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"Local seed systems and external influences: a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania"
This case study is based on a research on local knowledge systems and agro-biodiversity carried out in Central Zone and Southern Highlands by the FAO LinKS Project. It highlights and explains how political decisions and socio-economic changes have influenced local seed systems and the availability of local seeds in Tanzania over the past 50 years.

"Energy and gender in rural sustainable development"
FAO is looking at ways in which increased attention to energy and gender linkages can help countries promote sustainable agricultural production and rural development, as well as work towards meeting the targets set out in the Millennium Development Goals.

"Community Diversity Seed Fairs in Tanzania. Guidelines for seed fairs "
The Gender and Population Division in collaboration with the Plant Genetic Resources Service have prepared simple guidelines for rural communities explaining the main steps how to organize a community diversity seed fair.

"The impact of HIV/AIDS and drought on local knowledge systems for agrobiodiversity and food security"
This study was conducted to determine the effects of HIV/AIDS and drought on the local knowledge systems for agro-biodiversity and food security in Swaziland, as recent years have seen an increase in both types of disaster.

"Gender and land compendium of country studies"
This compendium has been put together to provide an improved understanding of the complex issues concerning gender and land. It draws on research commissioned by FAO, and has been compiled by the Gender and Development Service in collaboration with the Land Tenure Service.

"Building on gender, agrobiodiversity and local knowledge. A training manual"
The present Training Manual is based on experiences collected in numerous training workshops carried out under the FAO-LinKS project in Eastern and Southern Africa. This Training Manual constitutes a conceptual guide for trainers that can be used to lead them through the issues of gender and local knowledge which are important elements for agrobiodiversity management and food security.

"The Impact of HIV/AIDS and drought on local knowledge systems for agrobiodiversity and food security in Swaziland"
This LinKS study uses a livelihoods approach to highlight the linkages between the impact of HIV/AIDS and drought and the degradation of human, financial and social capital.

"Indigenous Knowledge of Edible Tree Products - The Mungomu Tree in Central Mozambique"
This study was sponsored by the FAO regional project "Gender, Biodiversity and Local Knowledge Systems to Stengthen Agriculture and Rural Development in Southern Africa" (LinKS) and carried out by Kulima, the Organism for the Socio-economic Development of Mozambique.

"Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Guidelines for reporting on Article 14"
A number of international Conventions and Declarations designed to promote equal rights for men and women have been adopted by the United Nations General Assembly. Despite all these instruments, however, there is still evident and serious discrimination against women, hampering their participation in the social, political, economic and cultural life of their countries in flagrant violation of the principles of equal rights and respect for human dignity.

"Gender and farming systems: Lessons from Nicaragua"
The purpose of this study is to propose a conceptual and methodological framework that integrates a gender perspective into the analysis of farming systems. The aim is to produce a reference guide for future rural development programmes and projects.

"The utilization of indigenous knowledge in range management and forage plants for improving livestock productivity and food security in the Maasai and Barbaig communities"
This study originated from the need to document the indigenous knowledge of the Maasai and the Barbaig related to rangeland management of forage plants and animal productivity aiming at conserving biodiversity and increasing food security.

"Regional Consultation on Advancement of Rural Women in the Beijing Plus 10 Era. Policies and Programmes 31 August to 3 September 2004: A Report"
The FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Government of Lao PDR, organised a regional consultation to review and share experiences on the status of rural women in the region ten years after the UN Conference on Women held in Beijing.

"Agricultural Censuses and Gender: Lessons Learned in Africa"
FAO Regional Office for Africa. This document highlights lessons learned in Africa with regard to the integration of gender concerns into agricultural censuses and provides recommendations on how to further improve the integration of these concerns into agricultural data collection systems.

"SEAGA Livestock Guide. Planning with a Gender and HIV/AIDS Lens "
The SEAGA Livestock Guide aims to support those working on livestock-related programmes and projects to more effectively respond to the different needs, priorities, constraints and livelihood strategies present in rural communities or households.

