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Environment

Energy and technology

"Introducing the International Bioenergy Platform (IBEP)"
The International Bioenergy Platform is being presented to the international community in the energy, agriculture and environment sectors as a mechanism for organizing and facilitating a multidisciplinary and global approach.

"The energy and agriculture nexus"
Energy has a key role in economic and social development, but there is a general lack of rural energy development policies that focus on agriculture. This publication focuses on the challenges and opportunities of advancing modern bioenergy technology, in general,and on the technical, environmental and economic benefits of the energy function of agriculture, in particular.

More publications...


Geoinformation, monitoring and assessment

"A geospatial framework for the analysis of poverty and environment links"
This report explains how georeferenced information can be used to bring greater precision to the understanding of spatially-related factors underlying poverty and food insecurity and discusses the role of Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping System (FIVIMS) in promoting greater use of geospatial information.

"Mapping global urban and rural population distributions. Estimates of future global population distribution to 2015"
Researchers have been developing a number of techniques for mapping variations of parameters within countries. As these techniques have become more sophisticated, and the capacity of computers to handle very large datasets with great speed has increased, the interest in developing methods for distributing population data to the grid cells of GIS maps has also increased.

"An inventory and comparison of globally consistent geospatial databases and libraries. Environment and Natural Resources Working Paper Series Number 19 "
This report presents an inventory of global data sources which can be used to provide consistent geospatial baselines for core framework data layers in the support of generalized base mapping, emergency preparedness and response, food security and poverty mapping.

"Coastal GTOS Strategic design and phase 1 implementation plan. Environment and Natural Resources Series 9 "
This document presents the strategy developed by the GTOS coastal panel of scientific experts to establish C-GTOS. The first sections of the document describe the design for a mature observing system and contributions to global observation needs.

"Frost protection: fundamentals, practice and economics"
This two-volume publication describes the physics and biology of frost occurrence and damage, passive and active protection methods and how to assess the cost-effectiveness of active protection techniques.

"Mapping coastal aquaculture and fisheries structures by satellite imaging radar : Case study of the Lingayen Gulf, the Philippines"
Inventory and monitoring of coastal aquaculture and fisheries structures provide the necessary baseline data for decision-making on aquaculture and mariculture development, including regulatory laws, environmental protection and revenue collection.

"GTOS Biennial Report 2002-2003"
GTOS is a global system for observations, modelling and analysis of terrestrial ecosystems to support sustainable development.

"Guidelines for establishing audits of agricultural – environmental hotspots"
This Environment and Natural Resources Working Paper No. 15 identifies key issues related to the purpose and potential value of developing a sustained activity focused on the identification and monitoring of potentially adverse impacts.

"Groundwater search by remote sensing: A methodological approach"
This FAO-implemented project, IRAQ/SCR/986 "Three-year Agricultural Programme" for the three Iraqi Northern Governorates, developed a comprehensive remote sensing/GIS methodology to identify potential sites for groundwater exploitation.

"Choosing a method for poverty mapping"
This publication discusses poverty and food-security mapping in terms of relevance and available options for analysis, policy design and implementation in the rural sectors of developing countries.

"Towards a GIS-based analysis of mountain environments and populations: Environment and Natural Resources Working paper no. 10"
This working paper applies Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques and newly available geo-referenced data to understand conditions underlying poverty and hunger in the world, particularly in mountain environments.

"Global Land Cover Network"
This publication contains the proceedings of the FAO/UNEP Expert Consultation on Strategies for Global Land Cover Mapping and Monitoring.

"Preparation of a land cover database through remote sensing and GIS: Pilot study in Bulgaria"
This issue of the Remote sensing for decision-makers series (No. 21) illustrates recent satellite data and land cover maps specially devised for agricultural applications.
(Also available in French)

"Assessment of priority areas for trypanosomiasis control actions by satellite data and fuzzy logic: Pilot study in Togo"
This paper is part of the Remote sensing for decision-makers series. This issue addresses vector-borne diseases and the management of rangeland resources.
(Also available in French)

"CD-ROM: 'FAOCLIM'"
"FAOCLIM" contains world-wide agroclimatic data. The CD-ROM, now in version 2.0, covers monthly data for 28100 stations, for up to 14 observed and computed agroclimatic parameters. It includes both long-term averages (1961-90) and time series for rainfall and temperatures.

"Land Cover Classification System (LCCS)"
LCCS is a comprehensive, standardized a priori classification system, designed to meet specific user requirements, and created for mapping exercises, independent of the scale or means used to map. Any land cover identified anywhere in the world can be readily accommodated. The classification uses a set of independent diagnostic criteria that allow correlation with existing classifications and legends.

"Preparation of land cover databases of Bulgaria through remote sensing and GIS"
The FAO project TCP/BUL/8922 "Strengthening Capacity in Agricultural Development through Remote Sensing and GIS" has produced 14 land cover maps at 1:50 000 scale for selected test areas of the country, covering 5 600 sq km. These maps were prepared using Landsat satellite data, acquired in 1998 and 1999 as the main data source and thus represent the land cover existing at that time. The land cover classification was performed using the FAO Land Cover Classification System (LCCS).

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Policy and integrated management

"Special Ministerial Conference on Agriculture in Small Island Developing States: Report and Background Documents"
Most Small Island Developing States are net agricultural importers. As a group they are net exporters by a narrow margin and their agricultural exports tend to be highly concentrated in a small number of commodities and markets.

"The scope of organic agriculture, sustainable forest management and ecoforestry in protected area management"
In protected area categories where agricultural activities are allowed, there is need to consider productive activities which provide livelihoods in an equitable and environmentally-friendly way.

"FAO and SIDS: challenges and emerging issues in agriculture, forestry and fisheries"
Agriculture, fisheries and forestry have provided for centuries the main source of livelihood for the population of the islands. This sector still represents a chief asset to Small Island Developing States (SIDS).

"Integrated natural resources management to enhance food security: The case for community-based approaches in Ethiopia: Environment and Natural Resources Working Paper No. 16"
This publication assesses the current threats to natural resource management and proposes a community-based integrated approach to address the issue and to expand the livelihood base in the non-farm sector.

"Biodiversity and the ecosystem approach in agriculture, forestry and fisheries"
These Proceedings result from the Satellite Event on Biodiversity and the Ecosystem Approach in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries held on the occasion of the Ninth Regular Session of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.

"Terrestrial Carbon Observation No. 2 - The Ottawa Assessment of Requirements, Status and Next Steps"
The workshop was designed to summarise existing information and observation requirements regarding terrestrial carbon, conduct initial evaluation of existing data or observations in relation to the requirements, identify major gaps or deficiencies, and propose solutions.

