NGOs voice common concerns over food plan
Taken from a report that first appeared in Go-Between (August/September
1996), a bimonthly publication of the United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison
As the World Food Summit approaches, NGOs discussing the draft
Declaration and Plan of Action are voicing common concerns about a number
of key food issues.
Consensus has been reached by NGOs in all regions that the market alone
is incapable of solving food security problems, and can even, at times,
be directly harmful. NGOs have reiterated their concern about the ability
of foreign trade to complement rather than supplant national production.
In this context, NGOs in Asia recommended a freeze on the implementation
of further agricultural liberalization until after a thorough study of
the impact of the GATT Agricultural Accord had been undertaken and the
Food as a basic human right
Emphasis has been placed on the legal basis for the basic human right
to food, as it already exists in international agreements. NGOs in North
America have taken this one step further, fully endorsing the need to establish
a Convention on the Right to Food. Almost all of the NGO declarations adopted
for the Summit have indicated their strong opposition to the use of food
as a political weapon, including blockades of countries and communities.
In Latin America, NGOs adopted a motion against the economic embargo of
Democratization of food security strategies
In Asia, NGOs insisted that democratic control of the food system is
the ultimate test of democracy. In the NGO Consultation for the Near East,
participants agreed on the need to create an environment conducive to the
effective participation of civil society in agricultural policy-making.
All across the globe, organizations have reiterated that the vital resources
that make food security possible should stay under the democratic control
of food producers and local communities. On this basis, the dissolution
of small farming households, as a result of indiscriminate liberalization
policies enabling the entry and dominance of extremely powerful multinational
agribusiness, should be prevented and reversed.
Macroeconomic policy framework
Structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) have been widely criticized
as undermining food security, and international financial institutions
and governments have been urged to prevent SAPs from endangering access
to water, sanitation, food and nutrition. In Africa, NGOs recommended that
international financial institutions adopt food security as a major indicator
for the success of adjustment programmes. In Europe and North America,
the inadequate commitment of governments to ensure social safety nets in
the process of economic adjustment, as endorsed by governments participating
in the 1995 World Summit for Social Development, was deplored. NGOs in
Latin America have proposed creating debt swaps for food security programmes.
NGOs in Asia and Europe have urged FAO to adopt a Code of Conduct for
agricultural investment, based on sustainability and equity, to ensure
compliance with best practices in terms of food safety and ecological impact.
In all regions, the importance of recognizing the equal rights of women
to land and other resources has been reiterated. All the NGO declarations
adopted for the Summit have urged all actors to acknowledge and take into
account the essential role of rural women as the primary managers of the
world's resources and producers of over half of the world's food.
Calls have been made to alter a pattern of overconsumption by industrialized
nations and local elites which may perpetuate and increase the disparity
between the North and South. The importance of promoting more efficient
water use and sustainable, environmentally sound food production was stressed.
In Asia, NGOs emphasized the urgency of reintegrating agricultural production
into the local ecology and abandoning techno-fixes like the green revolution.
In Africa, NGOs highlighted the necessity to engage in organic agriculture
whenever appropriate and improve local technologies through harnessing
"Fighting hunger and malnutrition"
In preparations for the Summit, the relationship between the twin scourges
of hunger and malnutrition has been highlighted. On 16 October 1996, the
World Food Day, with the theme "Fighting hunger and malnutrition",
will provide an opportunity for NGOs to initiate dialogue and public advocacy
on issues related to world hunger and malnutrition and mobilize community
efforts to promote productive activities, before the World Food Summit
takes place three weeks later.