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Course: Participatory Project Formulation



Key Concepts




Scope of Action

Project Cycle


Approaches to

Rapid Rural

Participatory Rural

Participatory Action Research

Principles, Attitudes

Project Cycle

Type of Participatory

Application of participatory tools in the different project stages

Sector Specific Use
of Participatory Tools

List of Documents


Strong or weak

Stakeholder analysis



Application of Participatory Tools in the Stages of a Project

The project cycle consists usually of five main stages: identification, preparation, appraisal and agreement by the supporting agency and Government, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. For participatory projects this cycle is (to be) conceived as a flexible and fluid process; for example in some instances one or more phases could be merged or even suppressed.

The Participation Resource Section offers you the option to search for methods and approaches in the field tools section, as well as for documents in the library section and define the search results choosing the envisaged project cycle phase (The diagnosis phase encompasses the step of identification, the plannig phase encompasses the steps of preparation, appraisal and agreement by the supporting agency and Government).


Matching the Participatory Tools for Each Step in the Project Cycle

Project Cycle Stages Tools
1. Project Diagnosis

Participatory Data-Gathering Tools help to understand the local situation

Consultation and analysis of national framework needs to make sure that the planned programme is in line with national development objectives.

Stakeholders Analysis, is an important step to understand the direct and indirect beneficiaries and to plan who is going to participate how

Stakeholder Conflict Grid

2. Project planning

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis is used to analyse problem or opportunity to be addressed by project

Problem-Alternative-Objective tree is used to understand causes and effects of problems and to find alternatives and objectives for planning

Logical Framework is a wholistic tool to set up the workplan for the project

Community Actions Plans or Community Workshop help to initialize the planning at the community level

3. Project implementation

Alternative technologies or methods like


Co-operative and Group Formation,

Indigenous Forest Management

4. Monitoring and Evaluation

Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation

Participatory Impact Monitoring

Monitoring Exercise

  Informal Working Group on
  Participatory Approaches & Methods
...to support Sustainable Livelihoods  
& Food Security