"Terrestrial carbon observation - No. 5 - The Rio de Janeiro recommendations for terrestrial and atmospheric measurements"
This report is a comprehensive plan to use in situ and satellite observing systems to assess and monitor carbon stocks on land an in the atmosphere.

"Terrestrial Carbon Observation: The Frascati report on in situ carbon data and information"
The concept behind TCO is to focus on assembling and generating terrestrial carbon data using in situ (ground based) and satellite data in combination with a number of climate models in order to obtain a more accurate understanding of global stocks and fluxes.

"Organic agricultural environment and food security"
The term "organic agriculture" refers to a process that uses methods respectful of the environment from the production stages through handling and processing. Organic production is not merely concerned with the final product which reaches the consumer.

"Organic Agriculture in Senegal"
The agricultural systems currently in place in Senegal are a mixture of traditional and modern methods, depending greatly on the region and cultural traditions. Current systems have been proven to be inefficient; a strong need exists to create new systems which will be sustainable. This publication examines the introduction of organic agriculture in Senegal as an alternative approach to production and a way to promote better natural resources management.
(Only available in French)


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Institutions

Land tenure

"Land Reform, land settlements and cooperatives. 2006/1"
This volume includes ten articles that examine the issues of land tenure data, land tenure databases and their roles in their host societies.

"Land Reform, land settlements and cooperatives. 2005/2"
This issue offers the reader a series of articles and information related to the discussions that took place in March 2006 in Porto Alegre, Brazil, at the International Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development.

"Land tenure alternative conflict management. FAO Land Tenure Manuals Number 2"
The aim of this training manual is to acquaint practitioners with the main characteristics of a land tenure conflict, the context in which the conflict takes place, the stakeholders taking part in the conflict, and the balance of their power relations.

"European Union accession and land tenure data in Central and Eastern Europe. FAO Land Tenure Policy Series Number 1"
The EU has a long tradition of offering membership to countries with the intention of strengthening democracy and the rule of law in them, and the present expansion into Central and Eastern Europe should be seen in this context.

"Access to rural land and land administration after violent conflicts. FAO Land Tenure Studies 8"
Secure access to land is a crucial factor in the eradication of hunger and poverty. Providing secure access to land is frequently not easy, and it is particularly complex in situations following violent conflicts.

"Land reform, land settlements and cooperatives 2005/1"
The articles in this issue address the issues of good governance, new institutional structures and methodological approaches.

"Leasing agricultural land"
FAO Land Tenure Notes 1
Land is one of the most important assets of a farmer, providing food for the family while surplus yields can be used to earn extra income. For those with no land or insufficient land for their needs, acquiring land through leasing goes a long way to determining their future security.

"Land reform, land settlement and cooperatives 2004/2"
This issue comprises eight articles that examine a range of areas central to land tenure activity. They provide a stimulating and, in some cases, critical set of perspectives on how best to tackle some of these issues.

"Land reform, land settlement and cooperatives 2004/1"
This issue addresses the main topics that are at the core of the recognition of indigenous peoples’ land rights.

"Cadastral surveys and records of rights in land"
FAO Land Tenure Studies number 1
In spite of the usefulness and value of good maps, much of the world is still not adequately mapped for its present needs, especially in urban areas.

"Good practice guidelines for agricultural leasing arrangements"
FAO Land Tenure Studies number 2
Leasing offers a means for farming families with little or no land and capital to gain access to land.

"Land tenure and rural development"
FAO Land Tenure Studies number 3
This publication is intended to provide support to those who are assessing and designing appropriate responses to food insecurity and rural development situations. This guide aims to show where and why land tenure is an important issue in food security and sustainable rural livelihoods.

"Gender and access to land"
FAO Land Tenure Studies number 4
The guidelines contained in this publication are expected to inform land administrators and other land professionals about the need to consider gender issues when undertaking land projects.

"Rural property tax systems in Central and Eastern Europe"
FAO Land Tenure Studies number 5
This guide reflects the increasing recognition that rural property taxes can play a significant part in promoting sustainable rural livelihoods in transition countries in Central and Eastern Europe.

"The design of land consolidation pilot projects in Central and Eastern Europe"
FAO Land Tenure Studies number 6
In much of Central and Eastern Europe, the land tenure structure includes many small and fragmented farms. Land consolidation can be an effective instrument to make agriculture more competitive and to improve rural conditions. This guide provides advice on what countries can do to start a land consolidation pilot project.

"Decentralization and rural property taxation"
FAO Land Tenure Studies number 7
This guide is intended to assist countries that wish to introduce new property tax systems or to expand or reform existing systems. It is aimed primarily at supporting land administrators who have been assigned the responsibility for the technical design and implementation of rural property taxation systems.

"Land Reform in Eastern Europe - Western CIS, Transcaucuses, Balkans, and EU Accession Countries" The former socialist countries of Eastern Europe began a transition to a market economy in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s. This paper looks at one aspect of that transition: the transition from state ownership to private ownership of agricultural land and the accompanying transition to a land market for agricultural land.

"Multilingual thesaurus on land tenure"
This thesaurus is intended to offer readers a dictionary of land terms. However, this publication is more than a simple dictionary which provides literal translations and succinct definitions. For each term, the authors have attempted to introduce new elements for better understanding of the terms, demonstrating different uses in specific contexts and illustrating the use of the terms with concrete examples.

"Land reform, land settlement and cooperatives cooperatives 2003/3: Special edition"
This special edition is a joint publication by FAO and the World Bank.

"Land reform, land settlement and cooperatives 2003/2"
Land reform, land settlement and cooperatives 2003/2 marks its fortieth year of publication. The publication has consistently addressed land tenure issues with contributions from FAO colleagues and from experts and policy-makers throughout the world.

"Land reform, land settlements and cooperatives 2003/1"
The articles in this issue cover a wide variety of current concerns in land tenure and land reform.

"Land reform, land settlements and cooperatives 2002/2"
This issue of the bulletin focuses on the management of conflict over land and natural resources. FAO's Rural Development Division is currently working toward achieving a deeper understanding of the current methods and practices in land conflict management.

"Land reform, land settlements and cooperatives 2002/1"
Land and land reform cover a great range, both in terms of the geographical and development status of the countries considered, and of the variety of perspectives on the issues. The articles in this issue reflect this breadth in a variety of ways.

