Interactions between Livestock Production Systems and the Environment
Impact Domain: Crop-Livestock Interactions

D THOMAS
D BARTON
NATURAL RESOURCES INSTITUTE, UK
OCTOBER, 1995












    Table of Contents

Study Sponsors

Commission of the European Union
Denmark
France (Ministère de la Coopération)
Germany (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit - GTZ)
Netherlands
United Kingdom (Overseas Development Administration)
United States (Environmental Protection Agency)

Study Coordination by:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
United States (U.S. Agency for International Development)
World Bank

Livestock, Environment and Development (LEAD) Initiative

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.


Table of Contents


PREFACE

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. INTRODUCTION

2. MIXED FARMING SYSTEMS

3. COMPLEMENTARITY IN RESOURCE USE AND POTENTIAL POSITIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

3.1. Animal Traction
3.2. Manure Supply
3.3. Crop Residue Supply
3.4. Introduction of Improved Forages and Ley Farming
3.5. Socio-economics and Complementarity

3.5.1. Animal traction
3.5.2. Manure supply
3.5.3. Crop Residue supply
3.5.4. Improved forages
3.5.5. Risk management and asset building
3.5.6. Agricultural intensification and crop-livestock interactions

4. COMPETITION IN RESOURCE USE AND POTENTIAL NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

4.1. Impacts of Land Competition

4.1.1. Impacts on vegetation
4.1.2. Impacts on wildlife
4.1.3. Impacts on soil conditions
4.1.4. Impacts on water resources

4.2. Impacts of Competition for Crop Residues
4.3. Impacts on Socio-economic Factors

4.3.1. Land competition
4.3.2. Competition for crop residues
4.3.3. Competition for labour availability

5. SUMMARY OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS AND MITIGATION OF NEGATIVE EFFECTS

6. INDICATORS TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

6.1. Vegetation
6.2. Soils
6.3. Water
6.4. Socio-economic

6.4.1. Land competition
6.4.2. Competition for crop residues
6.4.3. Competition for labour availability
6.4.4. Negative impacts associated with the introduction of draught animal power
6.4.5. Impacts associated with the asset building function of livestock
6.4.6. Positive impacts associated with intensification of agriculture

7. MEASUREMENT OF INDICATORS

7.1. Vegetation
7.2. Soils
7.3. Water
7.4. Socio-economic

7.4.1. Land competition
7.4.2. Competition for crop residues
7.4.3. Competition for labour availability
7.4.4. Draught animal power
7.4.5. Asset building
7.4.6. Intensification of agriculture

8. BIBLIOGRAPHY

ANNEXES