As described previously, there are potential positive and negative impacts on environment resulting directly or indirectly from the integration of crops and livestock. The major positive impacts are summarised in Table 5 whilst the potential negative impacts and mitigating measures are summarised in Tables 6 and 7. The benefits that can accrue from these measures have been discussed in the earlier sections. Further reference to the effectiveness of some of these practices is given by SRIVASTAVA et al. (1993).