"Land reform, land settlements and cooperatives 2001/2"
This issue includes papers on the following topics: the reform of land policy in Mozambique; social and geographical diversity in Chile's agriculture; the Bedouin of Syria; smallholder land policy in Kenya; agriculture and land reform in Cuba; the institutional economics of land markets in the Czech Republic and Poland; and property rights of smallholder farmers in Nigeria.
(Also available in French and Spanish)

"Land reform, land settlements and cooperatives 2001/1"
Access to land and natural resources needs to be on an equitable basis allowing the poor and the disadvantaged, including women, to secure the assets needed for them and their families to generate sustainable livelihoods. The articles in this issue of the Bulletin address areas of key concern in this context.
(Also available in French and Spanish)

"Land reform, land settlements and cooperatives 2000/2"
Articles in this edition of the develop several areas and introduce specific experiences relating to land reform that are of particular interest to those involved in land reform in the new millennium, whether as practitioners or as academics. The main thread running through the articles is that of change; how we can help to understand what change means and how it can be managed. In most cases, the articles reflect the experience of experts working around the world as part of the FAO Land Tenure Service and illustrate the development of thinking in these respective areas.
(Also available in French and Spanish)

"Land reform, land settlements and cooperatives 2000/1"
The subject matter and title of the bulletin "Land reform: land settlement and cooperatives" reflect the realization that reforming rural society so as to provide all citizens with access to sufficient food and economic, political and social security depends just as much on access to social rights as it does on access to agricultural land. The special role of the bulletin is also reinforced by its commitment to bringing the ideas and data of those working in projects and rural administration into discussions with authors who represent the research community. Over the years, this policy has served as a kind of "reality check" during the periods of ideological debate that often arise from land tenure issues. This is confirmed in the present issue.

More publications...


Public institutions

"Analysis of agricultural environmental institutions in the north of Vietnam"
The Vietnam Agricultural Science Institute carried out participative rural assessments in the three northern provinces of Hai Duong, Ha Tay, and Son La.

"Role of government institutions for promotion of agriculture and rural development in Asia and the Pacific Region. Dimensions & Issues "
The focus in this publication is on the role of government institutions, traditional and new players, their capacities, mandates, ways of operation at the national and decentralised levels and their linkages with the private sector partner institutions at all levels.

"Typology of decentralization processes: In country rapid survey"
This CD-Rom contains the entire Decentralization and rural development series in addition to links to relevant FAO and non-FAO websites.

"Analysis of documents in the area of decentralized and participative rural development"
This document updates a publication prepared in 1997 addressing the experiences of FAO and those of other international organizations.


Rural organizations

"Pastoral risk management in Qinghai Province, China . Strengthening capability of risk management of the animal husbandry sector and promoting sustainable development in the grazing area of Qinghai Province"
This joint publication of FAO and the Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, Qinghai Province reports on the FAO-China Technical Cooperation Project-TCP : TCP/CPR/2902.

"Soil and water conservation to conservation agriculture practices. Eotulelo Farmer Field School Group, Tanzania"
The Eutolelo Farmer Field School Group has been in existence since 2001 as a self-help community based group. From the very beginning a key motivation for the group and individual households was to find means to deal with the deteriorating natural resource base.

"Promoting rural women's cooperative businesses in Thailand. A training kit"
The FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific has developed this training kit to assist rural women in becoming individual or group entrepreneurs and managers of cooperative businesses.

"Computerizing agricultural cooperatives: A practical guide"
This manual is written for developing country cooperatives that are just starting to consider whether or not or how to computerize. Its intended target audience includes managers, trainers and policy makers with little experience in working with computers.

"New strategies for mobilizing capital in agricultural cooperatives"
As with any business, agricultural cooperatives require capital to be successful. The search for capital leads cooperatives to explore various sources in order to maintain and strengthen their position in the market. Greater member financing is usually essential.

"Local institutions and livelihoods: Guidelines for analysis"
These guidelines help development workers to understand the role of local institutions better. They are based on the pilot experience of a research programme on “Rural Household Income Strategies for Poverty Alleviation and Interactions with the Local Institutional Environment”.

"Agricultural cooperative development: A manual for trainers"
This innovative manual is geared to improving cooperative management and familiarizing political and administrative decision-makers with new cooperative development approaches.

"Mobilising capital for agricultural service cooperatives"
This publication notes that agricultural cooperatives in developing countries must adapt to the new reality of reduced government budgets and learn to raise more capital from their members.



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Knowledge

Communication for development

"Report of the sensitation workshop on rural radio for policy and decision makers in East and Southern Africa"
This workshop follows findings of two studies on training needs for rural radio in Africa carried out by Inter-African Center for Rural Broadcasting Studies of Ouagadougou and The South Africa Development Community Centre of Communication for Development.

"Rural radio transmissions and rural youth in Cameroon. Communication for development case study 28"
The conclusions of this study confirm the strategic importance radio plays in communication for development campaigns and strategies in Africa.

"Rural radio transmissions and rural youth in Mali. Communication for development case study 29"
Within the context of the project GCP/MLI/020/NET “The relaunch of rural radio in Mali”, a series of studies on the needs of youth regarding information and communication were carried out in collaboration with the four radio stations of Bla, Bougouni, Kolondiéba and Koutiala. These studies were based on the production, the transmission and the evaluation of radio programmes for young people.

"Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal: Starting with the People. – A Handbook"
A practical guide to assess communication processes and systems. It provides concepts and tools for the participatory design of Communication for Development activities, involving rural stakeholders in the research process to identify communication needs and appropriate channels and media to support development efforts.

"Participatory Communication Strategy Design – A Handbook "
A handy guide to involve people in decision-making processes for effective communication planning and action. It presents a step-by-step methodology for participatory communication strategy design, and the principles for communication planning, message development, multimedia material production and the implementation of communication activities in the field.

"Communication and Natural Resource Management: An E-forum on perspectives, principles and future directions"
This e-forum was based on a review of the book “Communication and Natural Resource Management: Experience/Theory” which presents short case studies, reflections and exercises to guide readers through a self learning process about communication and natural resource management and how to improve its impact in the field.

"Yasarekomo: An experience of indigenous communications in Bolivia"
In the introduction to this publication, a village representative writes "Communications is life... We are a people who communicate in order to keep our values alive and relevant in a society that is constantly changing. Furthermore, we know that communications is the key to any type of development."

"Communication for development: A medium for innovation in natural resources management"
One of the key challenges faced by rural development programmes is to address poverty alleviation, food security and environmental sustainability in an integrated manner. Fighting land degradation and desertification, halting deforestation, promoting proper management of water resources and protecting biodiversity require the active participation of rural communities through communication processes.

"The state of communication for development in Niger – Volumes 1 and 2"
This two-volume publication addresses communication for development in Niger. Communication policies are recognized in Niger as a critical element to the economic, social and cultural development of the country.