"Rural households and resources: A pocket guide for extension workers" This guide aims to assist extension and other community-based workers to understand the management of resources within and between households.

"Addressing HIV/AIDS through Agriculture and Natural Resource Sectors: A guide for extension workers. Socio-economic and Gender Analysis Programme (SEAGA)" The purpose of this guide is to enable extension workers and development agents to contribute to addressing the rural HIV/AIDS epidemic through agriculture and natural resource sector initiatives.

"Strengthening institutional capacity in mitigating HIV/AIDS impact on the agricultural sector - potential mitigation interventions"The Government of Zambia, through the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, has requested FAO Technical Cooperation Programme assistance in awareness raising and capacity building of senior agriculture staff in the Ministry for addressing HIV/AIDS concerns and mitigating the negative impact of HIV/AIDS on agricultural production and household food security.

"Guidelines on Socio-economic and Gender Analysis for emergency and rehabilitation" This material was developed by FAO and the World Food Programme as a “practical” tool to assist managerial and operational staff to mainstream gender throughout the project sequence and in all aspects relating to emergency interventions

"Training manual on gender analysis for monitoring and evaluation: The ‘Engendered Logframe’ approach" FAO and the International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR) have developed a Training manual on gender monitoring and evaluation for program management.

"HIV/AIDS, gender inequality and rural livelihoods" FAO, in close collaboration with Development Cooperation Ireland (DCI) and the Government of Zambia, has recently completed a household livelihood research among 740 households in the Northern Province of Zambia.

"HIV/AIDS susceptibility and vulnerability pathway: a tool for identifying indicators, role models and innovations"
This study provides a practical tool for identifying indicators which reflect vulnerability at different stages of the HIV/AIDS cycle.

"Gender and sustainable development in drylands: An analysis of field experiences"
Drylands pose different challenges for rural men and women, yet agricultural, environmental and related policies and programmes often fail to recognise women's particular needs and crucial contribution in the use and management of dryland resources.

"Gender and food security: The role of information. Strategy for action"
The authors suggest that the exchange, mobilization and outreach capacities offered by information technologies are of little benefit to women in developing countries. The publication offers advice on how to reverse this trend.

"Participation and information: the key to gender-responsive agricultural policy"
This document discusses ways in which participatory approaches and information can facilitate the formulation of gender-responsive plans and strategies.

"Filling the data gap: Gender-sensitive statistics for agricultural development" The main purpose of this publication is to sensitize policy-makers to the benefits that sex-disaggregated information can bring to policy-making, and - as the main recipients and seekers of such information - move them to action at the national level.

"Agricultural Censuses and Gender Considerations - Concept and Methodology"
The agricultural censuses have traditionally underestimated women's contribution to development and omitted small-scale production units. The objective of this publication is to provide methodological guidelines to narrow the statistical gap as much as possible, avoiding the omission of women's contributions.

"The impact of HIV/AIDS on agricultural production and mainstreaming AIDS messages into agricultural extension in Uganda"
The report is based on a study that was carried out in 2001 by the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF) in Uganda under the aegis of the Integrated Support to Sustainable Development and Food Security Programme (IP).

"Strengthening the pluralistic agricultural extension system: a Zimbabwean case study"
This comprehensive report includes an overview and analysis of all public and private extension service providers and a targeted strategy to enhance co-ordination and collaboration between both public and private extension providers.

"SEAGA handbooks and guides"
The Socio-economic and Gender Analysis (SEAGA) programme seeks to promote an awareness and understanding of gender issues within agricultural and rural development issues. The handbooks offer a wide range of tools for conducting socio-economic and gender analysis.

"The role of woman in the conservation of the genetic resource of maize - Guatemala"
It is the aim of this study to identify the role played by women in the conservation of the genetic resources of maize crops in the Department of Huehuetenango.

"A long road with the women : Experiences of a project with women's groups in the Kayes-Nord region (Mali)"
This publication traces the evoloution of the Project of assistance to women's groups in the Kayes-Nord region of Mali from 1986 to 1998.

