FAO defines meat as the flesh of animals used for food. In productiondata, meat is normally reported inclusive of bone and exclusive ofmeat that is unfit for human consumption. As reported by individualcountries, meat production data may refer either to commercialproduction (meat entering marketing channels), inspected production(from animals slaughtered under sanitary inspection), or totalproduction (the total of the above- mentioned categories plusslaughter for personal consumption). All FAO annual production datarefer to total production.

Country statistics on meat production adhere to one or more of thefollowing concepts:

  1. Live weight: the weight of the animal immediately before slaughter.
  2. Killed weight: the live weight less the uncollected blood lost during slaughter.
  3. Dressed carcass weight: weight minus all parts - edible and inedible - that are removed in dressing the carcass. The concept varies widely from country to country and according to the various species of livestock. Edible parts generally include edible offals (head or head meat, tongue, brains, heart, liver, spleen, stomach or tripes and, in a few countries, other parts such as feet, throat and lungs. Slaughter fats (the unrendered fats that fall in the course of dressing the carcasses) are recorded as either edible or inedible according to country practice. Inedible parts generally include hides and skins (except in the case of pigs), as well as hoofs and stomach contents.

Meat production data for minor animals (poultry, rabbits, etc.) arereported in one of the following three ways: ready-to-cook weight(giblets are sometimes included and sometimes excluded); evisceratedweight (including the feet and head); or dressed weight, i.e. the liveweight less the blood, feathers and skin.

FAO data relate to dressed carcass weight for livestock and, whereverpossible, ready-to- cook weight for poultry.

Among individual countries, one of the following three concepts isused to measure production:

  1. Production from all animals, of both indigenous and foreignorigin, that are slaughtered within national boundaries.
  2. Production from the slaughter of indigenous animals plus exportsof live indigenous animals during the reference period. Derived frommeat production as follows: production from slaughtered animals plusthe meat equivalent of all animals exported alive, minus the meatequivalent of all animals imported alive. As imports/exports of liveanimals are recorded by FAO in numbers, not weight, animal type andsize are of significance.
  3. The biological production concept covers indigenous animals thatare either slaughtered or exported live, plus net additions to thestock during the reference period. Derived from indigenous productionas follows: indigenous production plus (or minus) the meat equivalentof the change in the stock numbers during the reference period.Production is expressed in terms of live weight. Changes in the totallive weight of all animals are not taken into account.

FAO uses the first concept of meat production in the construction ofits food balance sheets and for related indicators. The secondconcept, indigenous meat production, in measuring the output of thenational livestock sector, is useful mainly in the construction ofindex numbers of agricultural production. The third concept,biological production, would be the most complete as it also reflectschanges in the livestock herd, but it is not used because ofdifficulties in obtaining information from national reporting offices.The prices applied to indigenous meat production are derived fromprices of live animals. This covers not only the value of meat, butalso the value of offals, fats, hides and skins.

PROCESSED PRODUCTS FROM SLAUGHTERED ANIMALS.Meat (including chilledor frozen), edible offals, fats and hides and skins are consideredprimary products. The main processed meat products are the following:

Cured meats include meats processed with salt and usually containingvarious additives (such as flavouring and preserving agents), anddried or smoked meat, e.g. bacon and ham made from pig meat. Paté is a spread of finely mashed, seasoned and spiced meat or liver of pigsand poultry.

Sausages are highly seasoned products made from meat (usually beef orpig) that has been ground, chopped and encased. Sausages may befresh, pickled, dry or semi-dry, cooked or uncooked and smoked orunsmoked. Sausages usually contain various additives, such as salt,onions and spices. The casings are made either of prepared animalintestines or synthetic material.

Other preserved meats include meat and meat offals that have beenboiled, steamed, grilled, fried, roasted or otherwise cooked.

The codes and names of all livestock products _ with primary in uppercase letters and processed in upper and lower case letters _ are shownin the list that follows, along with any accompanying remarks.

Products from slaughtered animals

0867 MEAT OF CATTLEMeat of bovine animals, fresh, chilled or frozen, with bone in. Commontrade names are beef and veal.
0868 OFFALS OF CATTLE, EDIBLEFresh, chilled or frozen.
0869 FAT OF CATTLESee Chapter 14.
0870 MEAT OF CATTLE, BONELESSBoneless meat of bovine animals, whether fresh, chilled or frozen.
0871Cattle, Butcher FatSee Chapter 14.
0872Beef and Veal, Dried, Salted, SmokMeat of bovine animals, whether salted, in brine, dried or smoked.Includes edible flours and meals.
0873 Meat ExtractsExtracts obtained by boiling meat under pressure and concentrating theresulting liquid after the fat has been removed. Includes juicesobtained by pressing raw meat. Whenever possible trade data excludefish extracts.
0874 Sausages of Beef and VealPreparations of meat or offal, whether chopped, minced or of blood.They may be raw, cooked or smoked and contain other ingredients, andare then enclosed in natural or artificial casings.
0875Beef and Veal Preparations nesMeat and offal (o/t liver) that are boiled, steamed, grilled, fried,roasted or otherwise cooked. Includes prepared meals that contain morethan 20% of meat and offal by weight.
0877Homogenized Meat PreparationsPreparations used in infant or dietetic food.
0878 Liver PreparationsLiver of any animal, excluding fatty livers of code 1060.
0947 BUFFALO MEATFresh, chilled or frozen, with bone in or boneless.
0948 OFFALS OF BUFFALO, EDIBLEFresh, chilled or frozen.
0949 FAT OF BUFFALOSee Chapter 14.
0977 MEAT OF SHEEPMeat of sheep and lamb, whether fresh, chilled or frozen, with bone inor boneless.
0978 OFFALS OF SHEEP, EDIBLEFresh, chilled or frozen.
0979 FAT OF SHEEPSee Chapter 14.
1017 GOAT MEATMeat of goats and kids, whether fresh, chilled or frozen, with bone inor boneless.
1018 OFFALS OF GOATS, EDIBLEFresh, chilled or frozen.
1019 FAT OF GOATSSee Chapter 14.
1035 PIG MEATMeat, with the bone in, of domestic or wild pigs (e.g. wild boars),whether fresh, chilled or frozen.
1036 OFFALS OF PIGS, EDIBLEFresh, chilled or frozen.
1037 FAT OF PIGSSee Chapter 14.
1038 PORKPig meat, excluding butcher fat and bones.
1039 Bacon and HamMeat of pigs, whether salted, in brine, dried or smoked.
1040 Pig, Butcher FatSee Chapter 14.
1041 Sausages of Pig MeatSee 0874.
1042 Pig Meat PreparationsSee 0875.
1043 LardSee Chapter 14.