"The one to watch: Radio, new ICTs and interactivity"
The Internet and other new information and communication technologies (ICTs) are changing radio in the developing world. But far from making it less relevant, they are opening up hitherto unimagined possibilities.

"Revisiting the Magic Box"
New information and communications technologies (ICTs), the Internet and mobile telephony in particular, are greatly transforming how we work, organize and communicate with each other.

"Understanding the indigenous knowledge and information systems of pastoralists in Eritrea"
Although many extension and research workers overlook the importance of nomadic herders' indigenous knowledge, this knowledge is extremely important since is based on experiential learning, evolves constantly and is shared through local communication processes.

"Participatory communication: a key to rural learning systems"
This publication addresses the radical shift that the role of communication has undergone in recent years. Participatory communication highlights the importance of cultural identity, concerted action and dialogue, local knowledge and stakeholder participation at all levels.

"Communication and natural resource management: Experience/Theory"
The launch of this new communication publication is being marked with an e-forum hosted by the Communication Initiative.

"National information, education and communication strategy for Cameroon: Case study 22"
This publication illustrates the prioritization of reproductive health factors and an analysis of the national structures responsible for putting in place information, education and communication strategies.

"Socio-cultural constraints and the need for information about reproductive health for youth and men in Cameroon: Case study 21"
This publication results from a study undertaken in rural Cameroon which concentrated upon understanding socio-cultural factors which discourage use of health centers by men and youth.

"Evaluation and utilization of traditional methods of communication in Cameroon's central, southern, eastern and extreme northern regions: Case study 20"
This study thoroughly evaluates traditional means of communication in 18 Cameroonian villages and selects the traditional methods best adapted for the diffusion of information.

"Knowledge, attitudes and practices in the area of reproductive health in central, northern and southern Cameroon: Case study 19"
This study addresses the knowledge, attitudes and practices of men and youth, both male and female, regarding their reproductive health.

"New Publications in the Field of Communication for Development"
These publications were produced from the Regional Workshop for Designing and Implementing Multimedia Communication Strategies and National Communication Policies took place in Niamey, Niger, in April 2002.

"The National Communication Policy in Burkina Faso"
The Communication for development group has published the fifth publication of the series on national communication strategies and policies, following earlier studies on Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Republic of Central Africa and Cape-Verde.

"Information and Communication Technologies Servicing Rural Radio: Final report of the International Workshop"
which was held 19-22 February 2001 is now available in English and French. The Workshop provided a forum to share ideas and experiences between North (Europe and North America) and South (Africa) regarding the use of radio broadcasting and includes the main recommendations made at the workshop.

"Voices for change: Rural women and communication"
In today's climate of political and socio-economic change, communication can play a decisive role in promoting food security and rural development. By fostering a dialogue between rural people and other sectors of society, communication processes can empower both women and men to provide information and knowledge as a basis for change and innovation.

Communication for Development CD-ROM
This Communication for Development CD-ROM contains a selection of publications covering a wide range of topics related to communication for development in many countries. The CD-ROM is a useful tool for policy-makers, planners, educators, extnesion workers and otehrs who use communication to information and educate people about new ideas and technical innovations in agriculture and rural development.

More publications...


Education

"Compendium of Experiences of Italian NGOs in Education for Rural People"
This compendium includes summaries of 36 education projects benefiting rural people, identified among the activities of approximately 150 Italian NGOs.

"Education opportunities for hill tribes in Northern Thailand: Implications for sustainable rural development"
This case study, a new publication produced by the Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, addresses the challenges in developing models of education for the hill tribes of Thailand's northern regions.

"Participatory Curriculum Development study: A training manual"
This training guide seeks to help those engaged in agricultural education and training to identify the stakeholders for their own programs. It explores the reasons and methods for involving these stakeholders in the development of curricula.


Extension

"Modernizing national agricultural extension systems: A practical guide for policy-makers of developing countries"
This publication addresses an increasing demand for practical, action-oriented guidelines which policy-makers could use in reforming extension systems.

"Agricultural extension and training needs of farmers in the small island countries. A case study from Samoa"
The objective of this study, conducted in July 2003, was to identify the special agricultural extension and training needs of farmers living in small island countries, using Samoa as a specific case. A participatory rural appraisal approach (PRA) is used to identify farmers' needs in different geographic locations of Samoa.

"Enhancing coordination among AKIS/RD actors. An analytical and comparative review of country studies on agricultural knowledge and information systems for rural development (AKIS/RD)"
This new publication aims to provide a preliminary response to the question: How can developing countries encourage the various systems, organizations and producers concerned with agricultural research, education and extension, and operating in the public or private sector, to behave as one system with regard to the agricultural development component of rural development?

"Facing the challenge of an HIV/AIDS epidemic: agricultural extension services in sub-Saharan Africa"
The very survival of rural human resources development aimed at improving agricultural production, both within the extension organization and among the clientele, is currently at stake due to the HIV/AIDS menace.

"Agricultural extension, rural development and the food security challenge"
The purpose of this publication is to highlight the important role of agricultural and rural extension in the fight against hunger.

"A new extension vision for food security a new extension vision for food security: Challenge to change"
This publication addresses the challenges faced by agricultural extension services in their provision of support to food security initiatives.

"Extension through womens' community development groups: A case study of female extension assistants"
Male migration in the Azad Jammu and Kashmir region of Pakistan has resulted in crop farming and livestock raising and management becoming increasingly women's domain.

"The impact of HIV/AIDS on the different farming sectors in Namibia"
Issued jointly by the University of Namibia and the FAO Regional Office for Africa, This publication provides background to the situation of HIV/AIDS in Namibia. Issues related to the impact of HIV/AIDS on farming, both communal and commercial are reviewed.

"Agricultural and rural extension worldwide: Options for institutional reform in the developing countries"
The initiatives in this publication draw on recent agricultural extension, reform measures introduced in several high-income, middle-income and low-income countries. The focus, however, is on reform measures that promote food security and poverty alleviation among small-holders in low-income countries.

"Participatory environment education and training for sustainable agriculture"
This publication from the Extension group describes FAO's pioneering approach in integrating environment education concerns into agricultural education and training programmes.

"Human resources in agricultural and rural development"
Human resources in agricultural and rural development (HRARD) is an international forum for the exchange of innovative national, regional and global experiences in human resources development and institutional reforms, aimed at promoting sustainable food security, alleviating rural poverty and improving the quality of rural livelihoods through agricultural exension, education and communication.
(Also available in Arabic, French and Spanish)

"Improving agricultural extension - A reference manual"
This new book on Improving Agricultural Extension is the third in a series that was started in 1972. In the first edition of Agricultural Extension: A Reference Manual, Addison H. Maunder authored and edited a wide range of material that first defined "extension" as a field of study and practice. This third volume reflects the continued development of extension within a rapidly changing world.