"From farmer to planner and back: Harvesting best practices"
This three volume publication contains case studies which provide an overview of how rural development activities have incorporated gender analysis and participatory methodologies.

"Filling the Data Gap: Gender-sensitive statistics for agricultural development"
The main purpose of this publication is to sensitize policy-makers to the benefits that sex-disaggregated information can bring to policy-making, and - as the main recipients and seekers of such information - move them to action at the national level.
(Also available in French and Spanish)

"Video: Sharing the Knowledge"
Filmed in Zimbabwe and Tanzania, this 12-minute video entitled highlights the important role that the local knowledge of rural men and women plays in their daily lives. Moreover, the video attempts to illustrate the importance of maintaining and sharing this knowledge base at a global level.


Participation

"Conflict management over natural resources capacity building program under the community-based rural development project"
The purpose of this training manual is to provide a capacity building framework and tools to support the technical and operational implementation of the conflict management training component for this rural development project.

"Toolkit for the application of Participatory and Negociated Territorial Development in transborder zone"
The Toolkit is related to the application of Participatory and Negotiated Territorial Development in the context of the Socio-Economic Development Program for the Transborder Onchocerciasis-Freed Zone of Ghana and Burkina Faso.

"Assessing participatory rural environmental management: In the craft villages"
In northern Viet Nam, rapid industrial, population and urban growth have put increasing pressure on land and water resources in rural agricultural areas. Overuse and misuse of these resources cause widespread environmental degradation, poor human health and living conditions, and decreased incomes from farming and craft production.

"Guidelines for participatory village planning for the National Programme for Food Security and Poverty Reduction. Cambodia 2005"
These guidelines are for the use of Village Planning Workshop Facilitation Team members working with the National Programme for Food Security and Poverty (FSPR) in Cambodia.

"Capacity building processes for Community-Based Organizations. Training materials in Arabic"
FAO has overseen a three-year training plus mentoring process that has prepared a cadre of CBOs and national trainers to promote participatory processes for community-based development. These national trainers have consolidated their practical training experiences into a series of practical training manuals.

"Improving Household Food Security and Nutrition in Northern Shewa, Amhara Region and Southern Zone, Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Community Action Planning Guidelines for Facilitation Teams"
These guidelines are for the use of Facilitation Team members working with the project “Improving Nutrition and Household Food Security in Northern Shewa, Amhara Region and Southern Tigray”.

"New strategies for mobilizing capital in agricultural cooperatives"
As with any business, agricultural cooperatives require capital to be successful. The search for capital leads cooperatives to explore various sources in order to maintain and strengthen their position in the market. Greater member financing is usually essential.

"Case study: Lessons learned and good practice. Community-based organizations in Yemen"
This paper discusses preconditions, good practice and operational lessons learned about organizational capacity development and empowerment processes analyzing the set-up and the institutional/organizational aspects of community-based organizations in Yemen.

"Participatory processes towards co-management of natural resources in pastoral areas of the Middle East"
This training sourcebook is the result of an FAO - Italian government initiative in the Syrian desert. The project to which much of this sourcebook owes its existence is the " Range Rehabilitation and Establishment of a Wildlife Reserve in the Syrian Steppe" project.

"Social dimensions of integrated production and pest management"
While most studies focus on the economic impact or yield increases resulting from integrated pest management, this report highlights the participatory nature of the farmer field schools and the social impacts of farmers and extensionists working side by side.

"The group savings resource book"
Experience has shown that group approaches to saving can help the poor save more efficiently, especially when access to saving facilities such as banks or other financial services is difficult.

"Mushroom cultivation for people with disabilities- A training manual"
The FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAP) pioneered a training programme for disabled farmers in the poor northeastern part of Thailand. The manual is intended as a training and information tool for government and non-government trainers and extension workers.