Products from slaughtered animals

1058 CHICKEN MEATFresh, chilled or frozen. May include all types of poultry meat ifnational statistics do not report separate data.
1059 OFFALS AND LIVER OF CHICKENSFresh, chilled or frozen.
1060 Fatty Liver PreparationsFatty livers of ducks and geese when cooked, prepared or preserved(e.g. paté).
1061 Meat, Canned (Chicken)Includes meat and offals of poultry.
1065 FAT OF POULTRYSee Chapter 14.
1066 Fat of Poultry, RenderedSee Chapter 14.
1069 DUCK MEATFresh, chilled or frozen.
1075 OFFALS AND LIVER OF DUCKSFresh, chilled or frozen, salted or in brine.
1073 GOOSE MEATFresh, chilled or frozen.
1074 OFFALS AND LIVER OF GEESEFresh, chilled or frozen, salted or in brine.
1080 TURKEY MEATFresh, chilled or frozen.
1089 MEAT OF PIGEONS AND OTHER BIRDS NESFresh, chilled or frozen.

Products from slaughtered animals

1097 HORSE MEATFresh, chilled or frozen.
1098 OFFALS OF HORSESFresh, chilled or frozen.
1108 MEAT OF ASSESFresh, chilled or frozen.
1111 MEAT OF MULESFresh, chilled or frozen.
1127 MEAT OF CAMELSFresh, chilled or frozen.
1128 OFFALS OF CAMELS, EDIBLEFresh, chilled or frozen.
1129 FAT OF CAMELSSee Chapter 14.
1141 RABBIT MEATFresh, chilled or frozen. May include hare meat.
1151 MEAT OF OTHER DOMESTIC RODENTSFresh, chilled or frozen.
1158 MEAT OF OTHER DOMESTIC CAMELIDSFresh, chilled or frozen.
1160 FAT OF OTHER CAMELIDSSee Chapter 14.
1163 GAME MEATMeat and offals of wild animals, whether fresh, chilled or frozen.

Products from slaughtered animals

1164 Meat, Dried nesMeat, except of bovines and pigs, salted, in brine or smoked.
1176 SNAILS O/T SEA SNAILSFresh, chilled, frozen, dried, salted or in brine.
1166 MEAT NESIncluding frog legs, marine mammals, etc. Some countries includeunder this heading meats that are listed above, but which are notreported separately. Fresh, chilled or frozen.
1167 OFFALS NESFresh, chilled or frozen.
1168 Animal Oils and Fats nesSee Chapter 14.
1172 Meat, Prepared nesExcludes poultry, swine or bovine meat preparations.
1173 Meat MealSee Chapter 11.
1175 Blood MealSee Chapter 11.
1221 Lard Stearine and Lard OilSee Chapter 14.
1225 TallowSee Chapter 14.
1232 Food Preparations nesIncluding turtle eggs and birds' nests.
1243 Fat Preparations nesSee Chapter 14.

Products from slaughtered animals

0944 Indigenous Cattle Meat
0972 Indigenous Buffalo Meat
1012 Indigenous Sheep Meat
1032 Indigenous Goat Meat
1055 Indigenous Pig Meat
1095 Indigenous Chicken Meat
1070 Indigenous Duck Meat
1077 Indigenous Goose Meat
1087 Indigenous Turkey Meat
1084 Indigenous Meat, Other Poultry
1120 Indigenous Horse Meat
1122 Indigenous Ass Meat
1124 Indigenous Mule Meat
1137 Indigenous Camel Meat
1144 Indigenous Rabbit Meat
1154 Indigenous Meat, Other Rodents
1161Indigenous Meat, Other Camelids

Products from slaughtered animals

0945 Biological Cattle Meat
0973 Biological Buffalo Meat
1013 Biological Sheep Meat
1033 Biological Goat Meat
1056 Biological Pig Meat
1095 Biological Chicken Meat
1071 Biological Duck Meat
1078 Biological Goose Meat
1088 Biological Turkey Meat
1085 Biological Meat, Other Poultry
1121 Biological Horse Meat
1123 Biological Ass Meat
1125 Biological Mule Meat
1138 Biological Camel Meat
1145 Biological Rabbit Meat
1155 Biological Meat, Other Rodents
1162 Biological Meat, Other Camelids

© FAO 1994

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