Research and Technology

"A History of agricultural research in tropical francophone Africa. Volume I – The beginning of African agrigulture – from Prehistorical Times to the Middle Ages"
This publication describes for us the patrimony resulting from millenia of experience. It illustrates the path followed from the creation of technological innovation, leading us toward the organized and scientific reasearch already underway by the end of the 19th Century, and its related, ultimate objective: the ability to satisfy the food requirements, economic needs and social and cultural aspects of mankind.

"The Role of Biotechnology in exploring and protecting agricultural genetic resources"
The book aims to provide an updated overview of the current status of the world's genetic resources for food and agriculture, of the use of biotechnology tools for characterizing and conserving these genetic resources, and of the many specific issues involved in applying them in developing countries.

"Annotated Bibliography on and Stage-wise Analysis of Participatory Research Projects in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management"
This publication comprises an annotated and abstracted bibliography of case studies in the field of agricultural and natural resource management research.

"ICT needs for ecological and organic agriculture in Bulgaria , Serbia and Kosovo"
This report is an assessment of information and communication capacity building needs in the National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) and their partners in Bulgaria, Serbia and Kosovo.

"Status of research and application of crop biotechnologies in developing countries: Preliminary assessment"
This report has just been published; it provides a first analysis of about 2,000 crop-sector entries from 71 developing countries contained in the database as of 31 August 2004.

"Impact of foreign assistance on institutional development of national agricultural research systems in sub-Saharan Africa"
This study is the analysis and assessment of foreign assistance provided by 36 agricultural research projects in seven selected countries of sub-Saharan Africa.

"Integrating Food Security Issues into Agricultural Research"
FAO, the University of Georgia, USA and the Global Forum on Agricultural Research (GFAR) facilitated a dialogue among members of the international research and development community in order to identify ways to strengthen national research systems in order to develop coordinated programmes in support of research to promote food security.

"Glossary of Biotechnology for Food and Agriculture"
FAO Research and Technology Paper 9. The glossary is a revised, augmented version of the "Glossary of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering", published by FAO in 1999. It is available as a publication or as a searchable database.

"Agricultural Biotechnology for Developing Countries - Results of an Electronic Forum"
FAO Research and Technology Paper 8. This publication reports on the first six e-mail conferences hosted by the FAO Electronic Forum on Biotechnology in Food and Agriculture from March 2000 to May 2001. Each conference was moderated, lasted roughly two months and focused on agricultural biotechnology in developing countries.


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People

Gender and development

"Local seed systems and external influences: a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania"
This case study is based on a research on local knowledge systems and agro-biodiversity carried out in Central Zone and Southern Highlands by the FAO LinKS Project. It highlights and explains how political decisions and socio-economic changes have influenced local seed systems and the availability of local seeds in Tanzania over the past 50 years.

"Energy and gender in rural sustainable development"
FAO is looking at ways in which increased attention to energy and gender linkages can help countries promote sustainable agricultural production and rural development, as well as work towards meeting the targets set out in the Millennium Development Goals.

"Community Diversity Seed Fairs in Tanzania. Guidelines for seed fairs "
The Gender and Population Division in collaboration with the Plant Genetic Resources Service have prepared simple guidelines for rural communities explaining the main steps how to organize a community diversity seed fair.

"The impact of HIV/AIDS and drought on local knowledge systems for agrobiodiversity and food security"
This study was conducted to determine the effects of HIV/AIDS and drought on the local knowledge systems for agro-biodiversity and food security in Swaziland, as recent years have seen an increase in both types of disaster.

"Gender and land compendium of country studies"
This compendium has been put together to provide an improved understanding of the complex issues concerning gender and land. It draws on research commissioned by FAO, and has been compiled by the Gender and Development Service in collaboration with the Land Tenure Service.

"Building on gender, agrobiodiversity and local knowledge. A training manual"
The present Training Manual is based on experiences collected in numerous training workshops carried out under the FAO-LinKS project in Eastern and Southern Africa. This Training Manual constitutes a conceptual guide for trainers that can be used to lead them through the issues of gender and local knowledge which are important elements for agrobiodiversity management and food security.

"The Impact of HIV/AIDS and drought on local knowledge systems for agrobiodiversity and food security in Swaziland"
This LinKS study uses a livelihoods approach to highlight the linkages between the impact of HIV/AIDS and drought and the degradation of human, financial and social capital.

"Indigenous Knowledge of Edible Tree Products - The Mungomu Tree in Central Mozambique"
This study was sponsored by the FAO regional project "Gender, Biodiversity and Local Knowledge Systems to Stengthen Agriculture and Rural Development in Southern Africa" (LinKS) and carried out by Kulima, the Organism for the Socio-economic Development of Mozambique.

"Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Guidelines for reporting on Article 14"
A number of international Conventions and Declarations designed to promote equal rights for men and women have been adopted by the United Nations General Assembly. Despite all these instruments, however, there is still evident and serious discrimination against women, hampering their participation in the social, political, economic and cultural life of their countries in flagrant violation of the principles of equal rights and respect for human dignity.

"Gender and farming systems: Lessons from Nicaragua"
The purpose of this study is to propose a conceptual and methodological framework that integrates a gender perspective into the analysis of farming systems. The aim is to produce a reference guide for future rural development programmes and projects.

"The utilization of indigenous knowledge in range management and forage plants for improving livestock productivity and food security in the Maasai and Barbaig communities"
This study originated from the need to document the indigenous knowledge of the Maasai and the Barbaig related to rangeland management of forage plants and animal productivity aiming at conserving biodiversity and increasing food security.

"Regional Consultation on Advancement of Rural Women in the Beijing Plus 10 Era. Policies and Programmes 31 August to 3 September 2004: A Report"
The FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Government of Lao PDR, organised a regional consultation to review and share experiences on the status of rural women in the region ten years after the UN Conference on Women held in Beijing.

"Agricultural Censuses and Gender: Lessons Learned in Africa"
FAO Regional Office for Africa. This document highlights lessons learned in Africa with regard to the integration of gender concerns into agricultural censuses and provides recommendations on how to further improve the integration of these concerns into agricultural data collection systems.

"SEAGA Livestock Guide. Planning with a Gender and HIV/AIDS Lens "
The SEAGA Livestock Guide aims to support those working on livestock-related programmes and projects to more effectively respond to the different needs, priorities, constraints and livelihood strategies present in rural communities or households.

"Rural households and resources: A pocket guide for extension workers"
This guide aims to assist extension and other community-based workers to understand the management of resources within and between households.