"Success Case Replication - A Manual for Increasing Farmer Household Income - By Mobilizing Successful Farmers and Groups to Train Their Peers"
SD-Dimensions is pleased to announce this new publication of the of Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

"The group promoter's resource book: A practical guide to building rural self-help groups"
This resource book shows how group promoters (GPs) can help men and women in rural communities to join together and work to improve their income and living conditions. It presents a participatory approach in which GPs play a key role. Their task is to help the poor to form sustainable self-help groups and undertake income- generating activities. A further step in the group development process - deciding on and implementing small-scale rural enterprises - is described in the Group enterprise book.
(Also available in French, Spanish and Arabic)

"The inter-group resource book: A guide to building small farmer group associations and networks"
Small farmer groups can increase their economies of scale and bargaining power by joining with other groups engaged in similar activities. This publication shows how, using a participtory approach, inter-group associations can be established in rural areas.
(Also available in French, Spanish and Arabic)

"Mobilizing capital in agricultural service cooperatives"
Due to the loss of traditional funding, cooperatives need alternative sources of capital to maintain and strengthen their position in the market. Capital mobilization is the subject of this booklet. Greater attention to capital can assist cooperatives in developing their market position and in member control of the cooperative itself.

"Video: Empowering the rural disabled"
The majority of disabled people in developing countries live in rural areas with scant hope for a better future, yet when properly assisted and motivated, their abilities, energy and resourcefulness in improving their lives and those of their families are impressive. This 16-minute video is based on FAO project experience in Thailand and Cambodia and highlights its efforts to promote greater awareness of the needs of farmers with disabilities and to seek new ways aimed at integrating the rural disabled into its programmes.

More publications...


Population

"Population ageing, sustainable development and food security in rural areas of Bolivia and Chile"
The purpose of this paper is to add to the understanding of the scope and nature of rural population ageing in Latin America, and to highlight its implications for food security and rural development in the region.

"Pocketbook on integrating HIV/AIDS considerations into food security and livelihoods projects "
This pocketbook provides a checklist of questions to provide guidance for incorporating HIV/AIDS considerations into food security and livelihoods projects.

"The impact of HIV/AIDS on land rights: Case studies from Kenya"
This study was compiled by the Integrated Rural and Regional Development Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council and FAO.

"Interactions between the agricultural sector and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic: Implications for agriculture policy. FAO"
This was the background paper for the workshop “Agricultural Policy and HIV/AIDS: Understanding the Linkages,” held November 19-21 2003 in Maputo, Mozambique.

"African Asian Agriculture against AIDS"
This publication is a report from the African-Asian Agriculture against AIDS Consultation on Agriculture, Development and HIV-vulnerability Reduction jointly organized by UNDP South East Asia HIV and Development Programme (YNDP-SEAHIV) and FAO.

"The Farmers' Life School Manual"
A joint publication of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), FAO and World Education. The Farmers’ Life School course can be used either in community-based programmes or adapted for formal educational settings.

"Sustainable agricultural/rural development and vulnerability to the AIDS epidemic"
This study, a joint publication by FAO and UNAIDS, describes how the HIV epidemic is undermining the hard-earned gains of development efforts of the last 40 years.

"Addressing the impact of HIV/AIDS on Ministries of Agriculture: Focus on Eastern and Southern Africa"
This joint FAO/UNAIDS discussion paper examines the relevance of HIV/AIDS for Ministries of Agriculture and their work in sub-Saharan Africa, and particularly in Eastern and Southern Africa. The focus of analysis is smallholder agriculture as this has been affected most severely by the HIV epidemic.

"Food requirements and population growth"
Technical background document to the World Food Summit held in Rome in 1996. In the decades leading to 2050, by which time most of the increase before stabilization will have taken place, world population growth will dominate over other demographic factors as the primary cause of increasing global food demand. Food production is expected to increase broadly in line with this rise in demand, but not without further stress on agricultural, economic and environmental resources.


Sustainable livelihoods

"Land tenure, food security and investment in postwar Sierra Leone. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper 22"
Postwar Sierra Leone presents a number of challenges in reconstruction and development. Among these is significant food insecurity and investment in the rural areas, which is especially difficult for subsistence producers who are still recovering from the effects of the war.

