. 2006. Guide
to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation.
Preliminary seventh edition. Report WMO-No. 8, Geneva, Switzerland.
below are relevant inks to albedo. New links are welcome.