"Addressing HIV/AIDS through agriculture and natural resource sectors: A guide for extension workers. Socio-economic and Gender Analysis Programme (SEAGA)"
The purpose of this guide is to enable extension workers and development agents to contribute to addressing the rural HIV/AIDS epidemic through agriculture and natural resource sector initiatives.

"Strengthening institutional capacity in mitigating HIV/AIDS impact on the agricultural sector - potential mitigation interventions"
The Government of Zambia, through the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, has requested FAO Technical Cooperation Programme assistance in awareness raising and capacity building of senior agriculture staff in the Ministry for addressing HIV/AIDS concerns and mitigating the negative impact of HIV/AIDS on agricultural production and household food security.

"Guidelines on Socio-economic and Gender Analysis for emergency and rehabilitation"
This material was developed by FAO and the World Food Programme as a “practical” tool to assist managerial and operational staff to mainstream gender throughout the project sequence and in all aspects relating to emergency interventions

"Training manual on gender analysis for monitoring and evaluation: The ‘Engendered Logframe’ approach"
FAO and the International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR) have developed a Training manual on gender monitoring and evaluation for program management.

"HIV/AIDS, gender inequality and rural livelihoods"
FAO, in close collaboration with Development Cooperation Ireland (DCI) and the Government of Zambia, has recently completed a household livelihood research among 740 households in the Northern Province of Zambia.

"HIV/AIDS susceptibility and vulnerability pathway: a tool for identifying indicators, role models and innovations"
This study provides a practical tool for identifying indicators which reflect vulnerability at different stages of the HIV/AIDS cycle.

"Gender and sustainable development in drylands: An analysis of field experiences"
Drylands pose different challenges for rural men and women, yet agricultural, environmental and related policies and programmes often fail to recognise women's particular needs and crucial contribution in the use and management of dryland resources.

"Gender and food security: The role of information. Strategy for action"
The authors suggest that the exchange, mobilization and outreach capacities offered by information technologies are of little benefit to women in developing countries. The publication offers advice on how to reverse this trend.

"Participation and information: the key to gender-responsive agricultural policy"
This document discusses ways in which participatory approaches and information can facilitate the formulation of gender-responsive plans and strategies.

"Filling the data gap: Gender-sensitive statistics for agricultural development" The main purpose of this publication is to sensitize policy-makers to the benefits that sex-disaggregated information can bring to policy-making, and - as the main recipients and seekers of such information - move them to action at the national level.

"Agricultural Censuses and Gender Considerations - Concept and Methodology"
The agricultural censuses have traditionally underestimated women's contribution to development and omitted small-scale production units. The objective of this publication is to provide methodological guidelines to narrow the statistical gap as much as possible, avoiding the omission of women's contributions.

"The impact of HIV/AIDS on agricultural production and mainstreaming AIDS messages into agricultural extension in Uganda"
The report is based on a study that was carried out in 2001 by the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF) in Uganda under the aegis of the Integrated Support to Sustainable Development and Food Security Programme (IP).

"Strengthening the pluralistic agricultural extension system: a Zimbabwean case study"
This comprehensive report includes an overview and analysis of all public and private extension service providers and a targeted strategy to enhance co-ordination and collaboration between both public and private extension providers.

"SEAGA handbooks and guides"
The Socio-economic and Gender Analysis (SEAGA) programme seeks to promote an awareness and understanding of gender issues within agricultural and rural development issues. The handbooks offer a wide range of tools for conducting socio-economic and gender analysis.

"The role of woman in the conservation of the genetic resource of maize - Guatemala"
It is the aim of this study to identify the role played by women in the conservation of the genetic resources of maize crops in the Department of Huehuetenango.

"A long road with the women : Experiences of a project with women's groups in the Kayes-Nord region (Mali)"
This publication traces the evoloution of the Project of assistance to women's groups in the Kayes-Nord region of Mali from 1986 to 1998.

"From farmer to planner and back: Harvesting best practices"
This three volume publication contains case studies which provide an overview of how rural development activities have incorporated gender analysis and participatory methodologies.

"Filling the Data Gap: Gender-sensitive statistics for agricultural development"
The main purpose of this publication is to sensitize policy-makers to the benefits that sex-disaggregated information can bring to policy-making, and - as the main recipients and seekers of such information - move them to action at the national level.
(Also available in French and Spanish)

"Video: Sharing the Knowledge"
Filmed in Zimbabwe and Tanzania, this 12-minute video entitled highlights the important role that the local knowledge of rural men and women plays in their daily lives. Moreover, the video attempts to illustrate the importance of maintaining and sharing this knowledge base at a global level.


Participation

"Conflict management over natural resources capacity building program under the community-based rural development project"
The purpose of this training manual is to provide a capacity building framework and tools to support the technical and operational implementation of the conflict management training component for this rural development project.

"Toolkit for the application of Participatory and Negociated Territorial Development in transborder zone"
The Toolkit is related to the application of Participatory and Negotiated Territorial Development in the context of the Socio-Economic Development Program for the Transborder Onchocerciasis-Freed Zone of Ghana and Burkina Faso.

"Assessing participatory rural environmental management: In the craft villages"
In northern Viet Nam, rapid industrial, population and urban growth have put increasing pressure on land and water resources in rural agricultural areas. Overuse and misuse of these resources cause widespread environmental degradation, poor human health and living conditions, and decreased incomes from farming and craft production.

"Guidelines for participatory village planning for the National Programme for Food Security and Poverty Reduction. Cambodia 2005"
These guidelines are for the use of Village Planning Workshop Facilitation Team members working with the National Programme for Food Security and Poverty (FSPR) in Cambodia.

"Capacity building processes for Community-Based Organizations. Training materials in Arabic"
FAO has overseen a three-year training plus mentoring process that has prepared a cadre of CBOs and national trainers to promote participatory processes for community-based development. These national trainers have consolidated their practical training experiences into a series of practical training manuals.

"Improving Household Food Security and Nutrition in Northern Shewa, Amhara Region and Southern Zone, Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Community Action Planning Guidelines for Facilitation Teams"
These guidelines are for the use of Facilitation Team members working with the project “Improving Nutrition and Household Food Security in Northern Shewa, Amhara Region and Southern Tigray”.

"New strategies for mobilizing capital in agricultural cooperatives"
As with any business, agricultural cooperatives require capital to be successful. The search for capital leads cooperatives to explore various sources in order to maintain and strengthen their position in the market. Greater member financing is usually essential.