"Land and water rights in the Sahel. Tenure challenges of improving access to water for agriculture. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper 25"
Demographic and other changes are raising new challenges for water access in the Sahel. With rapid population growth, competition over water resources for agricultural uses is increasing. In many places, water points have been at the centre of tensions and even violent clashes between users.

"Making rights a reality. Participation in practice and lessons learned in Mozambique. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper 27"
In the last decade, several important and innovative policies and laws have been passed in Mozambique, designed in part to enhance rural livelihoods by strengthening rights of people – especially the rural poor – to natural resources.

"Developing Institutions and Options for Livelihood Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change in Drought-prone Areas of Bangladesh"
The impacts of climate variability and change are global concerns, but in Bangladesh, where large parts of the population are chronically exposed and vulnerable to a range of natural hazards, they are particularly critical.

"Land access in the 21st century. Issues, trends, linkages and policy options. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 24"
The present discussion is based on examples from specific regional contexts, focusing on sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Latin America, and drawing upon pertinent literature and experiences.

"Implementing homestead plot programmes. Experience from India. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 23"
This paper examines ways in which the poor can use small amounts of land to establish homegardens to support their livelihoods.

"Study on livelihood systems assessment, vulnerable groups profiling and livelihood adaptation to climate hazard and long-term climate change in drought-prone areas of Northwestern Bangladesh"
The CEGIS study is composed of a livelihood systems assessment, vulnerable groups profiling and analysis of livelihood adaptation practices and technologies to climate hazard and long-term climate change in drought prone areas of Northwestern Bangladesh.

"Lessons Learned by the WIN Project on Livelihoods Diversification and Enterprise Development: An Overview of WIN LDED-related Activities in Cambodia, Nepal and Zambia. FAO Livelihoods Support Programme Working Paper 19"
This project was designed specifically to test a multi-sectoral approach to empowering women in irrigation management, and to address nutrition and health concerns associated with irrigation schemes.

"Post-conflict land tenure. Using a sustainable livelihoods approach "
This paper addresses the application of sustainable livelihood approaches to access to land and land administration in post-conflict situations.

"Training modules for climate & flood forecast applications in agriculture. Enhancing early warning systems for disaster preparedness and mitigation in the agriculture sector in Bangladesh"
These training modules on climate and flood forecast applications in agriculture were developed for FAO to build the capacity of the Department of Agriculture Extension of the Government of Bangladesh in interpreting climate and flood forecast information and communicating this information to vulnerable farming communities in order to reduce disaster risks in agriculture.

"Lessons Learned by the WIN Project on Livelihoods Diversification and Enterprise Development: An Overview of WIN LDED-related Activities in Cambodia, Nepal and Zambia. FAO Livelihoods Support Programme Working Paper 19"
This project was designed specifically to test a multi-sectoral approach to empowering women in irrigation management, and to address nutrition and health concerns associated with irrigation schemes.

"Between the Household and the Market: A livelihoods analysis of the SPFS seed multiplication in Southern Guatemala. FAO Livelihoods Support Programme Working Paper 20"
In order to strengthen the capacity of the Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS)-Guatemala to incorporate livelihoods analysis in the systematization of “good practices”, an action-research exercise was carried out in November to December 2004, which focused on maize and bean certified seed multiplication in one project site.

"Strengthening disaster risk management in the agricultural sector in Bangladesh"
Under the FAO-Department of Agriculture Extension of Bangladesh project entitled “Support to the Strengthening of Disaster Preparedness in Agricultural Sector”, the present study was carried out by the Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services multi-disciplinary team.

"Agricultural workers and their contribution to sustainable agriculture and rural development "
This joint report published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers’ Associations (IUF) draws attention to the plight of the world’s 450 million waged agricultural workers.

"Disaster Risk Management: A Dimension of Sustainable Development
Case Study: Honduras
"
Steps in pre-emergency, emergency and post-emergency responses in a specific event (e.g. Hurricane Mitch) are analysed, with emphasis on disaster preparedness and contingency planning at district and community levels.