"Case study: Lessons learned and good practice. Community-based organizations in Yemen"
This paper discusses preconditions, good practice and operational lessons learned about organizational capacity development and empowerment processes analyzing the set-up and the institutional/organizational aspects of community-based organizations in Yemen.

"Participatory processes towards co-management of natural resources in pastoral areas of the Middle East"
This training sourcebook is the result of an FAO - Italian government initiative in the Syrian desert. The project to which much of this sourcebook owes its existence is the " Range Rehabilitation and Establishment of a Wildlife Reserve in the Syrian Steppe" project.

"Social dimensions of integrated production and pest management"
While most studies focus on the economic impact or yield increases resulting from integrated pest management, this report highlights the participatory nature of the farmer field schools and the social impacts of farmers and extensionists working side by side.

"The group savings resource book"
Experience has shown that group approaches to saving can help the poor save more efficiently, especially when access to saving facilities such as banks or other financial services is difficult.

"Mushroom cultivation for people with disabilities- A training manual"
The FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAP) pioneered a training programme for disabled farmers in the poor northeastern part of Thailand. The manual is intended as a training and information tool for government and non-government trainers and extension workers.

"Success Case Replication - A Manual for Increasing Farmer Household Income - By Mobilizing Successful Farmers and Groups to Train Their Peers"
SD-Dimensions is pleased to announce this new publication of the of Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

"The group promoter's resource book: A practical guide to building rural self-help groups"
This resource book shows how group promoters (GPs) can help men and women in rural communities to join together and work to improve their income and living conditions. It presents a participatory approach in which GPs play a key role. Their task is to help the poor to form sustainable self-help groups and undertake income- generating activities. A further step in the group development process - deciding on and implementing small-scale rural enterprises - is described in the Group enterprise book.
(Also available in French, Spanish and Arabic)

"The inter-group resource book: A guide to building small farmer group associations and networks"
Small farmer groups can increase their economies of scale and bargaining power by joining with other groups engaged in similar activities. This publication shows how, using a participtory approach, inter-group associations can be established in rural areas.
(Also available in French, Spanish and Arabic)

"Mobilizing capital in agricultural service cooperatives"
Due to the loss of traditional funding, cooperatives need alternative sources of capital to maintain and strengthen their position in the market. Capital mobilization is the subject of this booklet. Greater attention to capital can assist cooperatives in developing their market position and in member control of the cooperative itself.

"Video: Empowering the rural disabled"
The majority of disabled people in developing countries live in rural areas with scant hope for a better future, yet when properly assisted and motivated, their abilities, energy and resourcefulness in improving their lives and those of their families are impressive. This 16-minute video is based on FAO project experience in Thailand and Cambodia and highlights its efforts to promote greater awareness of the needs of farmers with disabilities and to seek new ways aimed at integrating the rural disabled into its programmes.

More publications...


Population

"Population ageing, sustainable development and food security in rural areas of Bolivia and Chile"
The purpose of this paper is to add to the understanding of the scope and nature of rural population ageing in Latin America, and to highlight its implications for food security and rural development in the region.

"Pocketbook on integrating HIV/AIDS considerations into food security and livelihoods projects "
This pocketbook provides a checklist of questions to provide guidance for incorporating HIV/AIDS considerations into food security and livelihoods projects.

"The impact of HIV/AIDS on land rights: Case studies from Kenya"
This study was compiled by the Integrated Rural and Regional Development Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council and FAO.

"Interactions between the agricultural sector and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic: Implications for agriculture policy. FAO"
This was the background paper for the workshop “Agricultural Policy and HIV/AIDS: Understanding the Linkages,” held November 19-21 2003 in Maputo, Mozambique.

"African Asian Agriculture against AIDS"
This publication is a report from the African-Asian Agriculture against AIDS Consultation on Agriculture, Development and HIV-vulnerability Reduction jointly organized by UNDP South East Asia HIV and Development Programme (YNDP-SEAHIV) and FAO.

"The Farmers' Life School Manual"
A joint publication of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), FAO and World Education. The Farmers’ Life School course can be used either in community-based programmes or adapted for formal educational settings.

"Sustainable agricultural/rural development and vulnerability to the AIDS epidemic"
This study, a joint publication by FAO and UNAIDS, describes how the HIV epidemic is undermining the hard-earned gains of development efforts of the last 40 years.

"Addressing the impact of HIV/AIDS on Ministries of Agriculture: Focus on Eastern and Southern Africa"
This joint FAO/UNAIDS discussion paper examines the relevance of HIV/AIDS for Ministries of Agriculture and their work in sub-Saharan Africa, and particularly in Eastern and Southern Africa. The focus of analysis is smallholder agriculture as this has been affected most severely by the HIV epidemic.

"Food requirements and population growth"
Technical background document to the World Food Summit held in Rome in 1996. In the decades leading to 2050, by which time most of the increase before stabilization will have taken place, world population growth will dominate over other demographic factors as the primary cause of increasing global food demand. Food production is expected to increase broadly in line with this rise in demand, but not without further stress on agricultural, economic and environmental resources.


Sustainable livelihoods

"Land tenure, food security and investment in postwar Sierra Leone. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper 22"
Postwar Sierra Leone presents a number of challenges in reconstruction and development. Among these is significant food insecurity and investment in the rural areas, which is especially difficult for subsistence producers who are still recovering from the effects of the war.

"Land and water rights in the Sahel. Tenure challenges of improving access to water for agriculture. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper 25"
Demographic and other changes are raising new challenges for water access in the Sahel. With rapid population growth, competition over water resources for agricultural uses is increasing. In many places, water points have been at the centre of tensions and even violent clashes between users.

"Making rights a reality. Participation in practice and lessons learned in Mozambique. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper 27"
In the last decade, several important and innovative policies and laws have been passed in Mozambique, designed in part to enhance rural livelihoods by strengthening rights of people – especially the rural poor – to natural resources.

"Land access in the 21st century. Issues, trends, linkages and policy options. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 24"
The present discussion is based on examples from specific regional contexts, focusing on sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Latin America, and drawing upon pertinent literature and experiences.

"Implementing homestead plot programmes. Experience from India. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 23"
This paper examines ways in which the poor can use small amounts of land to establish homegardens to support their livelihoods.

"Developing Institutions and Options for Livelihood Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change in Drought-prone Areas of Bangladesh"
The impacts of climate variability and change are global concerns, but in Bangladesh, where large parts of the population are chronically exposed and vulnerable to a range of natural hazards, they are particularly critical.

"Study on livelihood systems assessment, vulnerable groups profiling and livelihood adaptation to climate hazard and long-term climate change in drought-prone areas of Northwestern Bangladesh"
The CEGIS study is composed of a livelihood systems assessment, vulnerable groups profiling and analysis of livelihood adaptation practices and technologies to climate hazard and long-term climate change in drought prone areas of Northwestern Bangladesh.