"Do sustainable livelihoods approaches have a positive impact on the rural poor? A look at twelve case studies. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 16"
Using a livelihoods perspective along with a good developmental tool kit and appropriate sequencing can enhance the quality of a wide range of approaches to improve the lives of the rural poor.

"Post-conflict land tenure - Using a Sustainable Livelihoods Approach. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 18"
This paper addresses the application of sustainable livelihood approaches to access to land and land administration in post-conflict situations.

"Participatory policy reform from a sustainable livelihoods perspective: Review of concepts and practical experiences.Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 3
" A more active involvement of the rural poor in policy making, either directly or through community-based and civil society organizations, would enhance their access to assets and services and benefit their livelihood and food security goals.

"Livelihood diversification and natural resource access. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 9" This paper sets out to explore the links between livelihood diversification and access to natural resources, and it does this bearing in mind the need to make micro-macro policy links between local level rural livelihoods and national level poverty reduction efforts.

"The culture of access to mountain natural resources Policy, processes and practices. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 7" This study has been commissioned by FAO to look at sustainable livelihoods approaches to access to natural resources in mountain areas. It concentrates on access by poorer and marginalized groups in Nepal to policy processes whereby long-term sustainable access to resources is achieved.

"The implementation of land allocation and land titling in Laos: Impacts on land access and rural livelihoods.Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 8" This paper describes the results of a study funded by FAO on the impacts of the land reform in Laos on land access and rural livelihoods, focusing more particularly on the northern regions.

"The role of local institutions in reducing vulnerability to recurrent natural disasters and in sustainable livelihoods development. Assessing the role of local institutions in reducing the vulnerability of at-risk communities in Búzi, Central Mozambique" This study aims at understanding the role of local institutions and organisations in reducing people’s vulnerability to natural hazards. It was based in Búzi District, where two villages, namely Munamícua and Boca, were selected for the fieldwork. Both sites still reflect the impact of the events of 2000 in the highly vulnerable livelihoods of their households.

"People-Centred Approaches: A Brief Literature Review and Comparison of types. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 5" This report aims to give a concise overview of some people-centred approaches to rural development that are being used, or have been used, in different areas of the world.

"Understanding access to seeds and plant genetic resources. What can a livelihoods perspective offer? Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 6" This study uses a livelihoods perspective to facilitate understanding of the role played by seeds and plant genetic resources in rural people’s livelihoods and considers how a livelihood perspective may strengthen understanding of issues of access.

"Applying People Centred Development Approaches within FAO. Some practical lessons. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 15" The objective of this work is to draw some lessons on the implementation of peoplecentred approaches in FAO and, to some extent, different development contexts.

"Land and Water – the rights interface. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper 10" This publication analyses the linkages between rights to land and water.

"Small homegarden plots and sustainable livelihoods for the poor. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper 11" This paper examines ways in which the poor can use small amounts of land to establish homegardens to advance important livelihoods objectives.

"Land and Livelihoods: Making land rights real for India’s rural poor. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper 12" This paper identifies issues that are central to consideration of land access in rural India.

"Poverty and forestry : A case study of Kyrgyzstan with reference to other countries in West and Central Asia. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper 13" This paper uses the case study of Kyrgyzstan to show how access to forests in West and Central Asia can contribute to poverty reduction using a sustainable livelihoods approach.

"The role of local institutions in reducing vulnerability to recurrent natural disasters and in sustainable livelihoods development in high risk areas" This case study of the Ilo-Ilo Province, The Philippines concentrates on the role of local level institutions in reducing vulnerability to recurrent natural disasters and in sustainable livelihoods development in high risk areas.

"Proceedings and Inter-agency experiences and lessons from the Forum on Operationalizing Participatory Ways of Applying Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches"
This report synthesizes the main issues and lessons learned from the Inter-agency Forum on Operationalizing Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches, held at the Certosa di Pontignano, near Siena, Italy, 7-11 March 2000. The Forum brought together several agencies that had been applying or developing sustainable livelihoods (SL) approaches in their work.
(Also available in French and Spanish)


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