"Lessons Learned by the WIN Project on Livelihoods Diversification and Enterprise Development: An Overview of WIN LDED-related Activities in Cambodia, Nepal and Zambia. FAO Livelihoods Support Programme Working Paper 19"
This project was designed specifically to test a multi-sectoral approach to empowering women in irrigation management, and to address nutrition and health concerns associated with irrigation schemes.

"Post-conflict land tenure. Using a sustainable livelihoods approach "
This paper addresses the application of sustainable livelihood approaches to access to land and land administration in post-conflict situations.

"Training modules for climate & flood forecast applications in agriculture. Enhancing early warning systems for disaster preparedness and mitigation in the agriculture sector in Bangladesh"
These training modules on climate and flood forecast applications in agriculture were developed for FAO to build the capacity of the Department of Agriculture Extension of the Government of Bangladesh in interpreting climate and flood forecast information and communicating this information to vulnerable farming communities in order to reduce disaster risks in agriculture.

"Lessons Learned by the WIN Project on Livelihoods Diversification and Enterprise Development: An Overview of WIN LDED-related Activities in Cambodia, Nepal and Zambia. FAO Livelihoods Support Programme Working Paper 19"
This project was designed specifically to test a multi-sectoral approach to empowering women in irrigation management, and to address nutrition and health concerns associated with irrigation schemes.

"Between the Household and the Market: A livelihoods analysis of the SPFS seed multiplication in Southern Guatemala. FAO Livelihoods Support Programme Working Paper 20"
In order to strengthen the capacity of the Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS)-Guatemala to incorporate livelihoods analysis in the systematization of “good practices”, an action-research exercise was carried out in November to December 2004, which focused on maize and bean certified seed multiplication in one project site.

"Strengthening disaster risk management in the agricultural sector in Bangladesh"
Under the FAO-Department of Agriculture Extension of Bangladesh project entitled “Support to the Strengthening of Disaster Preparedness in Agricultural Sector”, the present study was carried out by the Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services multi-disciplinary team.

"Agricultural workers and their contribution to sustainable agriculture and rural development "
This joint report published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers’ Associations (IUF) draws attention to the plight of the world’s 450 million waged agricultural workers.

"Disaster Risk Management: A Dimension of Sustainable Development. Case Study: Honduras"
The main objective of the inter-regional study is to evaluate the role and potential of local institutions in the reduction of vulnerability to natural disasters and in the development of sustainable livelihoods in high-risk areas.

"Do sustainable livelihoods approaches have a positive impact on the rural poor? A look at twelve case studies. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 16"
Using a livelihoods perspective along with a good developmental tool kit and appropriate sequencing can enhance the quality of a wide range of approaches to improve the lives of the rural poor.

"Post-conflict land tenure - Using a Sustainable Livelihoods Approach. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 18"
This paper addresses the application of sustainable livelihood approaches to access to land and land administration in post-conflict situations.

"Participatory policy reform from a sustainable livelihoods perspective: Review of concepts and practical experiences.Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 3" A more active involvement of the rural poor in policy making, either directly or through community-based and civil society organizations, would enhance their access to assets and services and benefit their livelihood and food security goals.

"Livelihood diversification and natural resource access. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 9" This paper sets out to explore the links between livelihood diversification and access to natural resources, and it does this bearing in mind the need to make micro-macro policy links between local level rural livelihoods and national level poverty reduction efforts.

"The culture of access to mountain natural resources Policy, processes and practices. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 7"
This study has been commissioned by FAO to look at sustainable livelihoods approaches to access to natural resources in mountain areas. It concentrates on access by poorer and marginalized groups in Nepal to policy processes whereby long-term sustainable access to resources is achieved.

"The implementation of land allocation and land titling in Laos: Impacts on land access and rural livelihoods.Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 8"
This paper describes the results of a study funded by FAO on the impacts of the land reform in Laos on land access and rural livelihoods, focusing more particularly on the northern regions.

"The role of local institutions in reducing vulnerability to recurrent natural disasters and in sustainable livelihoods development. Assessing the role of local institutions in reducing the vulnerability of at-risk communities in Búzi, Central Mozambique"
This study aims at understanding the role of local institutions and organisations in reducing people’s vulnerability to natural hazards. It was based in Búzi District, where two villages, namely Munamícua and Boca, were selected for the fieldwork. Both sites still reflect the impact of the events of 2000 in the highly vulnerable livelihoods of their households.

"People-Centred Approaches: A Brief Literature Review and Comparison of types. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 5"
This report aims to give a concise overview of some people-centred approaches to rural development that are being used, or have been used, in different areas of the world.

"Understanding access to seeds and plant genetic resources. What can a livelihoods perspective offer? Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 6"
This study uses a livelihoods perspective to facilitate understanding of the role played by seeds and plant genetic resources in rural people’s livelihoods and considers how a livelihood perspective may strengthen understanding of issues of access.

"Applying People Centred Development Approaches within FAO. Some practical lessons. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper Number 15"
The objective of this work is to draw some lessons on the implementation of peoplecentred approaches in FAO and, to some extent, different development contexts.

"Land and Water – the rights interface. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper 10"
This publication analyses the linkages between rights to land and water.

"Small homegarden plots and sustainable livelihoods for the poor. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper 11"
This paper examines ways in which the poor can use small amounts of land to establish homegardens to advance important livelihoods objectives.

"Land and Livelihoods: Making land rights real for India’s rural poor. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper 12"
This paper identifies issues that are central to consideration of land access in rural India.

"Poverty and forestry : A case study of Kyrgyzstan with reference to other countries in West and Central Asia. Livelihood Support Programme Working Paper 13"
This paper uses the case study of Kyrgyzstan to show how access to forests in West and Central Asia can contribute to poverty reduction using a sustainable livelihoods approach.

"The role of local institutions in reducing vulnerability to recurrent natural disasters and in sustainable livelihoods development in high risk areas"
This case study of the Ilo-Ilo Province, The Philippines concentrates on the role of local level institutions in reducing vulnerability to recurrent natural disasters and in sustainable livelihoods development in high risk areas.

"Proceedings and Inter-agency experiences and lessons from the Forum on Operationalizing Participatory Ways of Applying Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches"
This report synthesizes the main issues and lessons learned from the Inter-agency Forum on Operationalizing Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches, held at the Certosa di Pontignano, near Siena, Italy, 7-11 March 2000. The Forum brought together several agencies that had been applying or developing sustainable livelihoods (SL) approaches in their work.
(Also available in French and Spanish)


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